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  • 1. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal2013In: Proceedings of the STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2013, Detroit MI, USA., STLE , 2013, p. 125-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to measure the grease velocity profile in small seal-like geometries and the radial migration of contaminant particles is predicted. In the first part, the influence of shaft speed, grease type, and temperatures on the flow of lubricating greases in a narrow double restriction sealing pocket is evaluated. Such geometries can be found in, for example, labyrinth-type seals. In a wide pocket the velocity profile is one-dimensional and the Herschel-Bulkley model is used. In a narrow pocket, it is shown by the experimental results that the side walls have a significant influence on the grease flow, implying that the grease velocity profile is two-dimensional. In this area, a single empirical grease parameter for the rheology is sufficient to describe the velocity profile.In the second part, the radial migration of contaminant particles through the grease is evaluated. Centrifugal forces acting on a solid spherical particle are calculated from the grease velocity profile. Consequently, particles migrate to a larger radius and finally settle when the grease viscosity becomes large due to the low shear rate. This behavior is important for the sealing function of the grease in the pocket and relubrication

  • 2. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    The influence of speed, grease type, and temperature on radial contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal2011In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 867-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to measure the grease velocity profile in small seal-like geometries and the radial migration of contaminant particles is predicted. In the first part, the influence of shaft speed, grease type, and temperatures on the flow of lubricating greases in a narrow double restriction sealing pocket is evaluated. Such geometries can be found in, for example, labyrinth-type seals. In a wide pocket the velocity profile is one-dimensional and the Herschel-Bulkley model is used. In a narrow pocket, it is shown by the experimental results that the side walls have a significant influence on the grease flow, implying that the grease velocity profile is two-dimensional. In this area, a single empirical grease parameter for the rheology is sufficient to describe the velocity profile. In the second part, the radial migration of contaminant particles through the grease is evaluated. Centrifugal forces acting on a solid spherical particle are calculated from the grease velocity profile. Consequently, particles migrate to a larger radius and finally settle when the grease viscosity becomes large due to the low shear rate. This behavior is important for the sealing function of the grease in the pocket and relubrication.

  • 3.
    Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sealing improvements by grease selection in double lip seals and labyrinth seals2012In: 17th ISC: International Sealing Conference ; Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 13 - 14, 2012, Frankfurt am Main: Fachverband Fluidtechnik im VDMA e.V , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Particle image velocimetry in practice2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental fluid mechanics has for a long time been used to visualize flow phenomenon. An early pioneer was Ludwig Prandtl who used aluminum particles in water flumes to describe the flow in a qualitative manner. In line with the rapid development of Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, the need for new validation tools has increased. By combining Prandtls attempt to trace particles and contemporary tools in laser and computer technologies a quantitative non intruisiv whole field technique, so called Particle Image Velocity (PIV) has been developed. The PIV technique has been improved and grown in popularity through recent decades with the increase in computer capacity. This thesis describes three rather different areas of application of PIV measurements. In the first case PIV is used as pure measurement technology tool to describe the flow field inside an attraction channel in connection to fish migration. In the second case, PIV is applied as a validation tool for CFD calculations with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) including an extensive analysis of the results. Finally, a description of how PIV technique can be adopted to study the flow of complex fluids in small geometries by means of microscopy is given.The attraction channel is a U-shaped channel designed to facilitate salmonoid like fihes to migrate upstream to their spawning grounds. The attraction channel has a restriction in the downstream outlet that provides an acceleration of the attraction water up to 38% of the sourunding water velocity according to the PIV measurements. With PIV measurements it is also shown that the depth of displacement over the restriction is significant for how far downstream the acceleration is perceptible. CFD technology is constantly evolving and new methods will become the future standard in the industry. In the current situation Reynolds Avereaged Numerical Simulations (RANS) is the most used method in CFD. But development is approaching LES technology. This is, for instance, motivated by energy production units which has many applications with high turbulence and temperature fluctuations. In the current situation it is required to extend the service life of existing power plants. Therefore it is desirable to be able to estimate these fluctuations impact on thermal loads on the materials inside the plant, for example pipe walls. An LES approach is superior to applying to RANS since the large eddies are resolved. However, LES is still not mature enough to be used without validation in critical applications. Therefore, PIV has been used to create a validation database for a generic T-junction.Double Restriction Sealings (DRS) have been used in bearings and other lubricated applications since the 1940's. A DRS is intended to prevent contamination from entering and is therefore used to increase the life span of lubricated parts, i.e. hinder polutants to reach the rolling elements in bearings for example. Although it is widly applied little is known about the actual function and mechanism of the DRS. To learn more about the flow and particle tracks within a DRS, a new method to visualize and quantify grease flow within a DRS has been developed based upon micro PIV. The main result from this study is that it is possible to make quantititative measurement of the flow within a DRS.

  • 5.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    PIV in Practice2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental fluid mechanics has for a long time been used to visualize flow phenomenonqualitatively. Traditionally, visualization has been done with dye or tracer particle dueto their ability to follow the flow pattern well. One of the early pioneers in experimentalfluid mechanics was Ludwig Prandtl who used mica particles in water flumes to accuratelydescribe the flow around wing profiles. Due to Prandtl’s results in the early 20thcentury, some of the most important theories in aviation were founded. By combiningPrandtl’s attempt to trace particles, and contemporary laser and computer technologiesa quantitative non-intrusive whole field technique, so called Particle Image Velocimetry(PIV), has been developed. The PIV technique has through the advances in computerscience the recent decades, been improved significantly and has also grown in popularityamong the scientific- and technological community.This thesis describes implementation of PIV in several diverse research areas frommacro- to micro scale. First, it is described how PIV is used as a pure measurementtechnique to understand complex flow phenomena. The technique is demonstrated on asmall U-shaped channel designed to facilitate salmonoid like fishes upstream migrationto their spawning grounds. Second, PIV is used as a validation tool for ComputationalFluid Dynamics, CFD. In the current situation, CFD is undergoing a generation shiftfrom Reynolds Averaged Numerical Simulation, RANS, to Large Eddy Simulations, LES.This is for instance motivated by energy production units which has many applicationswith high turbulence and temperature fluctuations. Hence it is desirable to be able toestimate the impact on thermal loads on the materials inside the plant (e.g. the pipewalls). An LES approach is superior to applying to RANS since the large eddies areresolved. However, LES is still not mature enough to be used without validation incritical applications. Therefore, PIV has been used to create a validation database fora generic T-junction. Finally, a description of how PIV technique can be adopted tostudy the flow of complex fluids in small geometries by means of microscopy, is given andapplied on lubrication grease flow in labyrinth seals which have been used in bearingsand other lubricated applications since the 1940’s. The intention with labyrinth seals isto lubricate the bearing and prevent contamination from entering the rolling elements.Although it is widely applied, little is known about the actual function and mechanismof labyrinth seals. To learn more about the flow and particle migration within a sealgeometry, a new method to visualize and quantify grease flow within a labyrinth seal hasbeen developed based upon micro-PIV.

  • 6.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Lundström, Staffan
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Li, Jinxia
    A new method to visualize grease flow in a double restriction seal using microparticle image velocimetry2011In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 54, p. 784-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method to visualize and quantify grease flow in between two sealing lips or, in general, a double restriction seal is presented. Two setups were designed to mimic different types of seals; that is, a radial and an axial shaft seal. The flow of the grease inside and in between the sealing restrictions was measured using microparticle image velocimetry. The results show that grease flow due to a pressure difference mainly takes place close to the rotating shaft surface with an exponentially decaying velocity profile in the radial direction. Consequently, contaminants may be captured in the stationary grease at the outer radius, which explains the sealing function of the grease.

  • 7.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Visualisering och kvantifiering av fettströmning i lagertätningar med µPIV2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Lindmark, Elianne
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Flow characterization of an attraction channel as entrance to fishways2011In: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1290-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow field inside and downstream of an open channel placed near the surface of a free flow (such as the tail water of a turbine) is characterized in detail. The channel cross-section is U-shaped and in the downstream end is placed a ramp on the bottom which accelerates the flow passing through the channel. This flow is intended to catch the attention of fish and improve their entrance to fishways, which has also been successfully demonstrated in field tests.

  • 9.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Odemark, Y.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Angele, K.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Westin, J.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Alavyoon, F.
    Forsmarks kraftgrupp AB.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Termisk utmattning av T-koppling: en jämförelse mellan LES och PIV2009In: Svenska mekanikdagarna: Södertälje 2009, Stockholm: Svenska nationalkommittén för mekanik , 2009, p. 107-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Wassvik, Elianne
    Lundström, Staffan
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Helfältsmätning av strömning genom lockvattenanordning2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson; Elianne Wassvik, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 117-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Baart, Pieter
    µPIV measurement of grease velocity profiles in channels with two different types of flow restrictions2012In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 54, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling bearings and seals. In this paper the flow of lubricating grease passing restrictions is described. Such flow occurs in rolling bearings during relubrication events where the grease is flowing in the transverse (axial) direction through the bearing and is hindered by guide rings, flanges et cetera, as well as in seals where transverse flow occurs, for example during so-called breathing caused by temperature fluctuations in the bearing. This study uses a 2D flow model geometry consisting of a wide channel with rectangular cross-section and two different types of restrictions to measure the grease velocity vector field, using the method of Micro Particle Image Velocimetry. In the case of a single restriction, the horizontal distance required for the velocity profile to fully develop is approximately the same as the height of the channel. In the corner before and after the restriction, the velocities are very low and part of the grease is stationary. For the channel with two flow restrictions, this effect is even more pronounced in the “pocket” between the restrictions. Clearly, a large part of the grease is not moving. This condition particularly applies to the cases with a low-pressure drop and where high consistency grease is used. In practice this means that grease is not replaced in such “corners” and that some aged/contaminated grease will remain in seal pockets.

  • 12.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Lundström, Staffan
    Lugt, Piet
    Baart, Pieter
    Measurements of grease flow in channels with restrictions using μPIV2010In: 14th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: NORDTRIB 2010 : Storforsen, Sweden, June 8-11, 2010, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling element bearings, open gears etc. Better understanding of the flow properties of grease will contribute to understanding the lubrication mechanism in bearings and flow in lubrication systems. In an earlier paper Micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) techniques were used to study the flow in a rectangular channel. The present paper is an extension of this work where restrictions were applied in such a channel, which creates a much more complex velocity field. The grease is seeded with fluorescent particles, which are illuminated by a double-pulsed laser. The test geometries that are used in this study are a channel with one flat restriction and one with two flow restrictions in a similar channel. The stationary grease mass-flow and the two dimensional velocity fields have been monitored for different pressure drops. For the channel with one flat restriction, the flow was measured to be symmetric at the inlet and outlet, and the distance for the flow to fully develop is comparable with the height of the channel; Slow motion was followed near the step corner at the inlet. For the channel with two flow restrictions, the vector profiles show that the maximum velocity appears at the restrictions; In-between the two restrictions, a part of the grease is not moving. This particularly applies to cases with low-pressure drop and where high consistency grease was used.

  • 13. Lindmark, Elianne
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Increasing the attraction water velocity at fishway entrances: model and field experiments2008In: Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena (ISTP-19): Reykjavik, Iceland, August 17-21, 2008 / [ed] Sigurdur Brynjolfsson; Olafur Petur Palsson; Jong H. Kim, University of Iceland, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea trout (Salmo trutta) migrates upstream rivers they encounter obstructions such as hydropower plants. To increase the water velocity at the fish inlet of a fishway an attraction channel is used. The channel increases the velocity without using extra attraction water from the reservoir. Field experiments show that fish use the channel, and lab experiments show that the water velocity out of the channel is 38 % higher than the surrounding velocity and the increased velocity lasts for about 18 water depths down stream.

  • 14.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Rahkola, Mattias Brynjell
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Ljung, Anna-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Hellström, J. Gunnar I.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Evaluation of Guiding Device for Downstream Fish Migration with In-field Particle Tracking Velocimetry and CFD2015In: Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1735-3572, E-ISSN 1735-3645, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 579-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a fish guiding device located just upstream a hydropower plant is scrutinized. The device is designed to redirect surface orientated down-stream migrating fish (smolts) away from the turbines towards a spillway that act as a relatively safe fishway. Particles are added up-stream the device and the fraction particles going to the spillway is measured. A two-frame Particle Tracking Velocimetry algorithm is used to derive the velocity field of the water. The experimental results are compared to simulations with CFD. If the smolts move passively as the particles used in the study the guiding device works very well and some modifications may optimize its performance. In-field Particle Tracking Velocimetry is a suitable technique for the current case and the results compare well with numerical simulations.

  • 15.
    Odemark, Ylva
    et al.
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Angele, Kristian
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Westin, Johan
    Vattenfall Research & Development.
    Alavyoon, Farid
    Forsmarks kraftgrupp AB.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    High-cycle thermal fatigue in mixing tees: new large-eddy simulations validated against new data obtained by PIV in the Vattenfall experiment2009In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering - 2009: presented at 17th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, July 12 - 16, 2009, Brussels, Belgium, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2009, p. 775-785Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New data was obtained for a previously studied T-junction experimental setup [1] for a range of flow ratios between hot and cold flows in order to validate new Large Eddy Simulations (LES). The instantaneous velocity field downstream of the T-junction was measured with two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in several horizontal and vertical planes at the centre line downstream of the T-junction. The generated PIV database enables a thorough validation of CFD turbulence statistics. The turbulence statistics are shown to be well predicted despite the fact that the mesh in the LES is rather coarse. By usage of time resolved PIV the temporal evolution of the predominant low frequent large-scale structures, responsible for much of the mixing and the high amplitude temperature fluctuations on the walls, were captured. Those structures are, however, weaker in LES than in PIV, being in line with the fact that the wake region behind the penetrating vertical hot jet is underpredicted in LES. Tests regarding the influence of the LES-results to the shape of the inlet boundary conditions (developed or flat symmetric mean-velocity profiles) were carried out and the sensitivity in the results was shown to be small. Furthermore, the results show good agreement with the experimental data independent of the flow ratio between the hot and the cold flows.

  • 16. Wassvik, Elianne
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Gustavsson, Håkan
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Flow measurements of an attraction channel as entrance to fishways2007In: 6th International Symposium on Ecohydraulics, 2007-02-18 to 2007-02-23, Christchurch, New Zealand, Wellington: National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baart, Pieter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Understanding grease flow through optical visualizations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow dynamics of a lubrication mechanism is very complex, much due to the complex rheology and composition of the grease. In order to obtain an optimal lubrication, both the initial amount of grease and the position of the grease is highly important as too much grease will contribute to an increased friction, and grease in the wrong place will negatively affect the replenishment through oil bleeding. To understand the flow dynamics of grease hence is highly important for the understanding of the lubrication mechanism. Using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) we have in a series of studies investigated the dynamics of grease flow in 2D straight channels with- and without restrictions, and in a full 3D configuration comprising a double restriction seal geometry. Velocity profiles for greases of different thickness have been measured, showing the influence of the grease rheology on the grease flow behaviour. KEYWORDS: Lubricants:Greases, Lubricant Physical Analysis:Non-Newtonian Behavior, Lubricant Physical Analysis:Rheology.

  • 18.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baart, Pieter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    μPIV measurements of lubricating grease flow in channel with two types of restrictions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Grease flow modeling using micro particle image velocimetry2013In: Svenska mekanikdagar 2013, Lund: Lunds tekniska högskola , 2013, p. 106-Conference paper (Refereed)
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