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  • 1. Erlandsson, Anders
    et al.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Schönström, David
    Söderström, Anna-Karin
    Design in the world kitchen2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Gkouskos, Dimitros
    et al.
    Division of Interaction Design, Chalmers University.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lundgren, Sus
    Division of Interaction Design, Chalmers University.
    What drivers really want: Investigating dimensions in automobile user needs2014In: International Journal of Design, ISSN 1991-3761, E-ISSN 1994-036X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding what users need, as opposed to what they say they need, can be a challenge. In order to better address users' true needs, two consecutive methods were used in this study: Future Workshops and Repertory Grid Technique. The Future Workshops-where 21 participants designed for two different future scenarios-opened up for inscribing need expressions and possibilities into five futuristic automobile concepts. These concepts were used as a basis for the Repertory Grid, a technique where users compare objects, describing properties that they find to be important or significant. In this study, 78 participants provided 390 constructs of properties, which were refined to 19 dimensions relevant to user needs. Two study measures, Evaluative Ability and Descriptive Richness, indicate which methods to use when exploring the need dimensions further. Finally, the analysis of the constructs and dimensions point towards how three aspects of vehicles and driving are emerging: how novel technology should, or should not, support driving; how the automobile can be seen as something else than just a means of transportation, and how an automobile could be a part of a greater collective of vehicles.

  • 3.
    Grane, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lundkvist, Andre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Alm, Håkan
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Broström, Robert
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sverige.
    Davidsson, Staffan
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Project: EFESOS - Environmental Friendly efficient Enjoyable and Safety Optimized Systems2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    EFESOS is a Swedish Vehicle HMI (Human Machine Interaction) FFI research project. The overall ambition is to make driving of future cars more environmental friendly, enjoyable and safer by means of optimized systems. The project is managed by Volvo Car Corporation (VCC) and it is a collaboration between VCC and seven other research partners including Luleå University of Technology.

  • 4.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Design and Evaluation of a Touch-Based Personalizable In-vehicle User Interface2015In: International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, ISSN 1044-7318, E-ISSN 1532-7590, Vol. 31, no 11, p. 731-745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trend of personalizable products at the same time as there is a substantial growth of functions in the automobile user interface. A research through design approach was used to explore the potential of a personalizable vehicle user interface to improve traffic safety as well as user experience by offering a product that is tailored to the users own needs and preferences. A prototype was evaluated by 20 participants with several methods: interviews, Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ), Microsoft product reaction cards, and driving simulator measures. The prototype was experienced positively (flexible, easy to use, and usable), few usability issues were found, no negative effects on driving performance were found, and it was assumed that it could improve traffic safety. All participants stated that they would want to use such a system in their own cars.

  • 5.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Designing with action layers: A bottom-up approach to explore product interaction for intuitive use2018In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, The Design Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design teaching approach that aims to support students to shift their approach when exploring, prototyping and testing user interactions with physical products. This is conducted in a bottom-up, iterative manner to change the perspective from focusing on the opportunities of user-involvement during the form-giving process, rather than prematurely stressing the design outcome. Instead of emphasising on aesthetics and appearance, the design approach emphasises how users perceive, interact with and experience products. Through a series of workshops, apedagogical approach was developed for exploring and designing user actions with physical products, based on the notion of ‘action layers’. Action layers offer a mindset of designing, which facilitates understanding of, and design for, intuitive and tangible interaction. The approach builds on product semantics and emphasises cognitive and action-based paradigms to create intuitive and embodied information-for-use. Action layers present product interaction as a sequence of four steps; invite, engage, enable, and confirm. In the workshops, students iteratively explored form, prototyped and tested interaction with users through sketching with physical models, starting with minimal surface and edge treatments, eventually ending up with functional cues and meaningful form for a certain product type and environment. Through testing and evaluation, students learn to understand user behaviour, relate to their own expectations and intent to the design situation, and iteratively improve the design. The outcomes suggest that students advance their insights on how users interpret, respond to and interact with products, which consequently extends their ability to design products better suited for use.

  • 6.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Personalizable Vehicle Interfaces for Better User Experience2014In: Advances in Affective and Pleasurable Design, AHFE Conference , 2014, p. 169-175Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The User as Interface Designer: Personalizable Vehicle User Interfaces2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Towards optimized instrument panels2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, automobiles are becoming more and more technologically complex, with more and more built-in driver information systems. This increases the amount and range of information the driver needs to be aware of while driving. For a safe traffic environment, drivers must have their eyes on the road and hands on the wheel rather than on in-vehicle displays and controls. However, many of these in-vehicle systems are safety systems designed to prevent accidents why there is a constant trade-off between monitoring interior systems and exterior road view for possible upcoming hazards. Therefore, in-vehicle information displays must be designed to be conspicuous enough to be noticed and discrete enough not to distract the driver. In this thesis a user-centred approach is used with the aim to optimize driver information presentation by testing display design guidelines, evaluation methods, and display configurations in order to increase the drivers' performance regarding noticing, reading, and understanding in-vehicle information displays while driving safely. In Paper I a literature review of design guidelines regarding optimal presentation in in-vehicle information displays was undertaken. The reviewed guidelines appeared to be coherent and valid for today's automobiles and can, hence, lay the foundation for the design of an optimized display. In Paper II an experimental driving simulator study where 19 participants evaluated two display configuration designs regarding their effect on distraction, noticeability, driver stress, and driving performance during driving while an easy secondary detection task was conducted. The reviewed guidelines from Paper I ensured that results were only effected by the differences between the display configurations. One of the compared display configurations resemble a layout found in automobiles of today, and the other a layout, which according to the literature would improve noticeability, but perhaps be somewhat more distracting. The results showed that the latter display configuration improved driving performance without causing any unnecessary distraction. Papers I and II were mainly focusing on performance based usability, but since image and impression are also part of usability, the aim of Paper III was to study eyetracking based methods' appropriateness for evaluating vehicle information clusters, and to connect perceptions of vehicle information clusters with quantifiable measures. Twenty-three subjects participated in the study where a triangulation of eye-tracking, semantic environmental description, and interviews was made. The results indicated that gaze behaviour data adds no additional value compared to if the other assessment methods were used on their own. All together, this thesis brings up important aspects that have implications for the design of in-vehicle information and systems, and gives guidance on how to optimize instrument panels to achieve a safer traffic environment.

  • 9.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Vehicle Interaction Tailored to You2015In: interactions, ISSN 1072-5520, E-ISSN 1558-3449, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gkouskos, Dimitrios
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Exploring user needs in automobiles2012In: Proceedings of the the 12th International Design Conference, DESIGN 2012: May 21-24 2012, Dubrovnik, Croatia, Design Research Society, 2012, p. 1369-1376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to present an alternative method for capturing the user's needs and experiences of in-vehicle human machine interfaces. For this purpose, a set of workshops and a repertory grid technique was employed. The combination was tested with a sample of ten participants. Preliminary results indicate that the combination of the workshop and the repertory grid methods have a strong potential to effectively capture users' needs as well as highlight important factors that affect the users' perceptions regarding in-vehicle interactions.

  • 11.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: OPTIVe - Optimised system integration for safe interaction in vehicles2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new warning and information systems in vehicles places high demands on the interaction between the driver and the vehicle. An HMI that exceeds customer expectations, that is transparent to the user, and that fully supports the users in accomplishing their goals provides a foundation for minimizing driver workload. Not only is the packaging of HMI devices essential to improve safety while interacting with a car. Also regulating the flow of information to a level that will not interfere with the primary task, driving the car, is crucial for product development. The purpose of this project is to develop methods and technical concepts that supports integration of HMI systems in vehicles

  • 12.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Project: AIM4S2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Design and evaluation of a personalizable interface in a vehicle context2014In: Journal of Design Research, ISSN 1748-3050, E-ISSN 1569-1551, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 308-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More and more functions are available to automobile drivers. A flexible and personalisable user interface tailored to suit the users needs can reduce the amount of distraction by displaying only the desired functions and appearance. The product relevance and user experience can also be enhanced with personalised user interfaces. This study uses experience prototyping to explore what happens if the idea of personalisable interfaces is brought into the automobile context, an area where the user interface traditionally has been rather rigid. An interface prototype was designed and evaluated by 12 participants with a set of methods that complement one another well: think-aloud, Computer System Usability Questionnaire (CSUQ), interviews, driving simulator, and Microsoft product reaction cards. The results show that both the interface and the general concept of personalisable interfaces were well accepted. The prototype was experienced as flexible, controllable, understandable, usable, and useful, but also distracting. The reported usability issues were related mostly to the use of the available controls in the driving simulator. These were, however, not severe enough to impose a detrimental effect on the driving performance. All participants stated that they would use such a system if they had access to it in their own vehicle.Keywords: automobile, vehicle, user interface design, user experience, personalization, customization, usability, prototyping, interaction design

  • 14.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Assessment of automotive visual display guidelines and principles: a literature review2011In: Design journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 446-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As more and more technology is added to the automobile interior it needs to be designed in a usable and efficient way: to facilitate safe driving. This paper reviews guidelines and visual design principles for automotive instrumentation. Guidelines were compiled, categorized and analysed in order to determine whether they were valid and usable for today’s design of information presentation in automobiles. By doing this, contradictory guidelines and gaps in knowledge were identified and discussed. However, there appeared a consensus within the different guidelines of best practice, and many are still usable by designers today.

  • 15.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Do redundant head-up and head-down display configurations cause distractions?2009In: Proceedings of the 5th International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training, and Vehicle Design: driving assessment 2009 : Big Sky Resort, Big Sky, Montana, USA, June 22-25, 2009, Iowa City: University of Iowa, Public Policy Center , 2009, p. 398-404Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was designed to investigate effects of different display configuration designs. Nineteen drivers completed a driving simulator study designed to resemble normal driving. Driving performance, glance behaviour, physiological measures, and task completion times was measured for two display configuration designs both during driving only and during driving with a simple secondary task, which consisted of detection, and off-setting of presented warnings. The display configuration design with more centrally placed information, e. g. the HUD and HDD, had less detrimental effects on driving performance and glance behaviour. The physiological measures showed, however, no significant differences between display configuration designs.

  • 16.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kappfjell, Monica
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Evaluation of car instrumentation clusters by using eye-tracking2007In: EAEC 2007 Proceedings: 11th European Automotive Congress, EAEC , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the ambience presented by instrumentation in the vehicle of today is of great significance for the automotive industry. The rapid technological development of electronic equipment has enabled the large amount of information devices in the drivers' environment. The types of driver information and their appearances are well identified by car manufacturers, but there is a lack of knowledge regarding drivers' perceptions of instrumentation clusters as well as their appearance. To increase this knowledge a study was conducted in order to measure these perceptions. Twenty-three subjects were studied using a method consisting of eye-tracking, assessments and interviews. Each subject was to view eight clusters and to assess each cluster according to six different semantic descriptions. The interviews were based on the subject's individual eye-tracking data. The subject was monitored by an eye-tracking equipment during the assessment task. The results showed that there were some significant correlations between time spent viewing a cluster and its assessment. Moreover, the results also give a view on how clusters are assessed and why they are assessed in particular ways.

  • 17.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Mankila, Janne Petteri
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Personalizable in-vehicle systems, technology acceptance and product attachment2013In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 262-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personalisable in-vehicle interfaces offer a flexible way to tailor content and appearance of the interface to suit the driver and bridge a number of functional and emotional issues. A questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) was handed out to 137 respondents to study whether personalisable vehicle human-machine interfaces (HMIs) would be accepted for use in vehicles and also to investigate whether the emotionally-associated construct product attachment affects the behavioural intention. The main findings indicate that personalisable systems were fairly well accepted for use in vehicles and a system comprised of personalisable modes displayed the highest behavioural intention. Moreover, as personalisation offers a closer, more emotional and personal connection to the product, a person's attachment to a product was shown to affect the intention to use the product.

  • 18.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Project: Extended clarinet2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Parnes, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ek, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Andersson, Harald
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    The Extended Clarinet2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Guidelines for a mobile tool to address human factors issues in aircraft maintenance2019In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly specialised personnel are dependent on others and diverse systems to perform error-free aircraft maintenance. Research has shown that the maintenance process can be improved to reduce errors and increase usability by using a mobile tool. The goal of this project was to draw on theories of user-centred design to explore what human factors issues for maintenance personnel can be addressed by a mobile tool to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up. Military aircraft maintenance personnel at an air force unit were interviewed and observed. The following six problem areas that could be improved by the use of a mobile tool were identified: several information sources must constantly be consulted; information is constantly transferred between different locations and media types; technical documentation can be inconsistent and hard to access; there are strict hierarchies and certifications of personnel; the means of recording and transferring communicative information are insufficient; and there can be a long lag time for updates, error reporting and feedback of actions. A correctly designed mobile tool could solve these problems by combining all the information sources and recording relevant maintenance information.

  • 21.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tretten, Phillip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Ågren, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundkvist, Andre
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Project: Human Factors LAB2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Öhrling, Therese
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    AIM4s 2: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : DEL 2 - Ett interaktivt läromedel för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor : Rapport till Gränsöverskridande Konst och Teknik2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för andra delen av förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights andMotivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur eninteraktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungerasom verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Inom ramen för studien har 43personer testat en prototyp av en interaktiv spelliknande miljö för träning avsäkerhet och efter det besvarat en enkät. Några av testpersonerna har ävenintervjuats. Resultatet av denna studie visar att den interaktiva träningsmiljönupplevs positiv och att den har förutsättning att kunna utgöra ett bra verktyg förlärande av säkerhetsrutiner.Den interaktiva träningsmiljön anses förmedla information och regler på ettlättillgängligt, roligt och tydligt sätt. En interaktiv träningsmiljö tycks kunna fungerabåde för inlärning, påminnelse och ökad riskmedvetenhet. Det är dock oklarthuruvida inlärningsformen kan bidra till minskat risktagande och till att sänkaantalet arbetsplatsolyckor i realiteten. För att detta ska ske tycks det vara viktigt attden interaktiva träningsmiljön inte upplevs som för lätt utan att den kan utmana ochmotivera till fortsatt ”spelande”. Många respondenter önskar även att träningsmiljönska uppmuntra till ”upptäckarglädje” och inte bestraffa en användare som önskarutforska träningsmiljön genom att ibland välja fel svarsalternativ. Vidare efterfrågasäven tydliga visualiserade konsekvenser av felaktiga val i den interaktivaträningsmiljön som kan verka som avskräckande exempel vid bristandesäkerhetsrutiner. Detta resultat har likheter med den första delen av förstudienAIM4S och det kan rekommenderas att utbildningsmaterial bör utvecklas så att de påemotionell påverka kan påverka brukaren till minskat risktagande för att därmedkunna bidra till färre arbetsplatsolyckor i industrin.

  • 23.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Activities: A Holistic Approach2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance software solutions are not designed for the users but instead for experts. Things are too complex and the available information is not applicable to the actual maintenance tasks to be conducted. Research has shown that there is need for easy to use tools that can assist in maintenance planning, maintenance actions, and maintenance reporting. Due to financial and time constraints the maintenance process need to become more effective and efficient. By taking a human factors perspective, actions can be taken to minimize human error in maintenance work as well as to allow for an effortless work that is accomplished in the proper way. The goal of this project was to find out what human factors issues that can be addressed by a mobile tool for maintenance personnel in order to make the most out of maintenance planning, execution, and follow-up in a efficient and effective way that is adapted to the user of the tool.

  • 24.
    Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    The effect of redundant information in HUD and HDD on driver performance in simple and complex secondary tasks2009In: 1st International Conference on Driver Distraction and Inattention: september 28-29, 2009, Göteborg: Chalmers tekniska högskola , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of redundant driving information while conducting simple vs complex tasks via instructions presented simultaneously from the Head-Up Display (HUD) and Head Down Display (HDD) placements in normal driving conditions. Twenty respondents drove a fixed based high-fidelity driving simulator through 15km of light to moderate traffic in both rural and urban areas while responding to instructions. Ten respondents received ten warnings to respond to by pressing a button while the other ten respondents received ten instructions to conduct tasks in the center-stack area of the simulator. These tasks varied in difficulty from turn on CD player, to dial a given telephone number. Driving performance was measured via response time, gaze patterns, average speed, and maneuverability. Cognitive workload was assessed with the Driving Activity Load Index (DALI). The results showed that there were no significant differences between the baseline and experimental runs for the warnings due to the simple nature of the tasks while significant differences were found in the average speed and deviation from speed limit. The respondents rated the complex tasks as having a greater visual and temporal demand in relation to the simple tasks. The HUD was almost exclusively used by the respondents for driving information and stated that it was fitting for warnings and primary driver information.

  • 25. Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Warnings and placement positions in automobiles2009In: 17th World Congress on Ergonomics: IEA 2009 ; Beijing, August 9 - 14, 2009, Bejing: Chinese Ergonomics Society , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concern for mental overload from warnings has been considered over a longer period of time, even though; warnings continue to be added in vehicles. Both warnings and icons are being tested for understandability but perceptions of the importance of each specific warning and its placement in the driving compartment seems to have had lesser importance in research. Such as, too much visual information presented to the driver or confusing warnings has showed to cause overload and, hence, reduce the driver’s ability to perform safely. A dilemma the automobile industry is facing today is how to expand the ways visual information via warnings can be presented to the driver without increasing the cognitive workload, which, in turn, increases the risk for distraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of warnings placement on the drivers’ ability to respond to them while maintaining safe driving in normal driving conditions. Twenty respondents drove a fixed based high fidelity driving simulator though 15km of light to moderate traffic in both rural and urban areas while responding to warnings. Ten respondents received warnings in both the head-up display (HUD) and head-down display (HDD) simultaneously while the other respondents received the same ten warnings in one of the four displays: HUD, HDD, infotainment display (IF), and center-stack display (CS) in the same traffic situations but in only one of the four placements at a time. The respondents’ response times to the warnings (via focal vision), their gaze patterns, average speed, maneuverability, and their own subjective responses were measured. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the baseline and experimental runs due to the simple nature of the tasks while significant differences were found in the response times regarding the four placement design. Warnings for serious failures and those pertaining to the vehicles mechanical operation were preferred to be placed in the HUD while warnings for maintenance and service along with reminders were chosen to be placed in the HDD. Response times and driving was perceived to be better when using the HUD while the CS was considered too far away to be looked at for warnings.

  • 26. Tretten, Phillip
    et al.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Gärling, Anita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Where should driver information be placed?: a study on display layout2009In: 53rd Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, October 19-23, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Björklund, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Axelsson, Sarianne Wiklund
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    HealthCloud: promoting healthy living through co-design of user experiences in a digital service2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the interdisciplinary HealthCloud pre-study project was twofold: to further

    knowledge of user experiences of inclusive interface design specifically for an ageing

    population, and to develop a digital service for senior persons with sensory decline to promote

    healthy living and active ageing. A co-design approach was chosen to investigate the project

    aim and knowledge and user experiences was jointly developed and evaluated in three

    sequential steps in a participant-group of senior persons. In the design of the conceptual user

    interface, the identified core aspect involved a strive for utility: quality of appropriateness in

    use, and significance: how designs assume meaning in the ways they are used, as well as

    simplicity: to reduce, organize, and making it enjoyable to use. The digital service outcome

    consists of validation of previous research themes: keeping the family together; enjoying life

    at home; being close to nature; self-development; and promoting conditions for healthy

    ageing. The pre-study project outcomes are prototypes of digital health service content and

    interfaces, aimed for a future digital HealthCloud service. Participants in the reference-group

    found the developed interface easy to use regardless of previous computer skills and they

    were also motivated and stimulated by the developed prototypes for promoting active ageing

    on a daily basis. Participants also expressed a desire to display and recommend such digital

  • 28.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Grane, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Gustafsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Normark, Carl Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    AIM4S: Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety : Visuella representationer och gamification som verktyg för att minska arbetsplatsolyckor i gruvindustrin : slutrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redogör för förstudien AIM4S (Attitudes, Insights and Motivation for Safety). Studiens syfte och mål har varit att undersöka hur LKAB-anställda och entreprenörer uppfattar olika typer av nya visuella representationer av säkerhetsrutiner, som tagits fram av företagshälsan vid LKAB, samt att undersöka hur interaktiv träningsmiljö, som med hjälp av s.k. gamification, skulle kunna fungera som verktyg för att förmedla säkerhetsrutiner. Enkätsvar och intervjuer bland LKABs anställda och LKABs entreprenörer visar att det finns ett behov av visuella representationer i verksamheten som kan påminna och uppmana till ett säkert handlande. Det upplevs positivt att det påminns om säkerhet på flera sätt, hellre en gång för mycket än en gång för lite. Studien visar att många avställda ofta tummar på säkerhetsföreskrifterna av bekvämlighetsskäl, men många tror att de visuella representationerna till viss del kan bidra till att de påminns om rutinerna och om riskerna de utsätter sig för om de bryter mot reglerna – vilket också ökar motivationen att följa dem. Den faktor som flest av de tillfrågade anser vara den mest kritiska orsaken till varför det ibland slarvas med säkerhet är en brist på lättillgänglig säkerhetsutrustning. Om säkerhetsutrustningen inte finns nära till hands utför man det man upplever som mindre riskfyllda arbeten utan säkerhetsutrustning. Skälet uppges vara bekvämlighet snarare än tidspress. En osäkerhet för gällande rutiner finns hos de anställda. De efterfrågar material i form av checklistor eller träningsprogram att gå tillbaka till vid säkerhetsronder och upplärning av nyanställda. Bland de entreprenörer som deltagit i studien finns en önskan om mer kunskap om given arbetsplats och dess eventuella risker då de inte har samma kunskap om detta som LKABs anställda.Denna studie visar att bilder och filmer i verksamheten uppfattas positivt av anställda eller entreprenörer. Visuellt material anses förmedla information och regler på ett lättillgängligt sätt. Materialet fungerar både för inlärning, påminnelse, ökad riskmedvetenhet och ändrat handlande. Det är dock oklart huruvida bilderna och filmerna fyller sitt syfte med att sänka antalet arbetsplatsolyckor. Den visuella representationen som samtliga tillfrågade ansåg bidra mest till ett minskat risktagande var dokumentärfilmen, som genom att anspela på känslor, emotion, påverkade de anställda och entreprenörer. Dokumentärfilmen skapade en förståelse för hur lätt olyckor kan hända och gav en riskmedvetenhet som flera bar med sig under det egna arbetet. Tysta tavlor och tysta filmer ansågs bra för att ständigt påminna om rutiner. Samtliga personer som deltog i studien förhöll sig neutrala eller försiktigt positiva till en interaktiv träningsmiljö, dvs. gamification av säkerhetsföreskrifterna. De ansåg att det skulle kunna vara bra för inlärning av rutiner genom att bidra till ett mer aktivt tänkande. Aktiviteten fick dock inte bli för enkel och barnspelslik och de ingående exemplen kändes svåra att bedöma utan att ha testat dem. En prototyp av spelet skulle behövas för en bättre utvärdering av åsikter kring detta. Affischer med LKAB anställda ansågs trevliga. En del associerade affischerna med säkerhet på fritiden eller bibehållen hälsa medan de flesta hade svårt att se syftet. Konst på fasader upplevdes fint och önskvärt men ansågs inte bidra till att sätta säkerheten först.

  • 29.
    Öhrling, Therese
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Normark, Jörgen
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Wikberg-Nilsson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology.
    Norm creativity in student design projects: One approach to creating sustainable societies2018In: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education, E and PDE 2018 / [ed] E. Bohemia; A. Kovacevic; L. Buck; P. Childs; S. Green; A. Hall; A. Dasan, 2018, p. 344-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Engineers are capable of changing inequality through a design approach and design solutions. Therefore we as design teachers should consider it our responsibility to educate students to recognise inequality as a dimension of emphasising with potential future use and users. We believe that there is a current societal need for educating our design engineer students about such matters, in order to create more sustainable societies. Norm Creative Design is described as design approaches that include critical thinking of current use and users, with special emphasis on challenging current norms. Thereby, Norm Creative Design challenges current inequality to explore broader what-if scenarios for innovative solutions ranging from radical and critical designs to inclusive design solutions. This paper exemplifies how Norm Creative Design approaches are implemented in a course at Industrial Design Engineering [IDE] at Luleå University of Technology [LTU]. In design projects the students discuss how norms and examples of unawareness can exclude and discriminate people. The students are also provided with a number of design strategies for challenging norms which range from radical designs with a dual intent of thinking new and diverse, and stimulating discussions of ethics and discrimination, to inclusive design-for-all, including a diversity of people in the design solutions. The course outcomes includes students becoming broad need finders, and inclusive design thinkers, with skills in conceiving, designing, implementing and operating design based on a broad ethical and norm critical perspective. In our view, such skills should be part of teaching and learning activities in all design/engineering educations. 

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