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  • 1.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    A New Method to Estimate the Thermal Load of Buildings2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In current work we aimed to define a new method that can be used to estimate the thermal load of buildings. The suggested method clearly expresses the heating and cooling load as a function of thermal performance of building’s shell and temperature difference between indoor and outdoor. Consequently, changes in thermal load due to improving the thermal performance of building’s shell or due to change in outdoor temperature can be easily investigated.

  • 2. Kharseh, Mohamad
    Activity: TEACHING EXPERIENCE2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Evaluation of Thermal Response Test Data: User-friendly Program2011Other (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ground-source heat pumps and energy saving2012In: Heat Exchangers: Basics Design Applications, IN-TECH, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global warming itself and its consequences cause considerable problems. It results in extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or hurricanes, which are expected to become more frequent. This puts extra strain on people and has great impact on public health and life quality especially in poor countries. Internationally, there is a political understanding that global warming (or climate change) is the main challenge of the world for decades to come. Thus, all states must work together in order to overcome climatic change consequences. Although, studies suggest that there is indeed relationship between solar variability and global warming (Lean and Rind, 2001), two causes of the warming have been suggested: 1. related to the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere; 2. related to heat emissions (Nordell, 2003, Nordell and Gervet, 2009). This implies that current warming is anthropogenic and caused by human activities, i.e. global use of non-renewable energy. So far, the total global energy consumption has already exceeded 15.1010 MWh/year and it is projected to have an annual growth rate about 1.4 % until 2020 (EIA, 2010). Much of the energy used worldwide is mainly supplied by fossil fuels (~85 % of the global energy demand while renewable energy sources supply only about 6 %) (Moomaw et al., 2011, Jaber et al., 2011). Consequently, about 3.1010 ton of carbon dioxide emissions are annualllt emitted into the atmosphere. In other word, for each consumed kWh about 205 kg of carbon dioxide is being emitted into the atmosphere. Observations provide evidence that rising atmospheric CO2 level, which has increased by 25% last century caused by human activities, are associated with rising global temperature. There is mounting evidence that the mean global temperature has increased over the period 1880 to 1985 by 0.5 to 0.7 oC (Hansen and Lebedeff, 1987). While surface air temperature (SAT) compilations shows that SAT has increased 1.2 oC last century. If a current climatic change trend continues, climate models predict that the average global temperature are likely to have risen by 4 to 6 oC by the end of 21st century (Gaterell, 2005). Owing to the awareness of the impact of global warming and its relationship with human activities, there has been a growing interest in reducing fossil energy consumptions. Specifically, more efficient use of energy and increased use of renewable energy seem to be our main weapon against the ongoing global warming. In addition, as oil is a finite natural resource and subject to depletion, the oil price will increase and become more unstable and, consequently, economic risks will arise and economic grow rates will become unstable too. In another word, reducing our primary energy use as well as switching to a renewable energy system seem to be an urgent issue in order to have a stable future. Heating and cooling in the industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors accounts for about 40-50 % of the world’s total delivered energy consumption (IEA, 2007, Seyboth et al., 2008). Although, buildings regulations aim to reduce the thermal loads of buildings, as the economic growth improves standards of living, the energy demand for heating and cooling is projected to increase. For example, in non-OECD nations, as developing nations mature, the amount of energy used in buildings sector is rapidly increasing. Consequently, the implementation of more efficient heating/cooling systems is of clear potential to save energy and environment. However, the use of renewable energy systems for heating and cooling applications has received relatively little attention compared with other applications such as renewable electricity or biofuels for transportation. Yet, renewable energy sources supply only around 2-3% of annual global heating and cooling (EIA, 2010). Nowadays, heat pump systems are getting more common for heating and cooling purposes. Such system extracts energy from a relatively cold source to be injected into the conditioned space in winter or alternatively, extracts energy from conditioned spaces to be injected into a relatively warm sink in summer. The temperature difference between the conditioned space and the heat source/sink is referred to as temperature lift. This temperature plays a major role in determining the coefficient of performance (COP=delivered energy/driving energy) of heat pump systems. As temperature lift drops, the performance of the heat pump rises. More specifically, extracting heat from a warmer source during the winter and injecting heat into a colder source during the summer leads to a better COP and, consequently, less energy use. The ground temperature below a certain depth is constant over the year. This depth depends on the thermal properties of the ground, but it is in range of 10-15 m. Thus, the ground is warmer than the air during wintertime and colder than the air during the summertime. Therefore, using the ground, instead of the air, as heat source or as a heat sink for the heat pump results in smaller lift temperature. This fact represents the theoretical base of GSHP. The GSHPs move heat from the ground, i.e. solar energy that is naturally stored in the ground, to heat buildings in wintertime or alternatively, to cool them in summertime. This heat transfer process is achieved by circulating a heat carrier (water or a water–antifreeze mixture) between a ground heat exchanger (GHE) and heat pump condenser (summer time) or evaporator (winter time). The GHE is a pipe (usually of plastic) buried vertically or horizontally under the ground surface. Due to its high thermal performance, the ground source heat pump (GSHP) have increasingly replaced conventional heating and cooling systems around the world. Current work emphasizes the importance of using ground source heat pumps in reaching towards the renewable energy goals of climate change mitigation, and reduced environmental impacts.

  • 5.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Reduction of prime energy consumption by ground source heat pumps in a warmer world2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the energy used worldwide is supplied by fossil fuels (~85 %) while renewable energy sources supply approximately 6 %. A sustainable future urgently requires worldwide efforts to reduce primary energy consumption and increase use of renewable energy sources. Heating and cooling in the industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors accounts for more than one third of the world’s total energy consumption. Consequently, the implementation of more efficient heating/cooling systems has clear potential to save both energy and the environment. However, the use of renewable energy systems for heating and cooling applications has received relatively little attention compared with other applications such as renewable electricity or biofuels for transportation. Up until now, renewable energy sources supply only around 2-3% of the annual global heating and cooling demand (excluding traditional bioenergy).Heat pump systems are becoming more common for heating and cooling purposes. Such systems extract energy from a relatively cold source to be injected into the conditioned space in winter or alternatively, extract energy from conditioned spaces to be injected into a relatively warm sink in summer. The driving energy of the heat pump strongly depends on the temperature difference between the conditioned space and the heat source/sink. More specifically, extracting heat from warmer source during the winter and injecting heat into colder sink during the summer leads to a better coefficient of performance (COP) and, consequently, less energy use.Since the ground under certain depth is warmer than the air during winter and colder during summer, using the ground as the heat source/sink of the heat pump results in better COP. Due to their high thermal performance compared to conventional heating and cooling systems, ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are increasingly being used to reduce energy consumption. Essentially GSHP systems refer to a combination of a heat pump and a system for exchanging heat from the ground. The GSHPs move heat from the ground to heat buildings and houses in the winter or alternatively, move heat from the buildings and houses to the ground to cool them in the summer. It is worth mentioning that the operating temperature of a borehole field depends on the annual mean air temperature and the ratio of heating to the cooling demand of the buildings. Hence, the ongoing global warming and improvement of the thermal quality of the building envelope have a direct impact on the performance of GSHPs.No GSHP system has yet been built in Syria despite the fact that the local conditions in many ways are more favorable than in for example Sweden, which has the world’s third biggest installed facility.In addition to emphasizing the importance of using ground source heat pumps in reaching the renewable energy goals of mitigating the climate change, the current work:• Reported the first thermal response test (TRT) that was performed in Syria that is required in order to determine the ground thermal properties, which are needed for the proper design of borehole heat;• Provided a simple method that gives the change in ground temperature as a function of the surface warming;• Showed the impact of GW in combination with the building envelope quality on the thermal performance of GSHP and, consequently, on the driving energy of GSHPs;• Introduced a method that can be implemented to improve the thermal characteristics of ground heat exchanger.In order to calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the ground and the thermal resistance of the ground heat exchanger, a computer model was built, which can be used to analyze the experiment data. Furthermore, a new method that can be used to calculate the thermal load of buildings was developed and a computer model was built too.

  • 6.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Reduction of prime energy consumption in the Middle East by GSHP systems2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global energy consumption, which increased ~84% during last thirty years, exceeded 1.4.1011 MWh in 2008. It is projected to increase another ~39% until 2030. Current energy trends are unsustainable. Considering that 30-50 % of the global energy consumption is consumed for heating and cooling, more efficient heating and cooling systems are needed. The current power situation in Syria is serious and is likely to speed up the implementation of renewable energy systems. Comparison between the conventional fuel heater, electrical heater, air source heat pump and ground source heat pump in Syrian climate shows that GSHP systems have big potential and can make huge contributions to overcome the current energy shortage in Syria. Since the heating demand in Syria is almost twice the cooling demand, it is possible to use such systems for free cooling. Therefore, heat recharge of the borehole field is important. The amount of available solar energy in Syria, means that the combination of solar and GSHP has great potential. Climatic and geological conditions were analyzed for GSHP systems in Syria, which was chosen as a case study for the Middle East. A general study was made on the need for large-scale utilization of renewable energy, including an overview of different energy storage systems for heating and cooling. Chicken farms were chosen as a study case since the poultry industry is an important sector in Syria. There are 13,000 chicken farms with an annual production of 172,000 tons of meat. It employs almost 150,000 people and has a large heating and cooling demand (1.34 TWh/year).Next step was the design and simulate the operation of a GSHP system for a typical chicken farm in Syria. Based on this study the national potential for such systems was estimated. GSHP systems at all Syrian chicken farms would annually save 114,000 m3 of oil. Since GSHPs use the ground as a source or sink of thermal energy, the ground temperature is most important for its operation and efficiency. The ongoing global warming, which means that air, ground, and water is getting warmer, has therefore some consequences on such systems. Firstly, the effect of global warming on the ground temperature was studied. An equation, which describes the change of ground temperature field as a function of depth, time, and ground thermal properties, and local (global) warming, was derived. Secondly, the effect of the warming on heating and cooling demand of a certain building was studied in combination with its affects on the efficiency of GSHP system.The proper design of BHE requires knowledge of ground thermal properties, i.e. effective ground thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and undisturbed ground temperature. Such site specific data were determined by thermal response test for heating and cooling of the Kharseh chicken farm in Hama, Syria. Used thermal response test equipment was designed and constructed within the project. Borehole thermal resistance has considerable effect on the performance of borehole heat exchangers. Therefore, forced convection in a water filled borehole (i.e. non-grouted) was tested to improve the heat transfer. Injected air, at the bottom of a borehole, resulted in a 28% reduction of thermal resistance. Since injected air bubbles caused convection also in the groundwater, surrounding the borehole, the effective thermal conductivity was increased 28%. Future work aims at the construction, operation, and monitoring of suggested GSHP system at the Kharseh chicken farm in Syria. The idea is to demonstrate the GSHP system as a means of promoting and implementing such systems in the Middle East. The main problem now is to get required permissions to build the ground heat exchangers since there is no existing permit procedure for such systems.

  • 7.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    How global warming and building envelope will change buildings energy use in central Europe2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no Spec. Issue, p. 999-1004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal performance of ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) strongly depends on ground temperature and energy demand for heating and cooling during the year. Certainly, increasing the global temperature means warmer ground. On the other hand, the thermal load of a building is influenced by thermal quality of building envelop (TQBE) and also influenced by the ambient air temperature. There is absolutely no doubt that the global temperature has increased during the last century. Over time, the buildings designs are changing. These result in changed thermal load of the buildings, ground temperature, and thereby changed the thermal performance of GSHPs. The objective of current work was to investigate the impact of TQBE under different global warming scenarios on driving energy and construction cost of GSHPs in Vienna. This was achieved by comparing the driving energy of the GSHP as well the required total length of the borehole heat exchanger for different GW scenarios and different TQBE. Under climate conditions of Vienna city study shows that improving the TQBE and increasing ambient air temperature result in reduced driving energy of GSHP. While is it not obvious for the required total borehole depth. Namely, after a certain degree of GW, increasing TQBE might result in increased required borehole depth.

  • 8.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    How thermal quality of buildings and global warming affect ground source heat pumps system in Vienna2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal performance of ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) strongly depends on ground temperature and energy demand for heating and cooling over the year. Indeed, the amount of energy lost or retained inside a building are influenced by thermal quality of building envelop (TQBE). Over time, the building design is changing to meet the increased comfort requirements. This results in changing energy demand for heating and cooling. The overall aim of current work is study the impact of climatic changes in combination with TQBE on driving energy and construction cost of GSHP. This was achieved by comparing the driving energy of the GSHP as well the required total length of the borehole heat exchanger for different GW scenarios and different TQBE. Under climate conditions of central Europe, study shows that it is not always good to built our building with high TQBE.

  • 9.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Qatar University.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Al-Khawaja, Mohammed
    Faculty of Engineering, Qatar University.
    Hassani, Ferri
    Department of Mining Metals and Materials Engineering, McGill University, H3A 2A7, Montreal.
    Combined Effect of Global Warming and Buildings Envelope on the Performance of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems2014In: Progress in Sustainable Energy Technologies: Generating Renewable Energy, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 299-315Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heating and cooling systems as well as domestic hot water account for over 50 % of the world’s energy consumption. Due to their high thermal performance, ground source heat pump systems (GSHP) have been increasingly used to reduce energy consumption. The thermal performance of GSHP systems strongly depends on the temperature difference between indoor and ground operation temperature. This temperature difference is a function of mean annual air temperature and energy demand for heating and cooling over the year. The thermal load of a building, on the other hand is influenced by the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outdoor temperature. Over the time, there is a change in heating and cooling load of buildings due to two reasons; improving the comfort requirements and outdoor temperature change. The overall aim of the current work is to study the impact of climatic changes in combination with TQBE on driving energy of GSHP. This was achieved by comparing the driving energy of the GSHP for different global warming (GW) scenarios and different TQBE. Under climate conditions of selected cities (Stockholm, Roma, and Riyadh), the current study shows that GW reduces the driving energy of GSHPs in cold climates. In contrast, GW increases the driving energy of GSHPs in hot climates. Also it was shown that buildings with poor TQBE are more sensitive to GW. Furthermore, the improvement of TQBE reduces the driving energy more in cold climates than in hot or mild climates.

  • 10.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Global warming’s impact on the performance of GSHP2011In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1485-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since heating and cooling systems of buildings consume 30e50% of the global energy consumption, increased efficiency of such systems means a considerable reduction in energy consumption. Ground source heat pumps (GSHP) are likely to play a central role in achieving this goal due to their high energy efficient performance. The efficiency of GSHP depends on the ground temperature, heating and cooling demands, and the distribution of heating and cooling over the year. However, all of these are affected by the ongoing climatic change. Consequently, global warming has direct effects on the GSHP performance.Within the framework of current study, heating and cooling demands of a reference building were calculated for different global warming scenarios in different climates i.e. cold, mild and hot climate. The prime energy required to drive the GSHP system is compared for each scenario and two configurations of ground heat exchangers. Current study shows that the ongoing climatic change has significant impact on GSHP systems.

  • 11. Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Altorkmany, Lobna
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The effect of global warming on BTES systems2009In: Abstract book and proceedings : Effstock 2009: 11th International conference on Thermal Energy Storage for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability / [ed] Signhild Gehlin, Stockholm: Energi- och Miljötekniska Föreningen / EMTF Förlag , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming (GW) is linked to the use of conventional energy, mainly fossil fuels. There is a general understanding that the way to reduce GW is more efficient use of energy and increased use of renewable energy. Heating and cooling of buildings account for more than one third of the world’s primary energy consumption. Using the ground as a heat/cold source means more sustainable heating and cooling. The ongoing GW means that heat is accumulating in air, ground and water. Since BTESs are using the ground as a source of heat and cold, such systems are affected by the increasing ground temperature. Thus, heat is more easily extracted and heating demand is reduced. The warmer ground means that it is more difficult to use the ground as a cold source, while the cooling demand increases. Here, the effect of GW on the performance of BTESs was analyzed for different GW

  • 12. Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    First thermal response test in Syria2009In: Abstract book and proceedings : Effstock 2009: 11th International conference on thermal Energy Storage for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability / [ed] Signhild Gehlin, Stockholm: Energi- och Miljötekniska Föreningen / EMTF Förlag , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) mean attractive heating and cooling systems. The injection/extraction of thermal energy is obtained by borehole heat exchangers (BHE). Since the GSHP operates at a relatively stable temperature, the coefficient of performance of such systems is higher than that of air source heat pumps. BHEs are drilled to a depth

  • 13. Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sustainable H/C systems for chicken farms in Syria2008In: Global Conference on Global Warming 2008, GCGW-08, Istanbul, Turkey, July 6 - 10, 2008: papers / [ed] I. Dinçer; T.H. Karakoç; A. Hepbaşlı; A. Midilli; C.Ö. Çolpan; S. Gündüz, TUBITAK, The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey , 2008, p. 569-577Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Space heating/cooling systems account for approximately 30% of the global energy consumption. Such systems contribute to global warming by emitting 0.39.1011 MWh of heat and 2.9.1010 tons of CO2. There is a general understanding that the way to reduce global warming is a more efficient use of energy and increased use of renewable energy in all fields of the society. The poultry industry in the Mid East is an important business. There are e.g. 13000 chicken farms in Syria producing 172,000 ton of meat. This industry employs directly almost 150,000 people. The total investment in chicken farming is 130 BSP (2 B€). Even though, the annual mean temperature in Syria is ~15-18 oC the winter temperatures are close to freezing for two months. Since the chickens need a temperature of 21-35 oC, depending on age, approximately 168.103 tons of coal (1170 GWh) is consumed for heating these plants. The chicken farms have no cooling systems since conventional cooling is too expensive. In the summer time, the ambient air temperature in Syria could reach above 45 oC. The elevated temperature inside the farms reduces the chicken growth and lots of chicken die of over heating. Using the ground as a heat source means a sustainable and less expensive heating of the chicken farms. During the summer the resulting colder ground can be used as a source for free cooling, i.e. it can be used directly for cooling of the plants without any cooling machines. This study shows the design and simulated operation of a ground coupled heating/cooling system for a typical chicken farm in Syria. Based on this study the national potential of using such systems was estimated. It shows that the implementation of such ground coupled heating and cooling systems in the Syrian poultry sector would mean increased poultry production and considerable savings in money, energy, and the environment.

  • 14.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sustainable heating and cooling systems for agriculture2011In: International journal of energy research (Print), ISSN 0363-907X, E-ISSN 1099-114X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 415-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Space heating/cooling systems account for approximately 40% of the global energy consumption. Such systems contribute to global warming by emitting 4×1010 MWh of heat and 3×1010 tons of CO2. There is a general understanding that the way to reduce global warming is a more efficient use of energy and increased use of renewable energy in all fields of the society. Ground-coupled heating/cooling systems, which have proven to make huge contributions in reducing energy consumption in Europe and North America, is here applied for poultry industry in Syria, as an example for the Middle East. There are e.g. 13 000 chicken farms in Syria producing 172 000 tons of meat per year. This industry employs directly almost 150 000 people. The total investments in chicken farming are 130 BSP (2 B). The annual mean air temperature in Syria is 15-18°C with winter temperatures close to freezing during two months. The chickens need a temperature of 21-35°C, depending on age, and the heating of all Syrian chicken plants consume 173×103 tons of coal (1196 GWh). In the summer time, the ambient air temperature in Syria could reach above 45°C. The chicken farms have no cooling systems since conventional cooling system is too expensive. The elevated temperature inside the farms reduces the chicken growth and lots of chicken die of overheating. The ground temperature at 10 m depth is roughly equal to the annual mean air temperature. Using the ground as a heat source means a sustainable and less expensive heating of the chicken farms. During the summer, the ground is used as a source for free cooling, i.e. used directly for cooling of the plants without any cooling machines. Current study shows the design and simulated operation of a ground-coupled heating/cooling system for a typical chicken farm in Syria. Performed national potential study showed that the implementation of such ground coupled heating and cooling systems in the Syrian poultry sector would mean increased poultry production and considerable savings in money, energy, and the environment.

  • 15.
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ociansson, Willy
    Willy´s CleanTech AB.
    Device and Method for Energy WellPatent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Method for increasing efficiency during heating or cooling using an energy well (1) in the form of an elongated hole the bottom of which is arranged at a greater depth than its opening, where a cooling agent streams through the well (1) in a collector conduit (3) and is heat exchanged against the material surrounding the well (1). The invention is characterised in that a tube (301) runs down into the energy well (1) from above its opening and down along the energy well (1) towards its bottom, in that the end (303) of the tube (301) facing towards the bottom of the energy well (1) is open, in that liquid is supplied through the tube (301) so that the liquid thereby streams down and out into the energy well (1) through the open end (303) of the tube (301), in that gas bubbles (305) are supplied to the liquid streaming down through the tube (301), and in that the added gas bubbles (305) are so small so that they rise more slowly in the liquid than the velocity of the liquid at the supply point.

  • 16.
    Nordell, Bo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Grein, Mohamed
    Kharseh, Mohamad
    Large-scale utilisation of renewable energy requires energy storage2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most types of renewable energy are available when the demand is low. So, summer heat is available during the warm season, when heating demand is low, and winter cold is available when the cooling demand is low. Therefore, seasonal storage of thermal energy is important for the large-scale utilization of thermal energy. Large-scale storage systems require large storage volumes. Such systems are therefore often constructed as Underground Thermal Energy Storage (UTES) systems. The UTES includes ATES, BTES and CTES i.e. thermal energy storage in aquifers, boreholes, and caverns. UTES systems have been developed during the last three decades and are now found all over the world. Sweden is one of the leading countries in this technology. This is underlined by the fact that borehole systems cover almost 20% of the Swedish heating demand. During the last decade it has been a UTES development towards larger systems for both heating and cooling. Here, different UTES applications are presented.

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