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  • 1.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Adapting audio quality assessment procedures for engineering practice2016In: 139th Audio Engineering Society International Convention: AES 2015, Jacob Javits Center New York, United States, 29 October - 1 November 2015, New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio quality is of concern up and down the production chain from content creation to distribution. The technologies employed at each step - equipment, processors like codecs, downmix algorithms and loudspeakers - all are scrutinized for their impact. The now well-established field of audio quality research has developed robust methods for assessments. To form a basis for this work, research has investigated how perceptual dimensions are formed and expressed. The literature includes numerous sonic attributes that may be used to evaluate audio quality. All together, these findings have provided benchmarks and guidelines for improving audio technology, setting standards in the manufacture of sound and recording equipment, and furthering the design of reproduction systems and spaces. They are, however, by comparison rarely used to inform recording and mixing practice. In this paper quality evaluation and mixing practice are compared on selected counts and observations are made on what points these fields may mutually inform one another

  • 2.
    Lefford, M. Nyssim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Thompson, Paul
    Music, Sound and Performance, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK.
    Naturalistic artistic decision-making and metacognition in the music studio2018In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 543-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professional artistic contexts, such as studio-based music production, are rarely investigated in naturalistic decision-making (NDM) research, though creative work is characterised by uncertainty, risk, a lack of clearly definable goals, and in the case of music production, a complex socio-technical working environment that brings together a diverse group of specialized collaborators. This study investigates NDM in the music production studio. In music production, there is a professional role explicitly tasked with taking decisions—the (record) producer. The producer, as a creative collaborator, is differentiated as a problem-solver, solution creator and goal setter. This investigation looks at the producer’s metacognitive abilities for reflecting on the nature of problems and decisions. An important challenge for this study is to develop methods for observing decision-making without unrealistically reducing the amount of uncertainty around outcomes or creative intention within a studio production. In the face of that, a method is proposed that combines socio-cultural musicology and cognitive approaches and uses ethnographic data. Preliminary findings shed light on how the producer in this study self-manages his decisions and his interactions with, and in response to, the production environment; how decisions and actions sustain collaboration; how experience is utilized to identify scenarios and choose actions; and the kinds of strategies employed and their expected outcomes. Findings provide evidence that exercising producing skills and performing production tasks involve metacognitive reflection.

  • 3.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Producing and Its Effect on Vocal Recordings2014In: Digital Da Vinci: Computers in Music, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2014, p. 29-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates one of the more enigmatic aspects of music production: producing. Currently, there exist a wide-range of technologies that enable many of the technical and creative tasks associated with the production process, but few of these tools directly enable producing. The development of such tools is hindered by a lack of depth in out understanding of the producer’s expertise. To gain insight into what producers do to influence the sonic attributes of recordings, this study takes a close look at producing vocal recordings in popular music. After providing an historical context for modeling and emulating the process of producing, the material delves into various perceptual, cognitive and biological perspectives to provide insight into the types of audible patterns found in produced vocal recordings. This combination of insights provides evidence to suggest that producers attend to and emphasizes vocal affectations as a means to enhance communication with the listening audience. In the concluding discussions, the chapter revisits the problems of modeling the producer’s expertise and considers varied potential approaches.

  • 4.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Review of Musical creativities in practice2013In: Psychomusicology, ISSN 0275-3987, E-ISSN 2162-1535, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 52-53Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews the book, Musical Creativities in Practice by Pamela Burnard (see record 2012-17776-000). In this book, Burnard challenges the relevance of the “great composer” archetype as a model for contemporary musical practices with a set of carefully composed examples. She covers musicians at various stages of their professional careers, achieving various amounts of commercial success, and using different technologies and outlets to reach listeners. She investigates bands, singer–songwriters, DJ culture, and new media. These practices reveal musical creativities that rarely belong to one genre or culture. They strive for originality and reject entrenched notions of authorship. Her analyses yield a framework through which creativities may be viewed through a sociological context and a set of prescriptive measures for introducing current musical practices into traditional music curricula.

  • 5.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    The Sound of Coordinated Efforts: Music Producers, Boundary Objects and Trading Zones2015In: Journal on the Art of Record Production, ISSN 1754-9892, E-ISSN 1754-9892, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music production involves coordinating efforts among diverse experts, namely recording engineers and musicians. Each contributes specialized work to the production by utilizing shared resources such as music, recorded sound and technologies. To coordinate their efforts, a producer provides information about the production and resources as pertinent to individual contributions. Similar modes of communication and coordination have been studied in scientific research communities. In cognitive science and the sociology of science, “boundary objects” (Star and Griesemer: 1989) and “trading zones” (Galison: 1999) are concepts used to explain how this coordination is enabled, and have relevance for music production.

  • 6.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    From practice to research and back again: research skills in audio engineering education2013In: Proceedings of the 50th International Conference: Audio Education (July 2013), Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2013, p. 166-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the rate and nature of change in media technology, future audio engineers should expect to manage production scenarios of greater complexity using less proven techniques. Meeting these challenges will require— in addition to knowledge of essential recording technology and established methods— analytical skills, the ability to self-direct inquiry and flexible, open-ended capacities in problem solving. We have designed an undergraduate audio technology course that provides opportunities to develop these capacities. Our approach situates students in an authentic research environment. By deconstructing and assessing published research, contrasting varied approaches, vetting solutions, evaluating results and designing their own research plans, students gain knowledge and skills that support professionalism in both the research lab and the recording studio.

  • 7.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Sjömark, Cecilia
    Context, individuality and music's affect on listeners2005In: Modeling and using context: 5th international and interdisciplinary conference, CONTEXT 2005, Paris, France, July 5-8, 2005 ; proceedings, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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