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  • 1.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Padyab, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Exploring Factors Influencing Participant Drop-Out Behavior in a Living Lab Environment2017In: Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems: 8th Scandinavian Conference on Information Systems, SCIS 2017, Halden, Norway, August 6-8, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Susanne Stigberg, Joackim Karlsen, Harald Holone, Cathrine Linnes, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 28-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “living lab” is a rather new phenomenon that facilitates user involvement in open innovation activities. The users’ motivations to contribute to the living lab activities at the beginning of the project are usually higher than once the activities are underway. However, the literature still lacks an understanding of what actions are necessary to reduce the likelihood of user drop-out throughout the user engagement process. This study aims to explore key factors that are influential on user drop-out in a living lab setting by engaging users to test an innovation during the pilot phase of the application’s development. The stability of the prototype, ease of use, privacy protection, flexibility of the prototype, effects of reminders, and timing issues are the key influential factors on user drop-out behavior. This paper summarizes the key lessons learned from the case study and points to avenues for future research.

  • 2.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Social, Ethical and Ecological Issues in Wearable Technologies2019In: Twenty-fifth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Cancun, 2019, 2019, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) has given rise to a plethora of wearable devices integrated into daily life, however achieving end-user’s long-term adoption is still an issue. The purpose of this paper is to investigate social, ethical and ecological issues related to wearable technologies from end-users’ perspectives. We undertook a systematic literature review as well as two rounds of interviews with domain experts as well as end-users of IoT wearable devices to find relevant issues related to social, ethical and ecological. After synthesizing the results, eighteen issues found to be relevant to the wearable technologies. These issues have important implications for reducing the negative barriers that challenge the adoption of wearable technologies. The originality of this study lies with its non-technological focus that provides insights into issues that are rooted into individuals’ concerns.

  • 3.
    Padyab, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Exploring Impacts of Secondary Information Use on Individual Privacy2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information collected from individuals via online social networks and Internet of things devices can be used by institutions and service providers for different business purposes to tailor and customize their services, which is defined as secondary use of information. Although the literature on secondary use is well developed, prior studies have largely focused on direct use of information such as those instances of information use that do not stem from data mining. Advances in data mining and information-processing techniques facilitate discovery of customers’ and users’ behaviors and needs. Research shows that individuals’ behavior can be inferred with high accuracy from their shared information, which may in turn jeopardize privacy. A recent scandal of Cambridge Analytica using about 87 million Facebook profiles to target those users with customized micro-targeted political ads has created public outrage and raised criticisms of secondary use. Given this background, the purpose of this thesis is to explore impacts of organizations’ and service providers’ secondary use of personal information in order to draw conclusions related to how individuals’ attitudes are formed and what role secondary use plays in managing privacy.

    This research investigates user awareness and attitudes towards potential secondary uses of information. To pursue this, a multi-method qualitative approach using a descriptive questionnaire with 1000 European citizens and a total of 10 focus groups with 43 participants was employed. A qualitative content analysis using both inductive and deductive approaches was conducted to analyze the results. The conceptual framework employed in this thesis was genres of disclosure.

    The research results suggest that user awareness of the potential for indirect personal information disclosure was relatively low. It was consequently found that participant attitudes toward privacy and disclosure shifted from affective to cognitive when they experienced firsthand the potential inferences that could be made from their own data. Generally, the participant users only considered their direct disclosure of information; through observing potential indirect inferences about their own shared contents and information, however, the participants became more aware of potential infringements on their privacy.

    The study contributes to information privacy and information systems literature by raising understanding of the impacts of secondary use, in particular its effects on individual privacy management. In addition, this thesis suggests that information privacy is affected differently by direct and indirect uses. Its contribution to information privacy research is to complement previous methodological approaches by suggesting that if users are made aware of indirect inferences that can be made from their content, negative affective responses decrease while cognitive reactions increase through the processing of information related to their disclosure genres. The reason is that indirect use of information inhibits the negotiation of information privacy boundaries and creating unresolved tensions within those boundaries. Cognitive awareness of inferences made to individual information significantly affects the privacy decision-making process. The implication is that there is a need for more dynamic privacy awareness mechanisms that can empower users by providing them with increased awareness of the indirect information they are sharing.

  • 4.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Getting More Explicit on Genres of Disclosure: Towards Better Understanding of Privacy in Digital Age (Research in Progress)2014In: NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi, ISSN 1892-0748, E-ISSN 1894-7719, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosure is all about communication and Genres are about analyzing communicative action. “Genres of Disclosure” as repetitive patterns of disclosing has given less attention. Drawing on Palen and Dourish’s work, this paper expand its defined scope from a social approach into a more socio-technical approach. Evolutionized by the affordances of a new digital medium, new genres have emerged. We called these new subgenres, secondary genres of disclosure. We provide a taxonomy for these type of genres and some real examples to illuminate the concept. Implications of use for designing privacy and venues for further research are discussed. It is concluded that “Genres of Disclosure” can serve as a common language between users, system providers and legislators to preserve privacy within any system that has consequences for personal privacy.

  • 5.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Rizk, Aya
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Adoption Barriers of IoT in Large Scale Pilots2020In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 11, no 23, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pervasive connectivity of devices enabled by Internet of Things (IoT) technologies is leading the way in various innovative services and applications. This increasing connectivity comes with its own complexity. Thus, large scale pilots (LSPs) are designed to develop, test and use IoT innovations in various domains in conditions very similar to their operational scalable setting. One of the key challenges facing the diffusion of such innovations within the course of an LSP is understanding the conditions in which their respective users decide to adopt them (or not). Accordingly, in this study we explore IoT adoption barriers in four LSPs in Europe from the following domains: smart cities, autonomous driving, wearables and smart agriculture and farming. By applying Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation as a theoretical lens and using empirical data from workshops and expert interviews, we identify a set of common and domain specific adoption barriers. Our results reveal that trust, cost, perceived value, privacy and security are common concerns, yet shape differently across domains. In order to overcome various barriers, the relative advantage or value of using the innovation needs to be clearly communicated and related to the users’ situational use; while this value can be economic in some domains, it is more hedonic in others. LSPs were particularly challenged in applying established strategies to overcome some of those barriers (e.g., co-creation with end-users) due to the immaturity of the technology as well as the scale of pilots. Accordingly, we reflect on the theoretical choice in the discussion as well as the implications of this study on research and practice. We conclude with providing practical recommendations to LSPs and avenues for future research

  • 6.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Harnesk, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Genre-Based Approach to Assessing Information and Knowledge Security Risks2015In: Transportation Systems and Engineering: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 1237-1253Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary methods for assessing information security risks have adopted mainly technical views on information and technology assets. Organizational dynamics of information management and knowledge sharing have gained less attention. This article outlines a new, genre-based, approach to information security risk assessment in order to orientate toward organization- and knowledge-centric identification and analysis of security risks. In order to operationalize the genre-based approach, we suggest the use of a genre-based analytical method for identifying organizational communication patterns through which organizational knowledge is shared. The genre-based method is then complemented with tasks and techniques from a textbook risk assessment method (OCTAVE Allegro). We discuss the initial experiences of three experienced information security professionals who tested the method. The article concludes with implications of the genre-based approach to analyzing information and knowledge security risks for future research and practice.

  • 7.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Harnesk, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Genre-Based Approach to Assessing Information and Knowledge Security Risks2014In: International Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1548-0666, E-ISSN 1548-0658, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 13-27, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary methods for assessing information security risks have adopted mainly technical views on information and technology assets. Organizational dynamics of information management and knowledge sharing have gained less attention. This article outlines a new, genre-based, approach to information security risk assessment in order to orientate toward organization- and knowledge-centric identification and analysis of security risks. In order to operationalize the genre-based approach, we suggest the use of a genre-based analytical method for identifying organizational communication patterns through which organizational knowledge is shared. The genre-based method is then complemented with tasks and techniques from a textbook risk assessment method (OCTAVE Allegro). We discuss the initial experiences of three experienced information security professionals who tested the method. The article concludes with implications of the genre-based approach to analyzing information and knowledge security risks for future research and practice.

  • 8.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Harnesk, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Genre-based assessment of information and knowledge security risks2014In: Proceedings of the Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, ISSN 1530-1605, p. 3442-3451, article id 6759030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary methods for assessing information security risks have adopted mainly technical views on the information and technology assets. Organizational dynamics of information management and knowledge sharing have gained less attention. This article outlines how an information security risk assessment method can be elaborated using knowledge-centric analysis of information assets. For this purpose, we suggest the use of a genre-based analysis method for identifying organizational communication patterns, through which organizational knowledge is shared. Initial experiences of the method try-outs by three experienced information security professionals are discussed. The article concludes with a look at the implications of a genre-based analysis of knowledge assets for future research and practice.

  • 9.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Digital Services and Systems.
    Awareness of Indirect Information Disclosure on Social Network Sites2019In: Social Media + Society, ISSN 2056-3051, E-ISSN 2056-3051, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates user awareness and attitudes toward potential inferences of information posted on social network sites (SNSs). The study reports how user attitudes change after exposure to inferences made based upon information they have disclosed on an SNS, namely, on Facebook. To demonstrate this, two sub-studies involving three focus group sessions were conducted with Facebook users. In the first sub-study, the users received a general introduction to information that can be inferred from posts by using a prototypical privacy-enhancement tool called DataBait. Then, the second sub-study allowed the users to witness the potential inferences of their own Facebook photos and posts by using the DataBait tool. Next, qualitative content analysis was conducted to analyze the results, and these showed that the participants’ attitudes toward privacy on SNSs changed from affective to cognitive when they became aware of potential inferences from actual information posted on their own Facebook accounts. The results imply that end users require more cognitive awareness regarding their genres of disclosure and the effect of their disclosures on their privacy. Moreover, as privacy awareness is contextual, there is a need for more research and development of online tools that will allow users to manage and educate themselves.

  • 10.
    Padyab, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bergvall-Kåreborn, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Facebook Users Attitudes towards Secondary Use of Personal Information2016In: Proceedings of the Thirty Seventh International Conference on Information Systems: ICIS 2016, 2016, p. 1-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of how user attitudes to institutional privacy change after exposing users to potential inferences that can be made from information disclosed on Facebook. Two sets of focus group sessions with Facebook users were conducted. Three sessions were conducted by demonstrating to the users, on a general level, what can be inferred from posts using prototypical software called DataBait. Another set of three sessions let the users experience the potential inferences from their own actual Facebook profiles by using the DataBait tool. Findings suggest that the participants’ attitudes to secondary use of information changed from affective to cognitive when they were exposed to potential third-party inferences using their own actual personal information. This observation calls for more research into online tools that allow users to manage and educate themselves dynamically about their own disclosure practices.

  • 11.
    Padyab, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Exploring the dimensions of individual privacy concerns in relation to the Internet of Things use situations2018In: Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, ISSN 2398-5038, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 528-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The integration of internet of things (IoT) devices into daily life introduces challenges for the privacy of their users and those who are affected by these devices. This paper explores the factors that affect individual concerns regarding IoT use and how those factors affect the dynamics of privacy management with the presence of an IoT device. Design/methodology/approach: Four focus groups of individuals and IoT experts were studied to understand the groups? privacy concerns. The authors adopted a qualitative research method based on grounded theory to find relevant dimensions of situational privacy concerns in IoT use situations. Findings: The results revealed that fourteen dimensions of individuals? privacy concerns regarding the IoT are relevant and can be categorized under four key influential factors: collection, IoT device, collected data storage and use of collected data. The authors also analyzed the focus groups using genres of disclosure theory and explored how privacy concerns affect individual privacy management regulations. Research limitations/implications: This paper contributes to how future research can employ genres of disclosure as a theoretical framework to identify situations where privacy violations occur. Practical implications: This study can assist service providers and IoT manufacturers in deriving design principles and decreasing concerns by addressing the information that must be communicated to their users. Originality/value: As opposed to the previous research, which was more inclined to dispositional privacy concerns, this study provides insights into situational privacy concerns when individuals are confronted with the IoT. This study represents the first attempt to investigate the process individuals experience in managing their privacy.

  • 12.
    Padyab, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Privacy Enhancing Tools: A Literature Review on End-User Role and Evaluation2017In: Proceedings of the Eleventh International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security & Assurance (HAISA 2017) / [ed] Steven Furnell, Nathan L. Clarke, Plymouth: University of Plymouth Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends show that privacy concerns are rising, but end users are not armed with enoughmechanisms to protect themselves. Privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) or morespecifically, tools (PET-tools) are one of the mechanisms that could help users in this sense.These tools, however, reportedly have low adoption rates, and users tend to be reluctant tointegrate them into their daily use of the Internet. Detailed scrutiny of current research onPET-tools, however, can guide future research to help overcome low adoption of these tools.We conducted a literature review on PET-tools to enumerate the types of tools available andhow they are being evaluated, in order to shed more light on the missing elements in theirevaluations. We reviewed and coded 72 articles in the PET-tool literature. Our resultshighlight two important issues: 1. Evaluation of most tools is performed using only artificial,summative and ex-post strategies; 2. While usability evaluation is quite common, evaluationof enhanced privacy is lacking. This research hopes to contribute to better PET-tooldevelopment, and encourage the inclusion of users in the evaluation and design process.

  • 13.
    Popescu, A.
    et al.
    CEA, Paris.
    Hildebrandt, M.
    Radboud University, Nijmegen.
    Breuer, J.
    iMinds-SMIT, Etterbeek.
    Claeys, L.
    iMinds-SMIT, Etterbeek.
    Papadopoulos, S.
    CERTH-ITI, Thessaloniki.
    Petkos, G.
    CERTH-ITI, Thessaloniki.
    Michalareas, T.
    VELTI SA, Marousi.
    Lund, D.
    HW Communication Ltd, Lancaster.
    Heyman, R.
    iMinds-SMIT, Etterbeek.
    Graaf, S. van der
    iMinds-SMIT, Etterbeek.
    Gadetski, E.
    CEA, Paris.
    Borgne, H. Le
    CEA, Paris.
    deVries, K.
    Radboud University, Nijmegen.
    Kastrinogiannis, T.
    VELTI SA, Marousi.
    Kousaridas, A.
    VELTI SA, Marousi.
    Padyab, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Increasing Transparency and Privacy for Online Social Network Users: USEMP Value Model, Scoring Framework and Legal2016In: Privacy Technologies and Policy: Third Annual Privacy Forum, APF 2015, Luxembourg, Luxembourg, October 7-8, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Bettina Berendt; Thomas Engel; Demosthenes Ikonomou; Daniel Le Métayer; Stefan Schiffner, Cham: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, p. 38-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present research results from the multi-disciplinary EU research project USEMP (USEMP is a project funded from EU research framework, additional information about project scope and deliverables are available at project’s public website at: http://​www.​usemp-project.​eu/​). In particular, we look at the legal aspects of personal data licensing and profile transparency, the development of a personal data value model in Online Social Networks (OSNs) and the development of disclosure scoring and personal data value frameworks. In the first part of the paper we show how personal data usage licensing and profile transparency for OSN activities provides for Data Protection by Design (DPbD). We also present an overview of the existing personal data monetization ecosystem in OSNs and its possible evolutions for increasing privacy and transparency for consumers about their OSN presence. In the last part of the paper, we describe the USEMP scoring framework for personal information disclosure and data value that can assist users to better perceive how their privacy is affected by their OSN presence and what the value of their OSN activities is.

  • 14.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Padyab, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sällström, Annika
    Agio Software.
    Hollosi, Danilo
    Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology.
    Design of Smart City Systems from a Privacy Perspective2015In: IADIS International Journal on WWW/Internet, ISSN 1645-7641, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All around the globe the concept of smart cities is growing at fast pace meaning that an increasingly amount of people are moving to cities, which causes problems for cities with energy supply, waste management, transportation, environmental issues and security to mention a few. To answer to these challenges, the concept of smart cities emerges referring to cities that invest in human and social capital, and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure that will fuel sustainable economic growth and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory governance. Hence, for cities to be smart they cannot only install technologies, but they also need to invest in human capital and sustain a high quality of life. It is therefore important that solutions being implemented in smart cities answer to the needs and expectations citizens have as well as protect them from being exposed or forced into unwanted situations. In earlier studies it has become clear that people often are worried about their privacy due to our life being so easy to track and technologies becoming increasingly ubiquitous and pervasive. In this paper we will report on a study carried out with focus on understanding citizens view on information privacy concerns related to an intelligent acoustic smart city solution for audio monitoring. By means of this technology it was possible to detect events such as sirens, recognise speech commands and detects presence in public buildings. Audio monitoring is a relatively new and under research phenomena. Hence, in this paper an analysis of a survey on information privacy concerns, carried out with 1000 respondents around Europe, is presented and discussed. The basic findings from this study indicate that people have information privacy concerns related to this type of solution on a general level. However, when being more thoroughly introduced to the solution and its usage area, the citizens also became more positive towards the solution. The study also identified design principles that aims to support the design and implementation of smart city solutions that take not only users, but also affectees perspectives into consideration.

  • 15.
    Thapa, Devinder
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Harnesk, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Padyab, Ali Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Make way for the new wave: Living Labs as a DSR Approach2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living Lab (LL) has been used as a milieu as well as methodology for open innovation. However, the impression of living lab as a research methodology among academia is still blurring. The living lab carries many elements of design science re-search paradigm such as innovation, artifact, evaluation, design principles, etc. how-ever it still needs conceptual underpinning to proclaim it as a valid DSR methodology. The peculiarity of the living lab approach compare to existing DSR methodologies is its openness, co-creation, and evaluation of IT artifacts beyond organizational context. With the continual growth of open innovation platforms, the living lab as a DSR methodologies can play a supplementary role along with its other companion such as DS, AR, and ADR. In this regard, this paper will provide a conceptual clarity in estab-lishing the living lab as a DSR methodology in the context of open innovation and co-creation of IT artifact that goes beyond organizational setup.

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