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  • 1.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Applying the analytical lens of constructive alignment and conversational framework for course and e-learning platform development2013Inngår i: NOKOBIT - Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi 2013, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2013, s. 159-172Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of educational needs for offering a master’s degree program in Information Security both to campus and distance students is of extreme importance in order to improve curriculum design as well as e-learning platform. The case of an Internet Security course and e-learning platform were analyzed. The theoretical framework based on constructive alignment theory (Biggs, 1996) and conversational frame-work (Laurillard, 2002) has been used as an analytical lens to analyze the case and guide the ongoing research process for improvement in the courses as well as for the development and improvement of e-learning platform. It is proposed that in order to improve the quality of teaching and enhance the e-learning platform all the courses included in MSc program in Information Security should be developed systematically based on specific pedagogical principles. The systematic development approach will help the instructors to enhance understanding and provide guidelines to incorporate the mindset of construc-tive alignment. Information Security education benefits greatly from hands-on laboratory oriented exer-cises. Therefore, e-learning platform including InfoSec lab must be designed and developed based on pedagogical principles. In this way we can argue for the true benefits of the learning technology being developed for a specific purpose. Hence, learning technology is not considered as merely a knowledge-transmitting tool but viewed as an ensemble artifact. This article attempts to put forward a theoretical framework to provide pedagogical guidelines for alignment of courses and for the selection of suitable e-learning platform.

  • 2.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Design and Emergence of a Pedagogical Online InfoSec Laboratory as an Ensemble Artefact2016Inngår i: Journal of Information Systems Education, ISSN 1055-3096, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 17-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information security (InfoSec) education becomes increasingly important. Building hands-on capabilities to tackle challenges is a precondition to mitigate and eliminate cyber threats. Existing studies, however, show that the field lacks pedagogically founded information security laboratories that can be used flexibly to educate both on-campus and online learners. To address this issue, this paper reports on an online InfoSec laboratory. Development of the laboratory follows an action design research approach. For this purpose, initial design principles were used that are derived from the existing pedagogical theories such as Conversational Framework, Constructive Alignment, and Personalized System of Instruction, literature reviews and empirical data. Through iterative cycles of building, intervention, and evaluation of an InfoSec laboratory, and side-by-side critical reflections, this study refines the conceptual model of an online InfoSec laboratory and initial design principles and provides general guidelines on the process of establishing a pedagogically underpinned online InfoSec laboratory for hands-on exercises. This study contributes by serving two major purposes. First, this study proposes a conceptual model of an online InfoSec laboratory that comprises important entities: Laboratory Infrastructure, Exercise (document), Exercise Processing and Management Interface (EPI), and Concrete Exercise Interface. Secondly, the research proposes design principles for implementing a conceptual model of an online InfoSec laboratory in different educational contexts.

  • 3.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Designing the online educational information security laboratories2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance education and e-learning in the field of information security is gaining popularity. In the field of information security education, virtual labs have been suggested to facilitate hands-on learning in distance education. An internet-based information security lab is an artifact which involves a collection of systems and software used for teaching information security, and which is accessible through the Internet. This research is motivated from an on-going information security lab development initiative at Luleå University of Technology. A literature review on the online educational information security laboratories (InfoSec labs) in the academic literature was conducted. The current literature about online InfoSec labs still lacks well-specified pedagogical approaches and concrete design principles. It hinders the accumulation of technically and pedagogically rigorous knowledge for the implementation and use of online educational InfoSec labs. Moreover, the literature focused mainly on details of technical lab implementations whereas the pedagogical elements of the curriculum and rationale behind them were ignored. This leads to inadequate guidance about how the instructor and the learner can make use of the lab to pedagogically align the course objectives, teaching / learning activities and assessment methods.A theoretical framework comprising the Constructive alignment theory (Biggs 1996) and Conversational Framework (Laurillard 2002) was proposed to further guide the research process and analyze the case of an internet security course and e-learning platform. The framework suggested that the MSc program and individual courses in information security should be developed based on specific pedagogical principles in order to improve the quality of teaching and enhance the e-learning platform for flexible hands-on security education. Therefore, to design an online InfoSec lab to improve flexible hands-on education and security skills development in the courses; Action design research (ADR) was chosen as the whole approach to continue with this research project. The ultimate goal is to design an ensemble IT artifact as a result of emerging design, use, and refinement in context through continuous interaction between technology and organization during design process. This licentiate thesis is mainly focused on the 1st stage (Problem Formulation) of the ADR method where the trigger for the first stage is the problems perceived in the teaching of information security, i.e., how to improve students’ security knowledge, how to provide the students with flexible online educational information security lab.The review of prior research, observations, interviews with teachers and program management and reflection on pedagogical approaches lead to formalize five initial design principles (Contextualization, Collaboration, Flexibility, Cost-effectiveness and Scalability). These initial design principles have been derived keeping in view the requirements of an information security course in the degree program. A conceptual design for the information security course based on Personalized System Of Instruction (PSI) approach including online InfoSec lab design to promote student’s hands-on security knowledge level and to provide them flexibility to study at their desired speed has been proposed. The anatomy of design theory framework by Gregor & Jones (2007) is used for outlining a few first components of a design theory for an online-InfoSec-lab course. In its current form, this study makes a contribution to the literature by identifying and discussing about hitherto scattered research reports of educational online InfoSec labs in a common frame of reference, which will help other developers and researchers of information security pedagogy as an index of previous literature. The theoretical framework will be used to provide further guidelines to develop theory-ingrained artifact which will not only help to provide the necessary justification for elements of curriculum and the rationale behind its selection but also it will help to align the course objectives with teaching / learning activities in a specific teaching context for better hands-on education of information security. The initial design principles suggested in this study will provide help to start the next phase of ADR, Building, Intervention and Evaluation (BIE), which will support us to achieve a refined set of more concrete emergent design principles. The proposed conceptual design of online information security course will be implemented including development, implementation and use of online InfoSec lab. The future research will be focused on IT-dominant BIE (building, intervention and evaluation phases of the ADR method). Further research work after the licentiate phase will cover the rest of the phases of ADR.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Ensemble View on Designing Pedagogical Online Information Security Laboratories2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance education and e-learning in the field of information security is gaining popularity. An online information security programme is supposed to include plenty of hands-on exercises, but in most cases the lab experiments are unavailable to distance students that represent a challenge in online education. In information security education, virtual labs facilitate hands-on learning in distance education. An online information security lab is an artefact which involves a collection of systems and software used for teaching information security, and which is accessible through the Internet. However, the design, development and implementation of an online InfoSec lab has many challenges. This research is motivated from an on-going information security lab development initiative at Luleå University of Technology (LTU).Thus, the researcher focused on the question of how we can design a pedagogical online InfoSec lab which is flexible, usable and adapts to different educational contexts. The current literature about online InfoSec labs still lacks well-specified pedagogical approaches and concrete design principles. This hinders the accumulation of technical and pedagogical knowledge for the implementation and use of online educational InfoSec labs. Moreover, the literature focuses mainly on details of technical lab implementations, whereas the pedagogical elements of the curriculum and the rationale behind them were ignored. This leads to inadequate guidance about how the instructor and the learner can make use of the lab to pedagogically align the course objectives, teaching / learning activities and assessment methods. In order to design an online InfoSec lab to improve flexible hands-on education and security skills development the Action design research (ADR) approach was chosen. The ultimate goal is to design an ensemble IT artefact as a result of emerging design, use, and refinement in context through continuous interaction between technology and organization during the design process. Following the IT-dominant BIE process of ADR approach made it possible not only to develop the lab and instantiate it in different courses but also to formulate design principles and abstract the findings to a generalizable level. Furthermore, a framework for evaluation in design science research (FEDS) was adopted for evaluation purposes. The framework was used to conduct formative and summative evaluations. Feedback from all the stakeholders including teachers and students showed that the online InfoSec lab is a usable learning media for hands-on education from a distance.This research contributes by showing the design, development and implementation of an online InfoSec lab aimed at the improvement of hands-on education and evaluation of its use in context. Following technology as a development project perspective of an ensemble view, my research work at its current status contributes by serving two major purposes. First, this study proposed a conceptual design model of an online InfoSec lab comprising important building blocks or entities. The study conceptualizes the online InfoSec lab as an ensemble artefact. This study unfolded the black-box tools view of the lab so as to understand and explain the important building blocks (entities of the lab), and the interrelationships of the entities. This study provides conceptual clarity given the existing literature on online InfoSec labs, by recognizing the stakeholders and explaining their roles for each entity in the proposed conceptual model of an online InfoSec lab; this is a view which has not been recognized or discussed in similar earlier works. Second, the study suggests design principles for implementing a conceptual model of an online InfoSec lab in different educational contexts. The emerging design principles were shaped during this research work together with the other stakeholders. The design principles such as Contextualization based on programme goals, Contextualization based on course goals, Pedagogical alignment of lab activities, Flexible learning, Collaboration among lab stakeholders, Scalability, User friendly interface with properly arranged resources and targets and Isolate the InfoSec lab incorporate the socio-technical perspective, which ensures that the resulting artefact developed using these principles should be an ensemble artefact. The design principles can provide support to practically construct, implement and test the online InfoSec lab. The study introduced a productive learning media (InfoSec lab) that is designed to meet the active learning preferences of distance learners of information security, such as support for flexible and individualized hands-on learning. Practitioners wishing to include lab activities in their courses and programmes can utilize this knowledge to understand fully how much human and technical resources are needed to design the lab and conduct exercises.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thapa, Devinder
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Design Principles for online Information Security laboratory2014Inngår i: Selected Papers of the Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia, 2014, s. 65-79Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we reported an online InfoSec Lab based on initial design principles derived from kernel theories such as Conversational Framework (CF), Constructive Alignment (CA), and Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The overall research was conducted using the action design research approach. In doing so, the iterative cycles and critical reflections during the process helped to refine a set of existing design principles. The study contributes to the IS community by providing design principles for an online InfoSec Lab that utilizes state-of-the art technology for mixed classrooms.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Booth, Todd
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards personalized system of instruction for educational online information security lab exercises: research-in-progress2012Inngår i: Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi: NOKOBIT 2012 / [ed] Terje Fallmyr, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2012, s. 133-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Security education benefits greatly from hands-on laboratory oriented exercises. Campus students often have access to security lab equipment. However, remote students, who never visit the campus, often have no laboratory access at all. While previous literature describing designs for information security laboratories are seldom based on specified pedagogical approaches or systematic design theories, this paper contributes by outlining a design theory of online InfoSec labs based on the “Personalized system of instruction” (PSI). We also illustrate the PSI-oriented approach to on-line information security education with help of design suggestions and general level evaluation measures.

  • 7.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Booth, Todd
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards personalized system of instruction for educational online information security lab exercises: research-in-progress2012Inngår i: Norsk konferanse for organisasjoners bruk av informasjonsteknologi: NOKOBIT 2012 / [ed] Terje Fallmyr, Trondheim: Tapir Akademisk Forlag, 2012, s. 133-144Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Security education benefits greatly from hands-on laboratory oriented exercises. Campus students often have access to security lab equipment. However, remote students, who never visit the campus, often have no laboratory access at all. While previous literature describing designs for information security laboratories are seldom based on specified pedagogical approaches or systematic design theories, this paper contributes by outlining a design theory of online InfoSec labs based on the “Personalized system of instruction” (PSI). We also illustrate the PSI-oriented approach to on-line information security education with help of design suggestions and general level evaluation measures.

  • 8.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards a design theory for educational on-line information security laboratories2012Inngår i: Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2012: 11th International Conference, Sinaia, Romania, September 2-4, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Elvira Popescu; Qing Li; Ralf Klamma; Howard Leung; Marcus Specht, Heidelberg: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2012, s. 295-306Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Online learning for educating information security professionals has increased in popularity. The security curriculum and technology, as well as hands-on laboratory experiences implemented in information security labs, are important elements in an online education system for information security. We drew our motivation from an on-going information security lab development initiative in our own institution, and this paper aims to provide an integrated overview on reported instances of online hands-on education in information security. Our review contributes to the existing knowledge by using the anatomy of design theory framework as a basis for literature analysis, as this provides a common basis to examine theories about human-created information technology artifacts such as information security labs and how such knowledge has been communicated to academia. Our results show that none of the articles studied here puts forward a well-grounded and tested design theory for on-line information security laboratories. This hinders accumulation of knowledge in this area and makes it difficult for others to observe, test and adapt clear design principles for security laboratories and exercises.

  • 9.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thapa, Devinder
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Initial design principles for an educational, on-line information security laboratory2013Inngår i: Advances in web-based learning ICWL 2013: 12th International Conference, Kenting, Taiwan, October 6-9, 2013, Proceedings / [ed] Jhing-Fa Wang; Rynson Lau, Heidelberg: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2013, s. 89-100Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    E-Learning systems should be based on systematic pedagogical approaches and well-designed procedures and techniques. However, current literature on several areas of technology-enhanced learning environments, such as online information security (InfoSec) laboratories, may still lack well-specified pedagogical approaches and concrete design principles. In information security education, hands-on lab exercises play a major role in learning. Distance education brings in new challenges as the hands-on exercises require now virtual labs, which need to be accessible anywhere and often also anytime. This creates technological and pedagogical challenges, which are not fully understood in terms of explicit design principles that would enhance implementation and use of on-line educational labs. To contribute to this knowledge gap the paper based on the interviews, observations, and literature review formulates and describes five initial design principles: contextualization, collaboration, flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and scalability. The initial concretization of the principles adopts the pedagogical approach of Personalized System of Instruction (PSI), which is deemed to represent a good fit to the contextual goals for developing on-line security labs in the context of the target university. Further research for actual design of virtual InfoSec labs, adopting the action design-based research tradition to develop learning environments, is needed in order to concretize, to test and to elaborate these design principles.

  • 10.
    Iqbal, Sarfraz
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Thapa, Devinder
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Awad, Ali Ismail
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Päivärinta, Tero
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Conceptual Model of Online Pedagogical Information Security Laboratory: Toward an Ensemble Artifact2015Inngår i: 2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2015): Hawaii, USA, 5-8 January 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 43-52, artikkel-id 7069664Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Distance education in information security has unique requirements in comparison to on-campus education. For instance, an online InfoSec lab is required to provide hands-on education to distance students while development and operation of a lab is a non-trivial problem. There is a need to understand the nature of the online InfoSec labs as ensemble artifacts, and just a black-box tool’s view is not enough. This article suggests a conceptual model to explain the ensemble view of the online InfoSec lab. In doing so, the paper makes two specific contributions: First, it conceptualizes the online Information Security (InfoSec) lab as an ensemble artifact so that we can unfold the black-box view of an InfoSec lab and understand the important building blocks (entities of the lab) and their interrelationships. Second, it suggests design principles to implement the conceptual model of an InfoSec lab.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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