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  • 1.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Falbygdens Energi AB.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI.
    Regulatory Aspects of Energy Storage in Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the possibilities and limitations of investing in energy storage for use at distribution level under the existing regulatory framework in Sweden. The paper further gives a brief overview of possible applications and ownership models for energy storage in a distribution grid. It was concluded that it is allowed for a network operator to own an energy-storage installation; there are however restrictions in the use of the installation for trade in electricity. A general observation from the study was that there are uncertainties in the interpretation of the laws and regulations due to the complete absence of experience in the use of grid-size energy storage.

  • 2. Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Chen, Y
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI AB.
    Risk analysis of alternatives to N-1 reserves in the network2013Inngår i: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, artikkel-id 280Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Cundeva, S
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Yang, Kai
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Considering the needs of the customer in the electricity network of the future2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the electric power system and the electricity network (power grid) is to supply electrical energy to the consumers. The interest of those consumers is in the price of electricity and in the performance of the delivery of the electrical energy. For the electricity producers, the aim of the grid is to enable the transport of electricity from them to the consumers. Also for the producers the importance is in costs and performance. Performance of the grid is typically divided into two parts: continuity of supply and voltage quality.The appearance of the smart grid, introduced as the use of new technology, methodology or market principles, to address new challenges, impacts continuity of supply and voltage quality. Such challenges include new types of production, new types of consumption, and electricity markets, but also increasing demands by customers on continuity of supply and voltage quality.This paper discusses a number of examples of new thinking for addressing the challenges that the power system has to cope with.An alternative approach for overload protection of subtransmission grids will be proposed, where the “smartness” is in the fact that the overload protection does not remove the overloaded component but the cause of the overload. Upon detection of an overload, the protection disconnects part or whole of curtailable customers to reduce the current through the lines to a level below the overload limit. As a result subtransmission lines can be operated without any reserve, so that more customers can be connected for the same costs while at the same time the continuity of supply for the non-curtailable customers is not impacted.The limits set to the hosting capacity by the risk of overvoltages due to distributed generation can be removed either by new technology (curtailment of production) or by allowing occasional overvoltages. An example will be provided to show the probability of an overvoltage occurring with a low-voltage customer when increasing amounts of wind power are connected to a medium-voltage feeder.An example of the measured emission from wind turbines will be presented. Allowing higher levels of non-characteristic harmonics is a possible alternative for strict emission limits on new installations.The provided examples of the use of new technology and/or new ways of thinking are part of the transition to the smart grid. Such new thinking in combination with new technology will be an important element in the transition to the future electricity network i.e. the “smart grid”. With any design or operation issue of the power system it remains important to always keep the main aims of the power system in mind: to maintain acceptable continuity of supply and voltage quality for all network users at a reasonable price.

  • 4.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI AB.
    Tjäder, J.
    STRI AB.
    Increasing hosting capacity through dynamic line rating: risk aspects2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of monitoring, control and communication technology makes it possible to estimate the ampacity of an overhead transmission line continuously. This allows the transport of substantially larger amounts of energy over that line that when a static ampacity value is used. It is shown in this paper that the use of such dynamic line rating allows more wind power to be connected to the grid, i.e. it results in an increase of the hosting capacity. For the numerical example presented in the paper, the hosting capacity is increase from 214 to 390 MW. There are different types of risk associated with the introduction of dynamic line rating, some of which are discussed in this paper. Two main types of risk are distinguished. Risks associated with possible overload of components, even when the ampacity is exactly known. Additional risks due to the difference between the actual and the estimated ampacity.The introduction of curtailment, in combination with dynamic line rating, makes it possible to manage the first type of risk. The risk of overload carried by all customers is replaced by the risk of temporality being disconnected for the wind-park owner. The latter is however also the stakeholder gaining most from the increase in hosting capacity.To reduce the second type of risk, several practical aspects need to be considered before implementing dynamic line rating, several of which are discussed in this paper.

  • 5.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Yang, Kai
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Chang, G. W
    National Chung Cheng University.
    Continuity of supply and voltage quality in the electricity network of the future2012Inngår i: 15th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, s. 375-377Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three examples of new thinking for addressing the challenges that the power system has to cope with. Such new thinking in combination with new technology will be an important element in the transition to the future electricity network (the —). With overload protection it is important to not remove the overloaded component but the cause of the overload so as to protect the other network users against an interruption. The limits set to the hosting capacity by potential overvoltages can be removed either by new technology (curtailment of production) or by allowing occasional overvoltages. Allowing higher levels of non-characteristic harmonics is a possible alternative for strict emission limits on new installations. In all cases it is essential that the interests of the network user are considered.

  • 6.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Mulenga, Enock
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Hosting Capacity of the Grid for Photovoltaic Installations: a Stochastic Approach Applied to Single-phase Connections2018Inngår i: 8th Solar Integration Workshop, 2018, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 6A_1_SIW18_046Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the voltage rise due to PV installations connected to a low-voltage network. The connection of individual installations is studies for both single-phase and three-phase connection. A stochastic method is presented to estimate the hosting capacity. This method is illustrated for random and coordinated connection of single-phase installations. It is shown, in a number of ways, that the installation of large (e.g. 6 kW) single-phase connected units can easily result in unacceptable overvoltages.

  • 7. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 8. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe2011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: International Electrotechnical Commission2009Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s leading organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.

  • 10. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: Substation Automation with IEC 618502011Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Increasing the hosting capacity of distributed energy resources using storage and communication2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops methods to increase the amount of renewable energy sources that can be integrated into a power grid. The assessed methods include i) dynamic real-time assessment to enable the grid to be operated closer to its design limits; ii) energy storage and iii) coordinated control of distributed production units. Power grids using such novel techniques are referred to as “Smart Grids”. Under favourable conditions the use of these techniques is an alternative to traditional grid planning like replacement of transformers or construction of a new power line. Distributed Energy Resources like wind and solar power will impact the performance of the grid and this sets a limit to the amount of such renewables that can be integrated. The work develops the hosting capacity concept as an objective metric to quantify the ability of a power grid to integrate new production. Several case studies are presented using actual hourly production and consumption data. It is shown how the different variability of renewables and consumption affect the hosting capacity. The hosting capacity method is extended to the application of storage and curtailment. The goal is to create greater comparability and transparency, thereby improving the factual base of discussions between grid operators, electricity producers and other stakeholders on the amount and type of production that can be connected to a grid.Energy storage allows the consumption and production of electricity to be decoupled. This in turn allows electricity to be produced as the wind blows and the sun shines while consumed when required. Yet storage is expensive and the research defines when storage offers unique benefits not possible to achieve by other means. Focus is on comparison of storage to conventional and novel methods.As the number of distributed energy resources increase, their electronic converters need to provide services that help to keep the grid operating within its design criteria. The use of functionality from IEC Smart Grid standards, mainly IEC 61850, to coordinate the control and operation of these resources is demonstrated in a Research, Development and Demonstration site. The site contains wind, solar power, and battery storage together with the communication and control equipment expected in the future grids.Together storage, new communication schemes and grid control strategies allow for increased amounts of renewables into existing power grids, without unacceptable effects on users and grid performance.

  • 12.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Increasing the hosting capacity of distributed energy resources using storage and communication2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electricity from Distributed Energy Resources like wind and solar powerwill impact the performance of the electricity network and this sets a limit to theamount of such renewables that can be connected. Investment in energy storage andcommunication technologies enables more renewables by operating the networkcloser to its limits. Electricity networks using such novel techniques are referred toas “Smart Grids”. Under favourable conditions the use of these techniques is analternative to traditional network planning like replacement of transformers orconstruction of new power line.The Hosting Capacity is an objective metric to determine the limit of an electricitynetwork to integrate new consumption or production. The goal is to create greatercomparability and transparency, thereby improving the factual base of discussionsbetween network operators and owners of Distributed Energy Resources on thequantity and type of generation that can be connected to a network. This thesisextends the Hosting Capacity method to the application of storage and curtailmentand develops additional metrics such as the Hosting Capacity Coefficient.The research shows how the different intermittency of renewables and consumptionaffect the Hosting Capacity. Several case studies using real production andconsumption measurements are presented. Focus is on how the permitted amountof renewables can be extended by means of storage, curtailment and advanceddistributed protection and control schemes.

  • 13. Etherden, Nicholas
    Project: KIC InnoEnergy within the European Institute of Innovation and Technology2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI AB.
    Bollen, Math
    STRI AB.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Falbygdens Energi AB.
    Technical dimensioning of an energy storage for a Swedish distribution company2013Inngår i: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, artikkel-id 315Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A grid-size energy-storage installation enables the removal of peak loads in the distribution system due to high amounts of wind production. In this paper the ability of a battery energy storage to increase the amount of wind power that can be connected to a distribution network is studied. It is found that about 40 % of overloading instances can be prevented with the storage. After this diminishing returns per unit of storage capacity occur and the overloading should instead be handled with curtailment. The extent to which the storage can minimise network losses was studied but the reduction in losses cannot compensate for the conversion losses in the storage installation.

  • 15.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Dimensioning of Energy Storage for Increased Integration of Wind Power2013Inngår i: 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society Generl Meeting (PES), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Dimensioning of energy storage for increased integration of wind power2013Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1949-3029, E-ISSN 1949-3037, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 546-553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage can potentially allow for more production from renewable resources into existing grids. A methodology to quantify grid limitations and dimension battery energy storage systems is presented in this paper. By use of grid consumption and production data, the hosting capacity methodology is developed as a general framework for storage dimensioning that can be applied by grid operators. The method is successfully applied to an existing subtransmission grid; actual hourly production and consumption data during a two-year period is used. The role of a storage system compared to other means to handle overloading is studied. It is found that about one third of overloading instances are suitable to handle with a battery energy storage system. After this, diminishing returns per unit of storage capacity are shown to occur.

  • 17.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Effect of large scale energy storage on CO2 emissions in Scandinavian peninsula2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Increasing the hosting capacity of distribution networks by curtailment of renewable energy resources2011Inngår i: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011; Trondheim; 19 June 2011 through 23 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies the hosting-capacity method to a realistic distribution system. Under given circumstances the hosting capacity for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) identifies the degree of DER in power grid that can be accepted without endangering the reliability or quality of power. In this case study two limits setting the hosting capacity were evaluated: overvoltage and overcurrent. Finally it is examined to what extent the hosting capacity can be increased with use of real-time information and calculation of dynamic performance indications that govern the hosting capacity. It is shown that there is significant potential for increasing the hosting capacity without having to build new lines

  • 19.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy: some illustrative case studies2012Inngår i: 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of curtailment to allowmore wind or solar power to be connected to a distributionnetwork when overcurrent or overvoltage set a limit. For fourcase studies, all based on measurements, the gain in producedenergy is calculated. It is shown that the curtailment method hasa large impact on this gain. The paper further discusses details ofthe curtailment algorithm and the communication needs as wellas some further applications of curtailment.

  • 20.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy: some illustrative case studies2014Inngår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 114, s. 39-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of curtailment to allow more wind or solar power to be connected to a distribution network when overcurrent or overvoltage set a limit. Four case studies, all based on measurements, are presented. In all cases the hosting capacity method is used to quantify the gain in produced energy for increased levels of distributed renewable energy resources. A distinction is made between “hard curtailment” where all production is disconnected when overcurrent and overvoltage limits are exceeded and “soft curtailment” where the amount of production to be disconnected is minimized. It is shown that the type of curtailment method used has a large impact on the amount of delivered energy to the grid. The paper further discusses details of the curtailment algorithm, alternatives to curtailment, the communication needs and risks associated with the use of curtailment

  • 21. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Project: SmartGrid Energilager2012Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Lösningar för optimerad reglering i realtid av distribuerad förnybar elproduktion, energilagring, samt styrbar last.

  • 22.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    The use of battery storage for increasing the hosting capacity of the grid for renewable electricity production2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a step-by-step systematic decision making process to define operant conditions and applications for which battery storage is an option for electrical power grids. The set of rules is based on a number of research studies performed by the authors focusing mainly on sub-transmission grids. Battery storage is expensive so the focus in this paper is on comparing storage with other ways of achieving the same increase in the hosting capacity (HC) of grid. The approach is to find niche applications for which battery storage has unique advantages i.e. it provides a unique alternative for grid operator planning, which is unachievable in other ways. The first step is to assess the grid’s capacity to host new loads or production. This constitutes a baseline for evaluation of improvements from storage. The next step is to define applications for battery energy storage. Integrating new loads/production without increasing the hosting capacity may result in reduced performance and ultimately loss of production or consumption. The cost and severity of exceeding the hosting capacity will also affect the type of solution required. After this define the conventional planning solutions that would be adopted without storage option available. Such measures may include upgrading of transformer or construction of new power line. Curtailment, tariff based incentives or contracted load shedding as well as techniques like dynamic line rating can also be included in the comparison at this stage. Based on assessments of these alternatives it is possible to compare increase in hosting capacity with and without storage as well as comparing gains with storage to what can be achieved with conventional grid planning options or other novel methods. It is also important to investigate the regulatory framework and constraints regarding ownership and operation of a battery energy storage. Should the grid operator own the battery storage? Or should the task be outsourced on a service contract or the service purchased in the market place? Storage capacity may only be utilized during certain periods. Can all or part of the storage capacity or the power electronic inverters perform additional functions and increase the return on investment for the installation? Regulatory aspects regarding the possibilities for different actors to pursue such additional income streams should be included in the assessment to correctly determine the return of investment of battery storage.The final step should include control algorithm development, tested in a flexible but realistic environment and should establish whether the system actually delivers the predicted outcomes when exposed to real-time data. This may require building a pilot installation as a research and development activity before commercial deployment.

  • 23.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI AB.
    Lennerhag, Oscar
    STRI AB.
    The transparent hosting-capacity approach – overview, applications and developments2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the hosting capacity approach and gives some recent developments: including uncertainty in location and size of production units; curtailment to connect more production than according to the initial hosting capacity. For both developments it is shown that the transparency of the approach still holds but also that the results may be strongly location dependent. It is however also shown that the hosting-capacity approach can be used to obtain rough estimations, rules-of-thumbs, and to make a first assessment in case more detailed studies are not possible for example because insufficient data is available.

  • 24.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundkvist, J.
    Quantification of ancillary services from a virtual power plant in an existing subtransmision network2013Inngår i: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE): 2013 4th IEEE/PES, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 1-5Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study of a virtual power plant (VPP) in central Sweden designed to provide ancillary services to a 50-kV distribution network. The VPP consists of a wind park, hydro plant and reservoir as well as solar PVs and battery energy storage. The 50-kV subtransmission network was modeled in order to evaluate the ancillary services that could be provided by coordinating existing distributed energy resources in the network. Simulations were performed using measured hourly variations in production and consumption at all network nodes. The studied ancillary services include both reactive and active power control. Contribution from the VPP is evaluated for balancing, to enable a producer to meet spot markets bids and avoid purchases of balancing power minimize peak load in order to reduce subscribed power and tariff to the regional 130-kV network decrease network losses the contribution from reactive power control using the power converters to reduce the reactive power flow to the overlying network. Quantification of the economic gains from each operation case is provided.

  • 25. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Project: Test bed – Energy supply for innovative mining from an environmental and energy perspective2014Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Gudmundsson, Michael
    STRI AB.
    Häger, Mats
    STRI AB.
    Stomberg, Henrik
    STRI AB.
    Experience from construction of a smart grid research, development and demonstration platform2011Inngår i: Proceedings of CIRED 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED - Congrès International des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experience from the construction of a Smart Grid Research, Development and Demonstration (RD2) platform. The first stage of the platform consists of a small solar, wind and fuel cell-plant with battery, super capacitor and hydrogen energy storage systems. Emphasis during the development of the platform has been on construction of an up-scalable control system and the AC/DC network infrastructure.

  • 27.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Fernandez, Josep Maria
    CINERGIA. Barcelona.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Converter induced resonances in microgrids due to high harmonic distortion2014Inngår i: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal (RE&PQJ), ISSN 2172-038X, E-ISSN 2172-038X, nr 12, artikkel-id 317Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the resonance introduced by adverse interaction of electronic converters. With the presence of multiple power-electronic converters, situations can occur where the harmonics are amplified due to the interaction between converters. An observation of undamped oscillation leading to instability in a microgrid is described. The term “converter induced resonances” is proposed to describe this phenomenon. The amount of distributed generation, active loads, FACTS and battery energy storage systems are expected to increase in future Smart Grids. All these resources will be interfaced with electronic converters. The potential impact of converter induced resonances in such grids is described. A coordinated design of the control systems of all converters is in practice not feasible. Each device will be independently tested to fulfil grid codes and have its own converter control implemented that can include functionality to modify voltage and /or current waveform.

  • 28.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Tiesmäki, Ville
    FINGRID Oyj.
    Kimsten, Gert
    Svenska Kraftnät.
    A practical approach to verification and maintenance procedures for IEC 61850 substations2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850 standard defines a large smorgasbord of different information models that can be used for safe commissioning and maintenance testing. These functionalities potentially allow for safe testing with the substation still in operation.Over the past two years the Finnish and Swedish TSOs have worked together with an independent test institute and consultancy company on a series of projects to explore the possibilities with IEC 61850 and to develop new commissioning and maintenance test procedures adapted to IEC 61850 systems. The first part of the project aimed to investigate procedures that could be used for site acceptance and maintenance testing. Based on available functionality in the standard an approach was envisioned for commissioning and maintenance. In practise few of the available test, simulation and blocking indications have been consistently implemented in the first generation of IEC 61850 devices. It was therefore necessary to move to a more interoperable (but not standardised) approach described in this paper.With the 2nd edition of the IEC 61850 standard there is a basis for more efficient and standardized testing methods. The finding from the project is that only a subset of the available possibilities for testing in the IEC 61850 standard are normally implemented. More consistent implementation and use of the test related functionality is required. To obtain this, utility and system integrator engineers need to get deeper involved in the definition, implementation, interpretation and use of the various test related information models and enter into active dialogue with the manufacturers of IEDs and test equipment.

  • 29.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 618502016Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 437-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the communication, information and functional requirements of Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). A conceptual formulation of the interoperability requirements is presented as well as a comparative study of their fulfillment by state-of-the-art communication techniques. VPP requirements are then mapped against services and information models of IEC 61850 and CIM power utility automation standards. Proposals are given for extensions of the IEC 61850 standard to enhance the interaction between VPP controller and the distributed energy resources. Finally the methodology and concepts are applied to a specific VPP consisting of hydro and wind plants, solar PV and storage facilities. Several applications to provide grid services from the proposed VPP in an existing 50 kV grid are covered. The implementation of the VPP communication and control architecture in the SCADA of demonstration plant is also presented.

  • 30.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Weingarten, L
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Physical-hybrid simulation for in-situ evaluation of energy storage system2012Inngår i: 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT Europe 2012: Berlin;14 October 2012 through17 October 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for testing of a grid-size battery energy storage system and its interaction with the grid. The method uses a real installation with relatively small storage capacity which is combined with a simulation model of the grid. The storage is cycled based on measurements from the potential grid location and desired application. A scaling factor is used to relate the physical installation capacity and power ratings with the grid-size storage in the simulation model. Such a hybrid method allows evaluating grid-size storage installations without disturbing the grid. The physical behavior of the battery and control algorithm can be evaluated under realistic conditions without the need to construct a full grid-size storage installation. An experiment is described in this paper were the method is applied to an actual grid and battery storage installation

  • 31.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Öhlen, Carl
    STRI AB.
    IEC 61850 – for much more than substations2010Inngår i: Revue E, ISSN 1377-7254, Vol. 126, nr 4-2010, s. 24-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    IEC61850 is a standardized concept for information handling and communication for power utility automation. It is NOT just another protocol. IEC 61850 is today being expanded to apply to many domains beyond the original scope of the substation. Figure 1 illustrates the Expansion of IEC 61850 world to both control centre communication and modelling of communication with renewable energy resources.

  • 32. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Öhlen, Carl
    STRI AB.
    IEC 61850 independent multivendor interoperability testing for Scandinavian utilities2008Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the IEC 61850 standard for power utility automation communication is to “provide a framework to achieve interoperability between the Intelligent Electronic Devices supplied from different suppliers” [1]. Many users expect conformance tested devices to be “plug and play” with no interoperability issues. Present experience however shows that conformance testing only reduces the number of interoperability issues and additional measures are needed to ensure cooperation of multi-vendor devices. This article is about key issues involved with creating a test facility for interoperability testing of IEC 61850 devices and systems involving different vendors. A testing strategy to ensure interoperability is presented.

  • 33.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Yiming, Wu
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Nordström, Lars
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Application of the IEC 61850-7-420 data model on a hybrid renewable energy system2011Inngår i: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011; Trondheim; 19 June 2011 through 23 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850 is the most promising standard for design of substation communication and automation systems. Recent revisions of the standard include support for modeling, and control of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). This paper presents an application of the IEC 61850-7-420 data model for DER in the implementation of a control and energy management system for a Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES). These systems are beginning to prove their usefulness in providing deployable electrical supply in locations where no such supply exists as well as for backup power or power quality related support functions. The motivation for applying the standard to the design process is twofold; to modularize the design according to an accepted international standard and to design for interoperability with other IEC 61850 enabled devices and SCADA systems

  • 34.
    Lu, Shengye
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Repo, Sami
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Tjäder, Jonas
    STRI AB, Ludvika.
    Kjellström, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universiet.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall AB.
    IEC 61850-based Communication and Aggregation Solution for Demand-Response Application2017Inngår i: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe: ISGT Europe 2016,  Ljubljana,  Slovenia,  9-12  October 2016, Piscataway, NJ, 2017, Vol. Part F126485, artikkel-id 7856283Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an IEC 61850 standard-based communication and aggregation solution for Demand-Response application, which allows end devices automatically detected, configured and integrated to the overlying Demand-Response system, thereby greatly increasing the integration efficiency, and making large scale of deployment feasible. This communication solution is dedicated to one community-wide Demand-Response application designed for a residential area near an industrial installation in Sweden. The community-wide Demand-Response application will be briefly explained in the paper, however, the main focus of this paper is the communication solution and IT system implementation for this application. The communication solution is realized by the unconventional use of IEC 61850 standard, and implemented in a hierarchical structure consisting of SCADA, communication gateway and low cost micro processor-based spatial heating controllers

  • 35.
    Mulenga, Enock
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. Vattenfall AB.
    Overvoltage due to single-phase and three-phase connected PV2019Inngår i: 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Madrid, 3-6 June 2019., CIRED - Congrès International des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution, 2019, s. 1-5, artikkel-id No 370Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the overvoltage caused by single and three-phase connected PV to a low-voltage distribution grid. Statistics are obtained based on source-impedance data for 40 000 customers. A stochastic approach is applied to a 28-customer low-voltage network and the probability of overvoltage is assessed. It is shown that the voltage rise due to single-phase connected PV is six times the rise for three-phase connected PV.To mitigate the overvoltage, grid-reinforcement, reactive power compensation, curtailment and coordinated connection of PV can be used. It is shown that reactive compensation is not effective in LV grids due to high R/X ratio. Coordinated connection helps in reducing the overvoltages caused by single-phase PV.Policy suggestions towards three-phase PV installations and coordinated single-phase PV connections are included in the paper.

  • 36.
    Mulenga, Enock
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. Vattenfall AB.
    The Role of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties in a Stochastic Hosting Capacity Approach for Solar PV2019Inngår i: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT), Bucharest: IEEE, 2019, s. 1-5, artikkel-id 133Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the terms aleatory and epistemic uncertainties for use in a stochastic hosting capacity method. The role these uncertainties play in the hosting capacity determination is illustrated. It is shown that distinction between aleatory (statistical) and epistemic (systematic) uncertainties is helpful to characterize the probability distributions correctly. For epistemic uncertainties, it is often challenging to obtain information on the probability distribution function. For aleatory uncertainties, a method for characterizing the probability distribution is presented. Aleatory uncertainties’ data measurements are used to obtain a distribution best-fit. The background voltage measurement for a customer in a low-voltage distribution network is used to illustrate the method. Values were obtained for the distribution functions of the three-phase voltages. The used distribution functions are found to influence the resulting hosting capacity. This entails that there is need for measurements and data collection. A research challenge remaining concerns the stochastic model of epistemic uncertainty.

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