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  • 1.
    Koch, Pierre-Henri
    et al.
    Université de Liège.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Pirard, Eric
    University of Liège.
    Textural Variants of Iron Ore from Malmberget: Characterisation, Comminution and Mineral Liberation2013In: Exploration, Resource & Mining Geology Conference 2013: Cardiff, United Kingdom, the 21 - 22 October / [ed] Claire Lockyer, Cardiff, Wales, UK: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Geometallurgy combines geology and mineralogy, processing techniques and metallurgy into spatially-based predictive model and is useful tool that can be used in production management of a mineral processing plant. This work presents characterisation of different textural variants of the breccia iron ore from Malmberget, Northern Sweden, an iron mine operated by Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB). Experimental work includes point load tests, compressive tests, and laboratory grinding and liberation measurements of the products. The motivation of this work is based on the need of the industry to predict the throughput, particle size distribution, modal mineralogy, mineral textures and specific energy of the material.Around Magnetite orebodies, a wide range of feldspar-rich iron ore breccia has been described and classified by Lund, Lamberg (2013a) into eight different classes according to their feldspar content. The two end-members exhibit, respectively, a high iron grade (low feldspar content) and low iron grade (high feldspar content). A definition for the micro texture (micro fabrics) used in this study has been developed by Lund, Lamberg and Lindberg (2013b): two sample are texturally different if their modally refined liberation distribution is different in a given particle size. The hypothesis of the study is that it should be possible to quantitatively describe the textures of Malmberget feldspar type with two textural archetypes: high-graded massive and low-graded disseminated. The sample used were named after the earlier classification from CF1 (low iron grade) to CF8 (high iron grade) and compared per class. After simple rock mechanics tests, the second step involved comminution with a jaw crusher with 5 mm opening followed by 20 minutes in a ball mill with 1L of water for 1.2 kg of material. The 53 to 75 µm size fraction was selected for further characterisation and liberation analysis with x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscope (SEM).The point load tests and compressive tests showed good agreement. When combined with specific gravity measurements, these properties allowed grouping of the eight classes into three clusters instead of the two end-members proposed initially. The jaw crusher and ball mill sieving curves further more supported this classification.The study with a SEM using INCA Mineral software and HSC Geo provided information on modal mineralogy, particles and degree of liberation in the 53 to 75 µm size fraction. Using these results, an association index (AI), describing how gangue minerals are associated with magnetite in the ore breccia, was calculated. Preliminary linear models predicting a relative work index for ball mill, the reduction ratio for jaw crusher and the degree of liberation of magnetite-based on modal mineralogy or mechanical properties were developed.While further work is required, this study shown the relevance and practical utility of the method used and indicates a relation between mechanical strength, iron ore grade, physical properties and textural information. The main hypothesis of two end-members had to be rejected and three classes were introduced instead, due to the large variability of breccia. Additional studies could include a higher number of samples, evaluate which mechanical tests are relevant in a context of geometallurgy, find a way to directly measure the AI and describe the effect of mixing different kinds of ore breccia before comminution in terms of particles, energy consumption and liberation

  • 2.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Mineralogical Mass Balancing of Industrial Circuits by Combining XRF and XRD Analyses2013In: Proceedings Conference in Minerals Engineering 2013 / [ed] Jan Rosenkranz; Tommy Karlkvist, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013, p. 105-116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineralogical information forms a vital basis for designing, diagnosing and optimizing mineral processing circuits. Often modal mineralogical mass balance (i.e. mass balance on mineral grades) is adequate; i.e. liberation data is not required. In analysing mineral grades in process samples automated mineralogy (SEM based image analysis) is mostly used. As this method is tedious, slow, and costly, and has some limitation, an alternative technique was developed by combining quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical assays by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). A case study on magnetic separation test is presented. Method has potential for an automatized off-line technique for providing mineralogical mass balance in majority of mineral processing plants.

  • 3.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Wanhainen, Christina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lund, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Minz, Friederike
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Building a Geometallurgical Model in Iron Ores using a Mineralogical Approach with Liberation Data2013In: Geomet13: The Second AusIMM International Geometallurgy Conference 2013 / [ed] Simon Dominy, Parkville, Victoria: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2013, p. 317-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A geometallurgical model is currently built in two different ways. The first and the most common way relies on geometallurgical testing, where a large number of samples are analysed for metallurgical response using small-scale laboratory tests, eg Davis tube testing. The second, mineralogical approach focuses on collecting mineralogical information over the orebody and building the metallurgical model based on mineralogy. At Luleå University of Technology,Sweden, the latter method has been adopted and taken further in four ongoing PhD studies. The geological model gives modal composition by the help of element-to-mineral conversion and Rietveld X-ray diffraction. Texturally, the orebody is divided into different archetypes, and liberation measurements for each of them are carried out in processing fineness using IncaMineral, a SEM-based technique. The grindability and liberation spectrum of any given geological unit (sample, ore block, domain) are extrapolated from the archetypes. The process model is taken into a liberation level by mass balancing selected metallurgical tests using the particle tracking technique. The approach is general and can be applied to any type of ores. Examples of ongoing studies on iron and massive sulfide ores are given.

  • 4.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Test Methods for Characterising Ore Comminution Behavior in Geometallurgy2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comminution test methods used within mineral processing have mainly been developed for selecting the most appropriate comminution technology for a given ore, designing a grinding circuit as well as sizing the equipment needed. Existing test methods usually require comparatively large sample amounts and are time-consuming to conduct. This makes comprehensive testing of ore comminution behavior – as required in the geometallurgical context – quite expensive. Currently the main interest in the conduct of comminution test lies in the determination of particle size reduction and related energy consumption by grindability test methods, which provide the necessary information about mill throughput. In this procedure mineral liberation is regarded as a fixed parameter due to missing this information in ore characterization as well as a lack of suitable comminution models. However, ignoring the connection between particle size and mineral liberation prevents the scheduling and controlling of the production process from being optimal.For these reasons new comminution tests need to be developed or alternatively the existing test methods need to be suited to geometallurgical testing where the aim is to map the variation of processing properties of an entire ore body. The objective of this research work is on the one hand to develop small-scale comminution test methods that allow linking comminution behavior and liberation characteristics to mineralogical parameters, and on the other hand establish a modeling framework including mineral liberation information.Within the first stage of the study the comminution of drill cores from Malmberget’s magnetite ore, classified by modal mineralogy and texture information, have been investigated. It was found that there is a direct correlation between the mechanical strength of the rock, as received from unconfined compressive or point load tests, and the crusher reduction ratio as a measure for crushability. However, a negative correlation was found between crushability and grindability for the same samples. The grindability showed inverse correlation with both magnetite grade and the magnetite’s mineral grain size. The preliminary conclusion is that modal mineralogy and micro-texture (grain size) can be used to quantitatively describe the ore comminution behavior although the applied fracture mechanism of the mill cannot be excluded.With crushed ore samples from Malmberget also grindability tests and mineral liberation analyses were conducted using laboratory tumbling mills of different size. Starting from the dimensions of the Bond ball mill a modified test method was developed where small size samples of approximately 220 g were pre-crushed and ground in a down-scaled one-stage grindability test. Down-scaling was done by keeping similar impact effects between the mills. Mill speed and grinding time were used for adjusting the number of fracture events in order to receive similar particle size distributions and specific grinding energy when decreasing mill size by the factor 1.63. A detailed description of the novel geometallurgical comminution test (GCT) is given.With respect to ore crushability and autogenous and semiautogenous grinding (AG/SAG) also drop weight tests were conducted. For a more accurate and precise measurement of the energy transferred to the sample a novel instrumented drop weight was used. Initial tests with fractions of drill cores and pre-crushed ore particles showed that the simple energy calculation based on potential energy needs to be corrected. For the future work these tests will be extended to other ore types in order to investigate the effects of mineralogy and to include mineral liberation in comminution models suitable for geometallurgy.

  • 5.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Comminution test method using small drill core samples2015In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 72, p. 129-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comminution tests aim to measure the comminution properties of ore samples to be used in designing and sizing the grinding circuit and to study the variation within an ore body. In the geometallurgy context this information is essential for creating a proper resource model for production planning and management and process control of the resource’s exploitation before and during production.Standard grindability tests require at least 10 kg of ore sample, which is quite a lot at early project stages. This paper deals with the development of a method for mapping the variability of comminution properties with very small sample amounts. The method uses a lab-scale jaw crusher, standard laboratory sieves and a small laboratory tumbling mill equipped with a gross energy measurement device. The method was evaluated against rock mechanics tests and standard Bond grindability test. Within this approach textural information from drill cores is used as a sample classification criterion.Experimental results show that a sample of approximate 220 g already provides relevant information about the grindability behavior of iron ores at 19% mill fillings and 91% fraction of the critical mill speed. The gross energy measured is then used to calculate an equivalent grinding energy. This equivalent energy is further used for predicting the variations in throughput for a given deposit and process.Liberation properties of the ore connected to grindability elaborates energy required for grinding and significances of it when deciding to move to higher grinding energy considering the improvement of liberation of the desired mineral. However, high energy significantly enhanced the degree of liberation of magnetite and is expected to improve the concentrate grade after downstream treatment. The higher the magnetite content the better is the liberability of magnetite and the lower the energy required to liberate the desired mineral. Liberability of magnetite is also affected by texture classes containing low magnetite content. A methodology that combines this information has been developed as a practical framework of geometallurgical modeling and simulation in order to manage technical and economic exploitation of resource at early, project stages and during mining operations.

  • 6.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Liberability: A new approach for measuring ore comminution behavior2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crushability and grindability are traditionally used to describe the material properties in comminution. These parameters neglect the main objective of ore comminution, the mineral liberation and therefore information is incomplete. A new concept called liberability: the easiness of mineral liberation in comminution is introduced to fill the gap. Establishing a liberability map of a deposit requires grindability tests and liberation measurements for the grinding product. The liberability curve shows the degree of liberation of the mineral against grinding energy and offers better baseline for resource optimization than the grindability curve. A case study with a magnetite iron ore from Malmberget, northern Sweden, shows that certain shortcuts can be applied to keep the experimental effort reasonable which is important, particularly when applying the liberability in a geometallurgical program. In Malmberget the liberability is depending on the grade and grain size of magnetite. A significant difference between grindability and liberability can be observed.

  • 7.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Parian, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Comminution modeling using mineralogical properties of iron ores2017In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 111, p. 182-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comminution modeling aims to predict the size and liberation distribution of mineral particles and the required comminution energy. The current state-of-the-art comminution models provide a calculation of neither particle size distribution, grinding energy and throughput dependency with neither a broad understanding of how the mineral grade varies by size nor the liberation distribution of the product. The underlying breakage mechanisms affect the liberation of mineral grains and are dependent on modal mineralogy and mineral texture (micro structure). It has also been a challenge to model comminution systems to predict the optimal energy and size for better mineral liberation because of the variability of the mineral particle properties i.e. grains arrangement and composition. A detailed mineralogical study was carried out in order to broaden the understanding of the nature and distribution of comminuted particles in a ball mill product. Focusing on iron ore samples the study showed how the particle breakage rate decreases when the particles reach the grain size of the main mineral component. Below that size, comminution does not increase mineral liberation and therefore in most of the cases passing over that boundary is only a waste of energy. The study involving iron ores from Malmberget and Kiruna, Northern Sweden, showed that certain shortcuts can be applied to empirically model the mineral liberation distribution of the particles in a ball mill based on the mineral grade-by-size pattern from a geometallurgical program. In Malmberget and Kiruna the mineral grade-by-size pattern is depending on the mineral distribution and grain size of gangue as well as magnetite or hematite minerals. A significant difference between mineral breakage of the same grade and gangue minerals can be observed due to texture differences.

  • 8.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    A Comminution Model for Linking Size Reduction with Energy and Mineral Liberation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally comminution models are used to predict size reduction and the energy required for that. For better control of energy and quality of concentrate grade in subsequent concentration processes also the liberation of the minerals has to be considered. Mechanical forces are used to break the bonds of the mineral matrix of composite particle into mineral phases.Mineral composition and texture (i.e. the grain size) have been used to predict the breakage properties of an ore but are not fully used to predict the liberation of mineral particles during comminution. For this purpose an integrated breakage model is needed that links the energy used to reduce the size of the mineral particles with the mineral liberation achieved during comminution. Such a liberation model for forecasting the degree of mineral liberation has to be based on mineral texture information.As a novel approach, a liberability curve for various mineral textures has been developed and used to optimize the particle size and energy required for ore comminution. Tests with iron ore samples from the Malmberget mine in Northern Sweden show that, liberation and breakage of the mineral particles are controlled by the grade distribution and grain size of magnetite.

  • 9.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Developing Ore Comminution Test Methods in the Geometallurgical Context2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comminution tests are necessary in order to investigate mineral liberation achieved during particle size reduction and the mechanical energy needed for that. Depending on the type of the comminution process and equipment respectively, various test methods have been established in the past. Most of these tests require comparatively large sample amounts and are also costly in terms of time.Within the geometallurgical approach comprehensive information about the ore’s processing properties is required for building a spatial geometallurgical model of a deposit. Comminution behavior has to be quantified when modeling mill capacity and liberation. Providing comminution test methods that are efficient in terms of sample utilization and effort is therefore an essential task.This paper summarizes several different approaches to quantifying ore comminution behavior in the geometallurgical context. The methods examined at Luleå University of Technology comprise linking crushing and grinding characteristics to mineralogical parameters as well as correlating them with geotechnical tests, the down-scaling of standard grindability tests, and the further development of drop weight test methods.

  • 10.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Development and experimental validation of the Geometallurgical Comminution Test (GCT)2017In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 108, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the requirements and available sample amounts in geometallurgical studies of ore variability, a small scale batch grindability test has been developed, the Geometallurgical Comminution Test (GCT). The test requires 220 g of sample material and can be conducted within 2.5–3 h. Test results are evaluated using a modified Bond equation together with a linear correlation factor. The test and evaluation method have been validated against several ore types.

  • 11.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Testing of Ore Comminution Behavior in the Geometallurgical Context: A Review2015In: Minerals, ISSN 2075-163X, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 276-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comminution tests are an important element in the proper design of orebeneficiation plants. In the past, test work has been conducted for particular representative reference samples. Within geometallurgy the entire ore body is explored in order to further identify the variation within the resource and to establish spatial geometallurgical domains that show the differential response to mineral processing. Setting up a geometallurgical program for an ore deposit requires extensive test work. Methods for testing the comminution behavior must therefore be more efficient in terms of time and cost but also with respect to sample requirements. The integration of the test method into the geometallurgical modeling framework is also important. This paper provides an overview of standard comminution test methods used for the investigation of ore comminution behavior and evaluates their applicability and potential in the geometallurgical context.

  • 12.
    Mwanga, Abdul
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Rosenkranz, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Lamberg, Pertti
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Koch, Pierre-Henri
    Université de Liège.
    Simplified Comminution Test Method for Studying Small Amounts of Ore Samples for Geometallurgical Purposes2013In: Exploration, Resource & Mining Geology Conference 2013 / [ed] Claire Lockyer, Cardiff, Wales, UK: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comminution tests aim at measuring the grindability of ore samples to be used in describing the variability within an orebody and designing the grinding circuit. Within the geometallurgical context this information is very important for creating a proper model for production planning,management and control of the resource’s exploitation before and during the production.Standard grindability tests require at least 2 kg of ore sample, which is quite a lot at early project stages and therefore often problematic. This presentation will deal with the development of a method for studying comminution behaviour of materials with very small sample amounts.The method uses a small laboratory tumbling mill equipped with a gross energy measurement device. The method evaluation comprises the correlation between rock mechanical testing and grindability test methods. Within this approach textural information from drill cores is used as a classification criterium.Experimental results show that a sample of approximately 350 g already provides relevant information about the grindability behaviour of iron ores in the range of 45 to 55 per cent solids, based on mill charge. The gross energy measured is then used to calculate an equivalent grinding energy. This equivalent energy is further used for predicting the variations in throughput for a given deposit and process.

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