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  • 1.
    Hagman, Olle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Project: Holonic Integration of Cognition, Communication and Control for a Wood Patching Robot2013Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fast visual recognition of Scots pine boards using template matching2015In: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, ISSN 0168-1699, E-ISSN 1872-7107, Vol. 118, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how the image processing technique known as template matching performs when used to recognize boards of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Recognition of boards enables tracking of individual boards through an industrial process, which is vital for process optimization.A dataset of 886 Scots pine board images were used as a database to match against. The proposed board recognition method was evaluated by rescanning 44 of the boards and matching these to the larger dataset. Three different template matching algorithms have been investigated while reducing the pixel densities of the board images (downsampling the images). Furthermore, the effect of variations in board length has been tested and the computational speed of the recognition with respect to the database size has been measured. Tests were conducted using the open source software package OpenCV due to its highly optimized code which is essential for applications with high production speed.The conducted tests resulted in recognition rates above 99% for board lengths down to 1 m and pixel densities down to 0.06 pixels/mm. This study concluded that template matching is a good choice for recognition of wooden board surfaces.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Recognition of Sawn Timber using Template Matching2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 4.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wood fingerprint recognition and detection of thin cracks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this thesis deals with recognition of wood fingerprints extracted from timber surfaces. It presents different methods to track sawn wood products through an industrial process using cameras. The possibility of identifying individual wood products comes from the biological variation of trees, where the genetic code, environment, and breakdown process means that every board has a unique appearance. Wood fingerprint recognition experiences many of the same challenges as found in human biometrics applications. 

    The vision for the future is to be able to utilize existing imaging sensors in the production line to track individual products through a disordered and diverging product flow. The flow speed in wood industries is usually very high, 2-15 meters per second, with a high degree of automation. Wood fingerprints combined with automated inspection makes it possible to tailor subsequent processing steps for each product and can be used to deliver customized products. Wood tracking can also give the machine operators vital feedback on the process parameters. 

    The motivation for recognition comes from the need for the wood industry to keep track of products without using invasive methods, such as bar code stickers or painted labels. In the project Hol-i-Wood Patching Robot, an automatic scanner- and robot system was developed. In this project, there was a wish to keep track of the shuttering panels that were going to be repaired by the automatic robots. 

    In this thesis, three different strategies to recognize previously scanned sawn wood products are presented. The first approach uses feature detectors to find matching features between two images. This approach proved to be robust, even when subjected to moderate geometric- and radiometric image distortions. The recognition accuracy reached 100% when using high quality scans of Scots pine boards that had more than 20 knots. 

    The second approach uses local knot neighborhood geometry to find point matches between images. The recognition accuracy reached above 99% when matching simulated Scots pine panels with realistically added noise to the knot positions, given the assumption that 85% of the knots could be detected.

    The third approach uses template matching to match a small part of a board against a large set of full-length boards. Cropping and heavy downsampling was implemented in this study. The intensity normalized algorithms using cross-correlation (CC-N) and correlation coefficient (CCF-N) obtained the highest recognition accuracy and had very similar overall performance. For instance, the matching accuracy for the CCF-N method reached above 99% for query images of length 1 m when the pixel density was above 0.08 pixels/mm.

    The last part of this thesis deals with the detection of thin cracks on oak flooring lamellae using ultrasound-excited thermography and machine learning. Today, many people manually grade and detect defects on wooden lamellae in the parquet flooring industry. The last appended paper investigates the possibility to use ensemble methods random forests and boosting to automate the process. When friction occurs in thin cracks they become warm and thus visible for a thermographic camera. Several image processing techniques were used to suppress noise and enhance likely cracks in the images. The best ensemble methods reached an average classification accuracy of 0.8, which was very close to the authors own manual attempt at separating the images (0.83).

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  • 5.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wood Fingerprints: Recognition of Sawn Wood Products2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with wood fingerprints and presents ways to track sawn wood products through an industrial process using cameras. The possibility to identify individual wood products comes from the biological variation of the trees, where the genetic code, environment and breakdown process creates a unique appearance for every board. This application has much of the same challenges as are found in human biometrics applications.The vision for the future is to be able to utilize existing imaging sensors in the production line to track individual products through a disordered and diverging product flow. The flow speed in wood industries is usually very high and with a high degree of automation. Wood fingerprints combined with automated inspection makes it possible to tailor subsequent processing steps for each product and can bring the operators vital feedback on process parameters.The motivation for this work comes from the wood industry wanting to keep track of products without invasive methods such as bar code stickers or painted labels. In the project Hol-i-Wood Patching Robot, an automatic scanner- and robot system is being developed, where there is a need to keep track of the shuttering panels that are going to be mended by several automatic robot systems. In this thesis, two different strategies to recognize previously scanned sawn wood products are presented. The first approach uses feature detectors to find matching features between two images. This approach proved to be robust even when subjected to moderate geometric- and radiometric image distortions. The recognition accuracy reached 100% when matching high quality scans of Scots pine boards that have more than 20 knots.The second approach uses local knot neighborhood geometry to find point matches between images. The recognition accuracy reached above 99% when matching simulated Scots pine panels with realistically added noise to the knot positions, whilst more than 85% of the knots were found.Both presented approaches proved to be viable options for recognition of sawn wood products. In order to improve the recognition methods further, a larger dataset needs to be acquired and a method to calibrate parameter settings needs to be developed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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    FULLTEXT02
  • 6.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Feature recognition and fingerprint sensing for guiding a wood patching robot2012In: World Conference on Timber Engineering: WCTE Auckland New Zealand 15-19 July 2012 / [ed] Pierre Quenneville, Auckland: New Zealand Timber Design Society , 2012, p. 724-733Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper includes a summary of a few commonly used object recognition techniques, as well as a sensitivity analysis of two feature point recognition methods. The robustness was analyzed by automatically trying to recognize 886 images of pine floorboards after applying different levels of distortions. Recognition was also tested on a subset of 5% of the boards which were both re-scanned using a line scan camera and photographed using a digital camera. Experiments showed that both the Block matching method and the SURF method are valid options for recognizing wood products covered with distinct features. The Block matching method outperformed the SURF method for small geometric distortions and moderate radiometric distortions. The SURF method, in its turn, performed better compared to the other method when faced with low resolution digital images.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Thurley, Matthew
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Recognition of boards using wood fingerprints based on a fusion of feature detection methods2015In: Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, ISSN 0168-1699, E-ISSN 1872-7107, Vol. 111, p. 164-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the possibility to automatically match and recognize individual Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) boards using a fusion of two feature detection methods. The first method denoted Block matching method, detects corners and matches square regions around these corners using a normalized Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) measure. The second method denoted the SURF (Speeded-Up Robust Features) matching method, matches SURF features between images (Bay et al., 2008). The fusion of the two feature detection methods improved the recognition rate of wooden floorboards substantially compared to the individual methods. Perfect matching accuracy was obtained for board pieces with more than 20 knots using high quality images. More than 90% matching accuracy was achieved for board pieces with more than 10 knots, using both high- and low quality images.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Johansson, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Thurley, Matthew
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Wood fingerprint recognition using knot neighborhood K-plet descriptors2015In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 7-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wood industry, there is a wish to recognize and track wood products through production chains. Traceability would facilitate improved process control and extraction of quality measures of various production steps. In this paper, a novel wood surface recognition system that uses scale and rotationally invariant feature descriptors called K-plets is described and evaluated. The idea behind these descriptors is to use information of how knots are positioned in relation to each other. The performance and robustness of the proposed system were tested on 212 wood panel images with varying levels of normally distributed errors applied to the knot positions. The results showed that the proposed method is able to successfully identify 99–100 % of all panel images with knot positional error levels that can be expected in practical applications

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Pahlberg, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Thurley, Matthew
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.
    Popovic, Djordje
    Jönköping University.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Crack detection in oak flooring lamellae using ultrasound-excited thermography2018In: Infrared physics & technology, ISSN 1350-4495, E-ISSN 1879-0275, Vol. 88, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, a large number of people are manually grading and detecting defects in wooden lamellae in the parquet flooring industry. This paper investigates the possibility of using the ensemble methods random forests and boosting to automatically detect cracks using ultrasound-excited thermography and a variety of predictor variables. When friction occurs in thin cracks, they become warm and thus visible to a thermographic camera. Several image processing techniques have been used to suppress the noise and enhance probable cracks in the images. The most successful predictor variables captured the upper part of the heat distribution, such as the maximum temperature, kurtosis and percentile values 92–100 of the edge pixels. The texture in the images was captured by Completed Local Binary Pattern histograms and cracks were also segmented by background suppression and thresholding.

    The classification accuracy was significantly improved from previous research through added image processing, introduction of more predictors, and by using automated machine learning. The best ensemble methods reach an average classification accuracy of 0.8, which is very close to the authors’ own manual attempt at separating the images (0.83).

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
1 - 9 of 9
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
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  • de-DE
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  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
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  • asciidoc
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