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  • 1.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    IBM Research.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ethnography: positioning ethnography within participatory design2012In: Routledge International Handbook of Participatory Design, Routledge Mental Health, 2012, p. 86-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the history of ethnography in Participatory Design, the varied approaches that have been developed to connect ethnography and cooperative design, and the association this particular history has with the more general question of the relation between the sensibilities, commitments and requirements of design and of ethnography. As part of this exploration we discuss the practical limits and philosophical synergies between ethnography and design with attention to the similarities and incongruities between Participatory Design and ethnography. We conclude by reimagining ethnography within Participatory Design, pointing to the opportunities and challenges for a new generation of participatory designers. The commitments and guiding principles of ethnography and Participatory Design are examined, followed by a presentation of the foundational research on the application of ethnography to Participatory Design. Then the (re)positioning of ethnography and design are explored, including discussion of the role of reflexivity in Participatory Design. Finally, new opportunities and challenges are presented.This chapter re-examines the relationship between ethnography and Participatory Design, suggesting that researchers continue to interrogate and reflect on the role of ethnography in Participatory Design. It notes that a dichotomy has emerged in how ethnography is positioned in relation to Participatory Design; on the one hand normalised, accepted as part of Participatory Design practice, and on the other ‘backgrounded’, secondary to those activities that directly engage participants in design. It argues that the analytic purchase of ethnography as more than method is just as important today as it was earlier and that Participatory Design could learn from ethnography’s reflexivity.Positioning ethnography within Participatory Design is taking us beyond familiar terrains, con- fronting the challenges of designing for large-scale systems and the socio-technical infrastructures that enable global connections, and doing so with the participation of people from different knowledge traditions and socio-economic circumstances. Given these challenges, the sensibilities of ethnography continue to provide an important guide to Participatory Design.

  • 2.
    Blomberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    IBM Research, San Jose.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reflections on 25 Years of Ethnography in CSCW2013In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 22, no 4-6, p. 373-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we focus attention on ethnography's place in CSCW by reflecting on how ethnography in the context of CSCW has contributed to our understanding of the sociality and materiality of work and by exploring how the notion of the 'field site' as a construct in ethnography provides new ways of conceptualizing 'work' that extends beyond the workplace. We argue that the well known challenges of drawing design implications from ethnographic research have led to useful strategies for tightly coupling ethnography and design. We also offer some thoughts on recent controversies over what constitutes useful and proper ethnographic research in the context of CSCW. Finally, we argue that as the temporal and spatial horizons of inquiry have expanded, along with new domains of collaborative activity, ethnography continues to provide invaluable perspectives.

  • 3.
    Brandrup, Morten
    et al.
    Roskilde University.
    Østergaard, Kija
    University of Copenhagen; Nykøbing F. Hospital.
    Hertzum, Morten
    University of Copenhagen.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Roskilde University; University of Oulu.
    Simonsen, Jesper
    Roskilde University.
    Effects-Driven Participatory Design: Learning from Sampling Interruptions2017In: Participatory Design & Health Information Technology / [ed] Bertelsen P., Kanstrup A.M., Bygholm A., Nohr C., IOS Press, 2017, p. 113-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory design (PD) can play an important role in obtaining benefits from healthcare information technologies, but we contend that to fulfil this role PD must incorporate feedback from real use of the technologies. In this paper we describe an effects-driven PD approach that revolves around a sustained focus on pursued effects and uses the experience sampling method (ESM) to collect real-use feedback. To illustrate the use of the method we analyze a case that involves the organizational implementation of electronic whiteboards at a Danish hospital to support the clinicians' intra- and interdepartmental coordination. The hospital aimed to reduce the number of phone calls involved in coordinating work because many phone calls were seen as unnecessary interruptions. To learn about the interruptions we introduced an app for capturing quantitative data and qualitative feedback about the phone calls. The investigation showed that the electronic whiteboards had little potential for reducing the number of phone calls at the operating ward. The combination of quantitative data and qualitative feedback worked both as a basis for aligning assumptions to data and showed ESM as an instrument for triggering in-situ reflection. The participant-driven design and redesign of the way data were captured by means of ESM is a central contribution to the understanding of how to conduct effects-driven PD.

  • 4.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Infrastructuring in Participatory Design2014In: PDC '14: Proceedings of the 13th Participatory Design Conference : Research Papers / [ed] Dhungana D.,Gnesi S.,Rubin J.,Czarnecki K.,Heymans P.,Fantechi A, New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, Vol. 1, p. 141-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews literature and reflects on infrastructur-ing in Participatory Design (PD) with a conceptual inter-est. It starts with the notion of information infrastructure introduced to the PD community in the mid-1990s by Star and collaborators. It traces how the notion has been adapted, appended, and negotiated within a number of PD approaches known as “infrastructuring.” Based on this review, the paper discusses a number of themes arising from these approaches that relate to salient information infrastructure characteristics and speak to the specificity of infrastructuring in PD. This paper takes stock of what has happened in conceptual terms with regard to information infrastructure and infrastructuring in the field of PD to inform continuing work.

  • 5.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Long-term Temporality in STS Research on Infrastructural Technologies2014In: Yearbook 2012 of the Institute for Advanced Studies on Science Technology and Society, München, Wien: Profil Verlag GmbH , 2014, p. 75-89Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a literature study of Science and Technology Studies (STS) research on infrastructural technologies with a particular interest on how long- term temporality is conceived in these. Stances to long-term temporality are reviewed in three areas of research, each of these addressing a particular kind of infrastructural technology: Large Technical Systems, Virtual Information Infrastructures, and Emergent Technosciences. Analysis reveals a variety of positions on long-term temporality, including differences in how the duration and direction of temporality are perceived, as well as initial work unpicking the involved multiple temporalities. The article concludes by calling for increased awareness towards temporality and for extending the temporal scope of STS research.

  • 6. Karasti, Helena
    et al.
    Baker, K.S.
    University of California at San Diego.
    Millerand, F.
    University of Quebec at Montreal.
    Infrastructure time: Long-term matters in collaborative development2010In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 19, no 3-4, p. 377-415Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Karasti, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Millerand, Florence
    University of Quebec at Montreal , Department of Public and Social Communication, University of Quebec.
    Hine, Christine E.
    Department of Sociology, University of Surrey.
    Bowker, Geoffrey C.
    Department of Informatics, University of Irvine.
    Knowledge infrastructures: Part i2016In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 2-12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Karasti, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Millerand, Florence
    University of Quebec at Montreal , Department of Public and Social Communication, University of Quebec.
    Hine, Christine E.
    Department of Sociology, University of Surrey.
    Bowker, Geoffrey C.
    Department of Informatics, University of Irvine.
    Knowledge infrastructures: Part II2016In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 2-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Karasti, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Millerand, Florence
    University of Quebec at Montreal , Department of Public and Social Communication, University of Quebec.
    Hine, Christine E.
    Department of Sociology, University of Surrey.
    Bowker, Geoffrey C.
    Department of Informatics, University of Irvine.
    Knowledge infrastructures: Part III2016In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 2-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Karasti, Helena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Pihkala, Suvi
    University of Oulu.
    Reflexive engagement: enacting reflexivity in design and for 'participation in plural'2016In: Proceedings of The 14th Participatory Design Conference (PDC '16), Aarhus, Denmark, August 15 -19 2016: Aarhus, Denmark, Short Papers, Interactive Exhibitions, Workshops / [ed] Teli M.,McDonnell J.,Bodker K.,Bossen C.,Smith R.C.,Kanstrup A.M, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, Vol. 1, p. 21-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper joins the discussion on participation in Participatory Design (PD) by proposing reflexivity as an orientation for engaging in design and for the plurality of participation. Based on our study in which a social media-supported collaboration model was designed with professionals working against workplace harassment, the paper recounts how the designer--researcher's reflexive orientation allowed participation to be uncovered as manifold and dynamic and how this affected the design process. We discuss the critical sensitivity and attentiveness enacted in design practice as reflexive engagement that encouraged negotiations of roles, goals, and technology. Regarding participation, we discuss reflexive engagement with multiple relationships, participatory assemblies and their intersections and overlaps---participation in plural---in our study. We conclude by proposing the conceptualization of reflexive engagement as an orientation for PD designers to engage in the particularities of situated design practices, while holding to the ethical (political), practical and creative commitments of PD.

  • 11.
    Oikarinen, Teija
    et al.
    Archaeology, University of Oulu.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Conceptualising eScience for Archaeology with Digital Infrastructures and Socio-Technical Dynamics2014In: Archaeology in the Digital Era: e-Papers from the 40th Conference on Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014, p. 558-568Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper introduces the concept of Digital Infrastructure (DI) and the associated notion of Socio- Technical Dynamics to archaeology. DI conceptualization of technology goes beyond the ‘technology as tool’ notion prevalent in archaeology by acknowledging the process of digitalization and socio-technical dynamics in integrating technologies into expanding configurations. We propose DIs for analysing archaeology in the eScience era, and as an illustration we discuss the paradox of control and change that concretizes for example in information models and standards. Standards have a central role in enhancing interoperability and ensuring the future use of data. The socio-technical dynamics of DIs recognizes standards together with technologies and users as networked constituents of DIs. In cultural heritage and archaeology, standards are emerging as global infrastructure components. We discuss how technology and standards as controlling mechanisms have implications for archaeological research practices and scientific procedures. Research into these mechanisms can guide designers, managers, and policymakers.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 12.
    Pihkala, Suvi
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Women's and Gender Studies.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Reflexive engagement: Reflexive orientation for Participatory Design2013In: IADIS International Conference ICT, Society and Human Beings 2013, IADIS International Conference e-Commerce 2013: Part of the IADIS Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems 2013, MCCSIS 2013; Prague; Czech Republic; 24 July 2013 - 26 July 2013, Prague: International Association for Development, IADIS , 2013, p. 85-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the current discussions calling for more reflexivity in Participatory Design (PD). We offer an account of our experiences with reflexivity from a study in which a social media supported collaboration model was designed by and for professionals working with the topic of workplace harassment. This article draws from the researchers' interdisciplinary frames as we locate reflexivity in the current PD discourses and in the experiences of our study. We introduce the concept of reflexive engagement, which we describe as an orientation to design and research that has the potential to influence design, extend conceptual discoveries, and afford a way to balance the research-design gap. We conclude by encouraging the PD community to embrace reflexivity as a way to address current practical and disciplinary challenges. While our focus in this article is on PD, we also see the potential of reflexive engagement for other user-centric or collaborative design approaches in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

  • 13.
    Pihkala, Suvi
    et al.
    University of Oulu, University of Oulu, Women's and Gender Studies.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Social media for, with, and by professionals–participatory design through reflexive engagement2014In: Perspectives on Social Media: A Yearbook, New York, NY: Routledge Mental Health, 2014, p. 48-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter draws from a participatory design of a social media supported collaboration model for, with, and by professionals working against workplace harassment. Our experiences in this process provide insight into participation and reflexivity that we conceptualize as “reflexive engagement.” Since professional uses of social media will continue to expand, design approaches that embrace the participatory nature of social media and associated potentials are needed. We close by recommending a reflexive and participatory approach. We also recommend taking a reflexive view on roles, relationships, and participation, and to work toward a more inclusive view of reflexivity.

  • 14.
    Pipek, Volkmar
    et al.
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Bowker, Geoffrey C.
    University of California at Irvine, Irvine, USA.
    A Preface to ‘Infrastructuring and Collaborative Design’2017In: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, ISSN 0925-9724, E-ISSN 1573-7551, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Østergaard, Kija
    et al.
    Roskilde University.
    Karasti, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Simonsen, Jesper
    Roskilde University.
    Nurses' journey toward genuine participation: Learning and Becoming2016In: Proceedings of The 14th Participatory Design Conference (PDC '16), Aarhus, Denmark, August 15 -19 2016: Aarhus, Denmark, Short Papers, Interactive Exhibitions, Workshops, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, Vol. 2, p. 57-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on participation in Participatory Design (PD) by drawing on the notion of genuine participation [8]. It clarifies nurses' empirical journey as one of becoming and learning [1, 6], where they move from being reluctant participants, attending only because management has instructed them to do so, to taking an interest and finding their voices in the design process. In this way, they are ultimately able to engage in genuine and willing participation. The main discussion points in the paper are the transitions in the nurses' journey toward embracing qualities of genuine participation, the nurse-researcher's reflections on her facilitation of the process, and collective learning as an integral part of the process.

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