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  • 1.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Mellqvist, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brändström, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Predicting attention shifting abilities from self-reported media multitasking2019In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1257-1265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Media multitasking is an increasingly prominent behavior in affluent societies. However, it still needs to be established if simultaneous use of several modes of media content has an influence on higher cognitive functions, such as divided attention. In this study, attention shifting was the primary focus, since switching between tasks is assumed to be necessary for media multitasking. Two tasks, the number–letter and local–global task, were used as measures of switching ability. The cognitive reflections task was included to control for possible effects of intelligence. Results from linear regression analyses showed that higher levels of media multitasking was related to lower switching costs in the two attention-shifting tasks. These findings replicate previous findings suggesting that heavy media multitaskers perform better on select measures of task switching. We suggest two possible explanations for our results: media multitasking may practice skills needed for switching between tasks, or high media multitaskers are choosing this style of technology use due to a dominating personality trait in this group.

  • 2.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no 269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that the long-term practice of managing two languages is beneficial for the executive control system is an ongoing debate. Criticism have been raised that studies demonstrating a bilingual advantage often suffer from small sample sizes, and do not control for fluid intelligence as a possible confound. Taking those suggested factors into account, focusing on older bilingual age groups and investigating the potential effects of linguistic distances, this study aimed to improve the interpretations of the bilinguals’ advantages. Measures of inhibition (Flanker, Stroop, Simon task) and switching (Number-letter, Color-Shape, Local-global task) were collected in participants in the ages 50-75 years (n = 193). Despite a large study sample, results did not support any beneficial effects related to improve processing costs in executive functioning. Sub-analyses of the two different language groups (Swedish – Finnish / Swedish – English) intended to investigate the effect of linguistic distances did not change this outcome. Future studies exploring the potential long-term term effects of bilingualism would benefit from identifying tests of cognitive control with greater ecological validity and include other measures of cognitive functioning. Language learning interventions may also be a promising tool for future research.

  • 3.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

  • 4.
    Hjärtström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Distraction and facilitation: The impact of emotional sounds in an emoji oddball task2019In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 180-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional stimuli are argued to capture attention and consume attentional resources differently depending on their emotionalcontent. The present study investigates the impact of the automatic detection of unexpected and to-be-ignored emotional stimuli onhuman behavioral responses, and aims to unravel the differences in distraction between two negative emotional stimuli: sadness and anger.Forty participants (Mage= 25.5 years) performed a visual categorization task where angry and sad emoji faces were presented after eithera standard neutral tone (in 80% of trials) or a deviant emotional sound (tone changing in pitch; sad or angry sound in 10% of trials each)that was to be ignored. Deviant trials were either congruent (e.g., sad sound—sad face) or incongruent (e.g., angry sound—sad face).Although the stimuli presented to the participants were brief and to-be-ignored, results indicate that participants were significantly moredistracted by sad compared to angry stimuli (seen as prolonged response times). Findings are discussed with reference to the nature ofthe two negative emotions.

  • 5. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Aktivitet: Perception- from sensation to representation2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Aktivitet: Resestipendium ifrån FAS2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Auditory attentional capture: dissociations between objective and subjective indices2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With relevance to auditory alarm design, we examined whether the semanticity of spoken words (Negatively-valenced vs Neutral; Non-words vs words; Action vs non-Action words) and their intonation-style ("urgent" vs. "calm") modulate the extent to which words capture attention from a visually-presented serial recall task (objective measure) and whether these behavioural effects map onto subjective ratings of "Perceived urgency" and "Attention grabbingness" (subjective measure). Compared to quiet or a repeated tone, the infrequent presentation of a spoken word captured attention-as indexed by an impairment of serial recall-but there were no effects of semanticity or intonation. However, action words were rated as more urgent and attention-grabbing than neutral words which were rated as more urgent and attention-grabbing than non-words. "Urgent" words were also rated higher in urgency and attention grabbingness than "calm" words regardless of valence. The results question the utility of subjective ratings for the purpose of spoken-alarm design.

  • 8.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Cognitive degradation after exposure to combined noise and whole-body vibration in a smulated vehicle ride2007In: International Journal of Vehicle Information and Communication Systems, ISSN 1471-0242, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 130-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if vehicle noise and whole-body vibrations produce negative after-effects on performance in an attention task and on ratings of alertness, difficulty, and annoyance. The task was applied before and after exposure, and after a rest. Participants had degraded performance immediately after exposure in all conditions, but no effect was found after the rest. No main effect was found between exposure conditions on performance, it was concluded that the degraded performance dependent on time was caused by fatigue. The results also suggested lower ratings of alertness and higher ratings of annoyance in the vibration condition compared to the control condition.

  • 9.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Combined exposures of noise and whole-body vibration and the effects on psychological responses: a review2009In: Noise & Vibration Bulletin, ISSN 0144-7785, p. 198-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review is to shed light on a research area that concerns the studies of psychological responses to combined exposures of noise and whole-body vibration (WBV). Vehicle drivers are a group of workers that are often exposed to multiple stressors like noise, WBV and mental loads. Degraded performance because of environmental stressors may lead to injury or accidents. Standards that govern health risk assessment do not take into consideration the complexities of these multiple exposure environments (ISO 1997a, ISO 1999). Some studies have shown that the effect of one factor may be different than the effect of two factors presented together. For example, negative combined effects have been found in tracking tasks (Sommer and Harris, 1973), in arithmetic tasks (Harris and Schoenberger, 1980), as well as in subjective ratings (Ljungberg, Neely, Lundstrom, 2004), although in many of the studies the noise and WBV stimuli have been very unlike those that can be found in real working environments. Applying methods from the 'irrelevant sound' paradigm (e.g. Jones, 1990) by using short-term memory tasks with a serial component as well as focus on frequencies rather than level has been revealed to tap the resources both objectively and subjectively more in both noise and WBV studies (e.g. Banbury et al. 2001; Kjellberg, 1990). Still, most experiments that have been conducted have focused on rather short exposure times in controlled laboratory settings. Using longer exposure times might also reveal other results since longer exposure times may be negatively related to sensitivity to noise and WBV (Abbate et al. 2004; Neely, Lundstrom, and Bjorkvist, 2002, Weinstein, J 978).

  • 10.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Combined exposures of noise and whole-body vibration and the effects on psychological responses: a review2008In: Journal of Low Frequency Noise Vibration and Active Control, ISSN 0263-0923, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 267-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review is to shed light on a research area that concerns the studies of psychological responses to combined exposures of noise and whole-body vibration (WBV). Vehicle drivers are a group of workers that are often exposed to multiple stressors like noise, WBV and mental loads. Degraded performance because of environmental stressors may lead to injury or accidents. Standards that govern health risk assessment don't take into consideration the complexities of these multiple exposure environments (ISO 1997a, ISO 1999). Some studies have shown that the effect of one factor may be different than the effect of two factors presented together. For example, negative combined effects have been found in tracking tasks (Sommer and Harris, 1973), in arithmetic tasks (Harris and Schoenberger, 1980), as well as in subjective ratings (Ljungberg, Neely, Lundström, 2004), although in many of the studies the noise and WBV stimuli have been very unlike those that can be found in real working environments. Applying methods from the "irrelevant sound" paradigm (e.g. Jones, 1990) by using short-term memory tasks with a serial component as well as focus on frequencies rather than level has been revealed to tap the resources both objectively and subjectively more in both noise and WBV studies (e.g. Banbury et al. 2001; Kjellberg, 1990) Still, most experiments that have been conducted have focused on rather short exposure times in controlled laboratory settings. Taking into consideration to use longer exposure times might also reveal other results since longer exposure times may be negatively related to sensitivity to noise and WBV (Abbate et al. 2004; Neely, Lundström, and Björkvist, 2002; Weinstein, 1978)

  • 11.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Effekter av arbetsplatsens auditiva varningssignaler på kognitiv prestation och subjektiv upplevelse2007In: Ljud och inlärning: texter från seminarium den 27 april 2007 arrangerat av Lyssnande Lund - Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet, Lund: Lyssnande Lund, Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet, Lunds universitet , 2007, p. 25-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Psychological effects of vehicle noise and vibration2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Psychological responses to noise and vibration2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle drivers are a group of workers that are exposed to noise and whole-body vibration (WBV) several hours a day. Some drivers may also be exposed to high mental loads – monitoring and manipulating physical controls while engaging problem solving activities often with strong short-term memory and spatial manipulation components. Present standards and regulations that govern health risk assessment do not take into consideration the complexities of these multiple exposure environments. The effect of one factor (for example, noise or WBV) may be different than the effect of two factors presented together. This thesis investigates whether the combination of noise and WBV affects the performance of cognitive tasks more than when the exposures are presented separately.

    A series of studies were designed to expose subjects to noise and WBV stimuli designed to simulate real life working conditions. Different combinations of subjective ratings, cognitive tests, and cortisol measurements were conducted both during and immediately after exposures, which ranged from 20 to 45 minutes.

    The studies have shown that a combination of noise and WBV do not degrade cognitive performance more than a single stimulus. However, WBV can degrade attention performance after exposure is turned off when drivers have been working under high mental load during exposure. The combined stimuli are also experienced as more annoying and work is more difficult in such conditions. The exposure times and task difficulty levels used in this thesis did not produce biological stress as measured by cortisol. Nevertheless, subjective ratings are sometimes seen as early indicators of other symptoms and with increased task difficulty and/or longer exposure times there may appear other measurable outcomes of the combined stimuli.

  • 14.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The role of semantic content of spoken words and the effect on serial recall2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With relevance to auditory alarm design, the aim with this study was to investigate if semantic content of words (Negative, Neutral, Non-words and Action words) and the way words are spoken ("urgent" and "calm") interrupt performance in serial recall when applying a deviant paradigm. Subjective ratings of perceived "Urgency" and "Attention grabbing" were also measured. An interruption in recall was found caused by the words, but no effects were related to the semantic content or to the way they were spoken. Interestingly, results showed that participants rated action words as more urgent and attention grabbing than neutral words and non-words. However, neutral words generated higher ratings than the non-words. Participants also experienced higher urgency and attention grabbing effect by words that were spoken "urgent" than those spoken "calm", independent of whether they were negative or neutral. In conclusion it is argued there is a dissociation between subjective and objective measurements.

  • 15.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Elbe, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sörman, Daniel E.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    The bilingual effects of linguistic distances on episodic memory and verbal fluency2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 195-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of linguistic distance or the relatedness between two languages, on bilinguals’ episodic memory performance and verbal fluency is an understudied area. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if differences in linguistic distances have differential effects on these abilities. Measures of episodic recognition, categorical fluency, and global cognitive functioning were also considered in the analyses. Two matched samples with participants living and educated in Sweden were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study. Results showed that bilinguals who speak linguistically similar languages (Swedish and English), performed significantly better than monolinguals on both episodic memory recall and letter fluency, while bilinguals who speak two languages that are more distant (Swedish and Finnish), showed no advantages compared to their monolingual counterparts. For both tasks, however, a linear trend was observed indicative of better performance for the Swedish‐English group compared to the Finnish‐Swedish group, and for the Swedish‐Finnish group compared to the monolinguals group. As expected, no differences between groups were found in any of the other cognitive tasks. Overall, results suggest that the impact of linguistic distances should be explored in more detail in the future.

  • 16. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå university.
    Attention performance after exposure to combined noise and whole-body vibration2005In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49th annual meeting: Orlando, Florida, September 26 - 30, 2005, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå university.
    Cognitive after-effects of vibration and noise exposure and the role of subjective noise sensitivity2007In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 111-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects on attention performance after exposure to noise and whole-body vibration in relation to subjective noise sensitivity. Sixteen high and 16 low sensitivity male students, as determined by the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Questionnaire, participated in a within-subjects experiment. Noise and vibration stimuli similar to those usually occurring in forestry vehicles were presented either individually, combined or not at all in four separate sessions lasting approximately 44 min. After exposure, participants completed an attention task and made subjective ratings of alertness. No main effect of noise sensitivity was observed in MANOVA, thus the data was pooled with the data from a pilot study using the exact same procedure without using a noise sensitivity inclusion criterion. The combined data revealed performance degradation in the attention task after exposure to vibration, regardless as to whether it was presented alone or in combination with noise. Increased ratings of alertness after vibration exposure and decreased ratings of alertness after noise exposure were also found. Neither synergistic nor antagonistic effects were observed from the combined noise and vibration exposure

  • 18. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Neely, Gregory
    Performance and stress during whole-body vibration and sound exposure2004In: Proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Psychology, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå university.
    Stress, subjective experience and cognitive performance during exposure to noise and vibration2007In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 44-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of noise and whole-body vibration on saliva cortisol levels and subjectively rated difficulty and stress while performing cognitive tasks. In the first experiment, 24 men completed a logical reasoning task and a short-term memory task while, on separate occasions, being exposed to noise, vibration, combined stimuli, and control conditions. The environmental stimuli were designed to simulate the exposure from a forestry vehicle. The main finding was that participants made significantly higher ratings of stress when the noise stimulus was present, either alone or in combination with vibration. There were, however, some indications that noise sensitivity might moderate both subjective and objective measures such as higher ratings of stress and elevated cortisol levels in high noise sensitive participants. A second experiment was conducted where noise sensitivity was used as an inclusion criterion. A low sensitive and a high sensitive group were created, each containing 16 participants. The results of the second experiment, found only marginal effects of noise sensitivity and no effects at all on performance or cortisol. Increased ratings of stress and difficulty were found whenever either environmental stressor was present, whether by itself or in combination. The same result was seen even when pooling the data from both experiments. The main conclusion of the study is that relatively short exposures to noise and vibration typical of those levels that are found in industrial vehicles do not significantly affect performance in cognitive tasks nor saliva cortisol levels even if work in these environments can be experienced as more difficult or stressful.

  • 20. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Neely, Gregory
    National Institute for Working Life.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine.
    Cognitive performance and subjective experience during combined exposures to whole-body vibration and noise2004In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 217-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the effects of noise and whole-body vibration, individually and combined, and at various stimulus intensity levels, on cognitive performance and subjective experience. METHOD: Fifty-four participants (27 men and 27 women) with a mean age of 25 years, ranging from 19 to 30, were exposed for 20 min each to a 16-Hz sinusoidal whole-body vibration, a helicopter sound at 21 Hz, both stimuli combined, and a control condition. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: low intensity [77 dB(A) noise and 1.0 m/s2 vibration], medium intensity [81 dB(A)/1.6 m/s2] or high intensity [86 dB(A)/2.5 m/s2. During each environmental exposure, short-term memory performance was tested with a visual Sternberg paradigm. Reaction time was measured as a dependent variable. Directly following each environmental exposure, participants rated the difficulty of the task and the annoyance level of the exposure stimulus. RESULTS: Results revealed no significant changes in reaction times due to environmental exposure or intensity level. However, participants significantly rated the combined exposure as both more annoying and more difficult than the other conditions. Further, the high-intensity group rated subjective annoyance significantly higher than the other groups for all conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicate that performance alone is not a sufficient measure for the study of the effects of combined stimuli on a human operator

  • 21. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Neely, Gregory
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Effects on spatial skills after exposure to low frequency noise2004In: Journal of Low Frequency Noise Vibration and Active Control, ISSN 0263-0923, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of spatial skills was conducted with 27 male and 27 female participants. The aim of the study was to examine the post-exposure effect of a complex low frequency noise (21 Hz) on a mental rotation task. It was hypothesised that reaction time and number of errors would increase after 20 minutes exposure to noise exposure compared to performance after a control condition, and that groups exposed to higher intensity noise would exhibit greater impairment. Three groups of participants were exposed to a control condition and a noise condition (either, 77, 81 or 86 dB (A)). After each exposure, subjects completed a mental rotation task where the stimulus consisted of one of three letters presented in five different rotations, showed either normally or mirrored. The participants were asked to respond as quickly and accurately as possible, affirmatively if the letter presented was not mirrored and negatively if it was mirrored. Statistical analysis revealed that the medium intensity level generated significant post-exposure effects while no effects were seen at the low or high intensity levels

  • 22.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Neely, Gregory
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Effects on spatial skills after exposure to low frequency noise2007In: The effects of low-frequency noise and vibration on people, Brentwood: Multi-Science Publishing, 2007, p. 311-317Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Neely, Gregory
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Effects on spatial skills after exposure to low frequency noise2002In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 46th annual meeting - Bridging fundamentals & new opportunities : Baltimore, Maryland, September 30 - October 4, 2002, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of spatial skills was conducted with 27 male and 27 female participants. The aim of the study was to examine the post-exposure effect of a complex low frequency noise (21 Hz) on a mental rotation task. It was hypothesised that reaction time and number of errors would increase after 20 minutes exposure to noise, and that persons exposed to more intense noise would exhibit greater impairment. Three groups of participants were exposed to a quiet control condition and a noise condition (either 77, 81 or 86 dB(A)). After each exposure, subjects completed a mental rotation task where the stimulus consisted of one of three letters presented in five different rotations, shown either normally or mirrored. The participants were asked to respond as quickly and accurately as possible, affirmatively if the letter presented was not mirrored and negatively if mirrored. Statistical analysis revealed that the medium intensity level generated post-exposure effects when comparing noise and a quiet condition.

  • 24.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    University of Balearic Islands.
    Psychological effects of combined noise and whole body vibration: a review and avenues for future research2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991, Vol. 224, no D10, p. 1289-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle drivers are often exposed to noise, whole-body vibrations (WBV) and mental loads, but the knowledge of how combined effects from multiple environmental stressors affect mental load is sparse. Studies have shown that the effect of one factor may be different than the effect of two factors presented together. For example, negative combined effects have been found when people perform mental tasks (e.g., Sommer and Harris, 1973; Harris and Schoenberger, 1980), as well as in subjective ratings (e.g., Ljungberg, Neely, Lundström, 2004). Although some of the studies investigating the combined effects of noise and WBV suffer from low ecological validity and few have investigated the possible effects on higher cognitive functions. Applying methods well-known to be sensitive to sound exposures by using serial recall tasks (e.g., Jones, Madden & Miles, 1992) as well as methods developed in the studies of noise after-effects (e.g., Glass & Singer, 1972) may be a way to continue the research field of combined effects of noise and WBV

  • 25.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå. Sweden b School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK.
    Parmentier, Fabrice B R
    Department of Psychology, University of the Balearic Islands, Spain. School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Jones, Dylan M
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, UK. School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Australia.
    Marsja, Erik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Neely, Gregory
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    ‘What’s in a name?’ ‘No more than when it's mine own’. Evidence from auditory oddball distraction2014In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 150, p. 161-6, article id S0001-6918(14)00125-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research of the distractor value of hearing the own name has shown that this self-referring stimulus captures attention in an involuntary fashion and create distraction. The behavioral studies are few and the outcomes are not always clear cut. In this study the distraction by own name compared to a control name was investigated by using a cross-modal oddball task in two experiments. In the first experiment, thirty-nine participants were conducting a computerized categorization task while exposed to, to-be ignored own and matched control names (controlling for familiarity, gender and number of syllables) as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (12.5% trials for each name category) and a sine wave tone as a standard stimulus (75% of the trials). In the second experiment, another group of thirty-nine participants completed the same task but with the additional deviant stimulus of an irrelevant word added (10% trials for each deviant type and 70% trials with the standard stimulus). Results showed deviant distraction by exposure to both the irrelevant word, own and the control name compared to the standard tone but no differences were found showing that the own name captured attention and distracted the participants more than an irrelevant word or a control name. The results elucidate the role of the own name as a potent auditory distractor and possible limitations with its theoretical significance for general theories of attention are discussed.

  • 26. Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Parmentier, Fabrice B R
    Leiva, Alicia
    Vega, Nuria
    The informational constraints of behavioral distraction by unexpected sounds: the role of event information.2012In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1461-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sounds deviating from an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli (deviant sounds among standard sounds) are known to capture attention and impact negatively on ongoing behavioral performance (behavioral oddball distraction). Traditional views consider such distraction as the ineluctable consequence of the deviant sounds' low probability of occurrence relative to that of the standard. Contrary to this contention, recent evidence demonstrates that distraction by deviant sounds is not obligatory and occurs only when sounds (standards and deviants), though to be ignored, act as useful warning cues by providing information as to whether and when a target stimulus is to be presented (Parmentier, Elsley, & Ljungberg, 2010). The present study aimed to extend this finding by disentangling the roles of event information (target's probability of occurrence) and temporal information (target's time of occurrence). Comparing performance in a cross-modal oddball task where standard and deviant sounds provided temporal information, event information, both, or none, we found that distraction by deviant sounds emerged when sounds conveyed event information. These results suggest that unexpected changes in a stream of sounds yield behavioral distraction to the extent that standards and deviants carry relevant goal-directed information, specifically, the likelihood of occurrence of an upcoming target.

  • 27.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    University of Balearic Islands.
    Elsley, Jane
    School of Psychology, University of Plymouth.
    An empirical investigation of the capture of attention by urgent and non-urgent alarms2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies aiming to establish what constitutes an efficient auditory alarm have used subjective ratings to measure perceived urgency. Such studies have suggested that words spoken urgently are rated as more urgent than words spoken non-urgently. The present study aimed to measure objectively the potency of alarms to capture attention away from a focal task using a cross-modal oddball paradigm. Participants judged the parity of visual digits while ignoring task-irrelevant sounds. On most trials, a sine wave tone (standard) preceded each digit. On rare trials, the standard was replaced by a spoken word (novel). All novels distracted participants from the visual task, with urgent alarms yielding faster response latencies than non-urgent alarms. Subjective ratings confirmed that participants rated urgently spoken words as more urgent. Future work should examine whether our findings reflect perceptual differences between urgent and non-urgent novels, or the speeding up of visual targets by urgent novels.

  • 28.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    University of Balearic Islands.
    Elsley, Jane
    School of Psychology, University of Plymouth.
    Attention captured - what constitutes a good alarm?2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most high risk occupations involve a stressful environment and auditory alarms designed to capture operator's attention and alert them about potential incidents. Most studies on auditory alarms have been conducted using subjective measurements to explore, for example, perceived urgency, highlighting factor such as the spoken intonation as important. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of intonation and valence on behavioral performance in using a cross-modal oddball measuring the involuntary capture of attention by sound. Participants judged if visually presented digits were odd or even while exposed to task-irrelevant sounds. In 80% of the trials, a sine wave tone (standard) preceded each digit, while on 20% of the trials the standard was replaced by a spoken word (novel). Novels varied in semantic valence (negative versus neutral) and intonation (urgent versus calm). Subjective ratings of perceived "urgency" and "attention grabbingness" were subsequently collected for these words from the same participants. The results revealed that, compared to the standard condition, all novels increased accuracy slightly and equally. Response latencies proved more sensitive, however, yielding a reduced distraction effect for urgent than non-urgent words, while the words' valence had no impact. The results from the subjective ratings on the other hand showed that both the words urgency and content increased significantly perceived "urgency" and "attention grabbingness". In conclusion, some of our findings fit well with alarm studies on alarms using subjective ratings and their assumption that subjective ratings are valuable for the design of better alarms. However, our results also highlight the lack of correspondence between subjective and objective measures of attention capture with respect to the words' content.

  • 29.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Lövdén, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, M.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Age differences in tower of Hanoi performance: evidence from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study2000Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Executive Processes Underpin the Bilingual Advantage on Phonemic Fluency: Evidence From Analyses of Switching and Clustering2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals often show a disadvantage in lexical access on verbal fluency tasks wherein the criteria require the production of words from semantic categories. However, the pattern is more heterogeneous for letter (phonemic) fluency wherein the task is to produce words beginning with a given letter. Here, bilinguals often outperform monolinguals. One explanation for this is that phonemic fluency, as compared with semantic fluency, is more greatly underpinned by executive processes and that bilinguals exhibit better performance on phonemic fluency due to better executive functions. In this study, we re-analyzed phonemic fluency data from the Betula study, scoring outputs according to two measures that purportedly reflect executive processes: clustering and switching. Consistent with the notion that bilinguals have superior executive processes and that these can be used to offset a bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency, bilinguals (35-65 years at baseline) demonstrated greater switching and clustering throughout the 15-year study period.

  • 31.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Neely, Gregory
    Hansson, Patrik
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Spatial Change In Multisensory Distractors Impact On Spatial and Verbal Short-Term Memory Performance2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpected changes (known as deviant sounds) in a repetitive stream ofstandardsounds are known to prolong responses in visual categorization tasks (Parmentier, 2014) and disrupt short-term memory (Hughes, Vachon, & Jones, 2005; 2007). While this deviation effect,has been studied extensively, unexpected changes in multisensory irrelevant stimuli have yet to be explored. A further issue is whether a spatial change in either tactile, auditory, or in both modalities simultaneously, affects verbal and spatial short-term memorysimilarly. We explored how spatial and verbal memory performance were affected by a spatial change unexpectedly presented in a multisensory stream consisting of task-irrelevant vibrations and sounds.The sounds were presented from headphones and the vibrations from coin-like vibrating motors strapped to the upper arms of the participants. In the majority of trials (approximately 80%) the multisensory stream was presented on one side of the body whereas on deviant trials the irrelevant stimuli changed to the other side of the body. Preliminarily results suggest that a spatial change in a multisensory stream of irrelevant stimuli affects short-term memory performance both the spatial and verbal domains similarly. We conclude by discussing the results in the framework of multisensory views of short-term memory and attention (e.g., Cowan's, 1988; 1995) and the predictive coding framework (e.g., Talsma, 2015)

  • 32.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden,.
    Neely, Greg
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden,.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating Deviance Distraction and the Impact of the Modality of the To-Be-Ignored Stimuli2018In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: It has been suggested that deviance distraction is caused by unexpected sensory events in the to-be-ignored stimuli violating thecognitive system’s predictions of incoming stimuli. The majority of research has used methods where the to-be-ignored expected (standards)and the unexpected (deviants) stimuli are presented within the same modality. Less is known about the behavioral impact of deviancedistraction when the to-be-ignored stimuli are presented in different modalities (e.g., standard and deviants presented in different modalities).In three experiments using cross-modal oddball tasks with mixed-modality to-be-ignored stimuli, we examined the distractive role ofunexpected auditory deviants presented in a continuous stream of expected standard vibrations. The results showed that deviance distractionseems to be dependent upon the to-be-ignored stimuli being presented within the same modality, and that the simplest omission ofsomething expected; in this case, a standard vibration may be enough to capture attention and distract performance.

  • 33.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Greg
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Maintenance of the distractive effect of deviating vibrotactile stimuli in a cross-modal oddball paradigm2013In: Fechner day 2013: Proceedings of the29th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics / [ed] Jiri Wackermann, Marc Wittmann, Wolfgang Skrandies, 2013, p. 1-126Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ma, Lichen
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Cross-modality matches of intensity and attention capture dimensions of auditory and vibrotactile stimuli2015In: Fechner Day 2015. The 31st Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, Québec, Canada, August 17-21, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Marsja, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Deviance Distraction Is Contingent on Stimuli Being Presented Within the Same Modality2014In: Abstracts of the Psychomic Society, The Psychonomic Society , 2014, p. 101-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden and unexpected changes in the auditory and visual channel are known to capture attention. This attention capture has been shown to negatively impact performance in an ongoing task (i.e., deviance distraction). In three experiments we examined if deviant stimuli presented in a different modality than astandard stimuli caused distraction in a visual categorization task, using a multi-sensory oddball task. In two experiments a deviant sound was presented (20 % of trials) against 80 % vibrotactile standard trials. In one the standard was omitted on deviating sound trials, while in the other the standard and deviants were presented simultaneously. In the third experiment the standard vibration was omitted in 20 % of the trials without any presentation of a deviant sound. Results showed distraction by deviating sounds (p < .05), but not when standard vibrations were presented simultaneously (p >.05). Interestingly, the omission of a standard vibration showed distraction (p < .05). In conclusion, deviance distraction might be bound to within rather than between modalities.

  • 36.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sörman Eriksson, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, .School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    The impact of spoken action words on performance in a cross-modal oddball task2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a cross-modal oddball task was employed to study the effect that words spokeneither non-urgently or urgently would have on a digit categorization task and if women wouldexhibit greater behavioral inhibitory control. The words were unrelated to the task itself, butrelated to the action required to complete the task. Forty participants (21 women) conducteda computerized categorization task while exposed to a sinewave tone as a standard stimulus(75% of the trials) or a to-be ignored word (press, stop) spoken either non-urgently orurgently as unexpected auditory deviant stimulus (6.25% trials for each category). Urgentwords had sharp intonation and an average fundamental frequency (F0) ranging from 191.9(stop) to 204.6 (press) Hz. Non-urgent words had low intonation with average F0 rangingfrom 103.9.9 (stop) to 120.3 (press) Hz. As expected, deviant distraction and longerresponse times were found by exposure to the word stop, but deviant distraction was notfound to be significant with the word press or due to intonation. While the results showedthat women had in general longer reaction times, there were no gender differences foundrelated to the deviant distraction caused by word or intonation. The present results do notsupport the hypothesis that women have greater behavioral inhibitory control, but there wasevidence that the meaning of the word could influence response times.

  • 37.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stress and odor sensitivity in persons with noise sensitivity2013In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 15, no 64, p. 173-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has indicated that sensory sensitivity/intolerance to a specific modality may be part of a more general environmental hypersensitivity, and possibly mediated by stress. This study investigated the relationship between noise sensitivity, perceived stress, and odor sensitivity in a group of men. A quasi-experimental design was used. One-hundred and thirty-four male undergraduate students completed Weinsteins noise sensitivity scale from which a low-sensitivity group (n = 16) and a high-sensitivity (n = 16) group were formed. These two groups were screened for loss in auditory and olfactory detection sensitivity, and completed the perceived stress questionnaire (PSQ) and the chemical sensitivity scale (CSS). One-way analysis of variance and Spearman correlational analyses were performed. Significantly higher scores on the PSQ (P < 0.05) and the CSS (P < 0.05) were found in the high noise-sensitivity group compared to the low noise-sensitivity group. These findings raise the question of whether the relation between noise and odor sensitivity reflects a general environmental sensitivity.

  • 38.
    Parmentier, Fabrice B.R.
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Health Sciences Research Institute, University of the Balearic Islands.
    Elsley, Jane V.
    School of Psychology, University of Plymouth.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science. School of Psychology, Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Behavioral distraction by auditory novelty is not only about novelty: the role of the distracter’s informational value2010In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 115, no 3, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpected events often distract us. In the laboratory, novel auditory stimuli have been shown to capture attention away from a focal visual task and yield specific electrophysiological responses as well as a behavioral cost to performance. Distraction is thought to follow ineluctably from the sound’s low probability of occurrence or, put more simply, its unexpected occurrence. Our study challenges this view with respect to behavioral distraction and argues that past research failed to identify the informational value of sound as a mediator of novelty distraction. We report an experiment showing that (1) behavioral novelty distraction is only observed when the sound announces the occurrence and timing of an upcoming visual target (as is the case in all past research); (2) that no such distraction is observed for deviant sounds conveying no such information; and that (3) deviant sounds can actually facilitate performance when these, but not the standards, convey information. We conclude that behavioral novelty distraction, as observed in oddball tasks, is observed in the presence of novel sounds but only when the cognitive system can take advantage of the auditory distracters to optimize performance.

  • 39.
    Parmentier, Fabrice
    et al.
    University of Balearic Islands.
    Elsley, Jane
    School of Psychology, University of Plymouth.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The involuntary capture of attention by novel sounds: is it really about novelty?2009In: APCAM 2009: 8th Annual Auditory Perception, Cognition, and Action Meeting Thursday November 19 Boston Sheraton Hotel Boston, MA, USA, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpected events often distract us. In the laboratory, novel auditory stimuli have been shown to capture attention away from a focal visual task and yield specific electrophysiological responses as well as a behavioral cost to performance. This phenomenon is thought to follow ineluctably from the sound's low probability of occurrence or, put more simply, its unexpected occurrence. Our study challenges this view and argues that past research failed to identify the informational value of sound as a mediator of novelty distraction. We report an experiment showing that (1) novelty distraction is only observed when the sound announces the occurrence and timing of an upcoming visual target (as is the case in all past research); (2) that no such distraction is observed for deviant sounds conveying no such information; and that (3) deviant sounds can actually facilitate performance when these, but not the standards, convey information. We conclude that novelty distraction is observed in the presence of novel sounds but only when the cognitive system can take advantage of the auditory distracters to optimize performance.

  • 40.
    Sörman, Daniel Eriksson
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pritschke, Ilona
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica Körning
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Complexity of Primary Lifetime Occupation and Cognitive Processing2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are a lack of studies focusing on the relationship between occupational complexity and executive functioning. This is noteworthy since executive functions are core aspects of cognitive processing. The present study was aimed to investigate if three occupational complexity factors (with data, people, and things) of main lifetime occupation were related to performance in executive tasks (inhibition, switching, updating). We analyzed cross-sectional data that were available for 225 participants aged 50–75 years. Results from structural equation models showed that higher complexity levels of working with data were related to lower error rates in the updating component of cognitive control. In addition, higher rates of complexity working with people was associated with lower error rates in task-switching, which also persisted after adjustment of fluid intelligence. Complexity with things, however, was not related to performance in the executive tasks. Future studies would benefit from a longitudinal design to investigate if the results from this study also hold in the long term and to further investigate the directionality between factors.

  • 41.
    Sörman, Daniel Eriksson
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marsh, John
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40–65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

  • 42.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ljung, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    A sub-process view of working memory capacity: evidence from effects of speech on prose memory2010In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 310-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we outline a framework labelled the "sub-process view" for understanding correlations between working memory capacity (WMC) and other phenomena. This view suggests that "WMC = sub-process1 + sub-process2 + ... + sub-processn" and that any relationship between WMC and another construct is actually a relationship with a specific sub-process covered by the WMC construct. Furthermore, different sub-processes are functionally distinct and they can be measured by specific intrusion errors on WMC tasks. We show that a sub-process (measured by immediate/current-list intrusions) is related to the effects of speech on prose memory (semantic auditory distraction), whereas another sub-process (measured by delayed/prior-list intrusions) is not (Experiment 1 and 2). Furthermore, we developed a new WMC task ("size-comparison span") and found that the relationship between WMC (measured with "operation span") and semantic auditory distraction is actually a relationship between a sub-process (measured by current-list intrusions in our new task) and semantic auditory distraction (Experiment 2). In contrast, previous research has shown that delayed intrusions underlie the correlation between WMC and reading comprehension, whereas immediate intrusions are unrelated to reading comprehension. Taken together, we argue that WMC is related to semantic auditory distraction and reading comprehension for entirely different reasons.

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