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  • 1.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Experts Proposals and Ideas on Mosul Dam2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 79-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During and after the construction of Mosul Dam, in Iraq, all the studies expressed a clear concern on the fact that the region of the dam suffers from extensive presence of soluble rock formations that might undermine the safety of the dam with its large reservoir. Most of the studies dealt with foundation treatment and safety hazards due to the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite. To overcome the problem, grouting operations were performed. The seepage of water continued and this highlighted the possibility of the dam failure. Different grouting techniques and methods were suggested but the results were the same. Finally, it was decided to limit the maximum operation water level to EL. 319 m (a.s.l.) instead of EL.330 m (a.s.l.). This recommendation has remained in force up to now with the loss of sizable storage of irrigation water and power potential

  • 2.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: Foundation Treatment during Construction2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 59-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam was constructed on the beds of Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene). The beds of the formation are about 250 m thick composed of Marls, chalky limestone; gypsum, anhydrite, and limestone form a layered sequence. They are highly karstified. As a consequence, plenty of grouting operations were carried out to fill all the cavities, fractures, joints and to stop the seepage under the foundation of the dam. The main grouting operations were Blanket grouting and deep grout curtain. It was necessary to perform an extensive maintenance program to control the seepage process within the grouted zone to stop dissolution of gypsum and protect the safety of the dam.

  • 3.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Maintenance Grouting2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 71-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite at the foundation of Mosul Dam continued after its construction since 1986 onwards. After impounding, acceptable residual permeability could not be reached and new areas of high grout takes appeared in some other locations. New grout mixes were tested and even methods of delivering and injecting large grout quantities were developed. Sandy mixes were developed by adding certain weight of sand to the cement mix. In addition, pouring gravel after completion of grouting in large takes' zones was performed. As a result of gravel addition, it was concluded that it was not effective and very difficult to pour. Massive grouting was used where bentonite was added to the mix. Piezometric observation was used for checking the conditions of the grout curtain and the detection of problematic areas where additional treatment was required. Massive grouting, however, did not stop the dissolution processes altogether and it seems that it is not likely to do so in the future. The continuation of this program year after year does not preclude some bad implications. More research work is required to improve massive grout durability by adding chemicals which may interact with gypsum beds and hinder dissolution. This can help to improve gypsum resistance and increase its stability. Mathematical models might also be used to understand the mechanism of cavities formation and collapsing.

  • 4.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    et al.
    LTU team.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: Problems Encountered During and after Impounding the Reservoir2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 47-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam was built on the River Tigris northern part of Iraq during the period 25th January, 1981 and finished on 24th July, 1986. The foundation of the dam lies on the Fatha Formation. This formation is composed of alternating beds of marls, limestone, gypsum and clay. The beds of this formation are highly karstified. After impounding, several sinkholes developed within the vicinity of the dam site. The surface expression of the sinkholes suggests that they are caused by underground collapse.The appearance of the downstream sinkholes is most likely related to fluctuations in the tail water level of the main dam during operation of the dam and the downstream regulating reservoir. In addition, water seepage also was noticed in various areas indicating the dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite from the foundation. During the period February-August, 1986 the dissolution intensity ranged from 42 to 80 t /day.

  • 5.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Dam Failure and its Consequences2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 95-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Worries concerning the possibility of the dam failure due to the seepages under the foundation of Mosul Dam during its construction and operation phases enhanced the application of several dam failure models on Mosul Dam case. All the applied models gave similar results. It was noticed through the models that the wave in case of the dam failure will have a height of 54m and the discharge will be of the order of 551000 m3/sec. This wave will reach the capital city of Iraq “Baghdad” after about 38 hours. The discharge of the River Tigris at Baghdad will be 46000m3/sec and the height of the wave will reach 4m. The propagation of the wave along this distance will cause a catastrophe. About 500000 civilians will die in addition to the unbelievable damage that will be caused to the infrastructure of the country.

  • 6.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the Most Dangerous Dam in the World: Karstification and Sinkholes2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 33-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Fatha (ex-Lower Fars) Formation (Middle Miocene) is the predominant stratigraphic unit in the Mosul Dam area. It is about 250 meters thick near Mosul. Marls, chalky limestone, gypsum, anhydrite, and limestone form a layered sequence of rocks under the foundation of the dam. The foundation of the dam is mainly resting on the Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene) which is highly karstified. Karstic limestone and the development of solution cavities within the gypsum and anhydrite layers are the main geological features under the foundation of the dam. The right (west) abutment is located in the steeply dipping Fatha Formation within Butmah East anticline with SE plunge being in the reservoir north of the dam, whereas the left (east) abutment is located on gently dipping beds of the Fatha Formation, which is overlain by fine clastics of the Injana Formation. These differences in lithology as well the dip amount and direction along both abutments as well upstream and downstream of the dam have certainly affected on the hydraulic pressure and increased the dissolution ability of the gypsum and limestone beds, along the abutments and the foundations, which are already karstified in nearby areas. Consequently, more gypsum, anhydrite and limestone beds are dissolved and karst openings are continuously increasing, as the exerted hydraulic pressure is continuous.First appearance of sinkholes on the right bank down-stream was not until approximately six years after the filling of the reservoir began. The surface expression of the sinkholes suggests that they are caused by an under-ground collapse. Concentric tension cracks appear to have developed around the central void as the sinkholes have developed progressively. Karstification and formation of sinkholes are the most dangerous features threatening the safety of Mosul dam.

  • 7.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa E
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Nature of the Distributed of the Bed Sediment within Mosul Dam Reservoir, Iraq2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq. It was constructed in 1986 on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq. The initial storage capacity and water surface area of its reservoir reaches 11.11 km3 and 380 km2 respectively at the maximum operation level 330 m a.s.l. The dam was operated in 1986. A total of 56 samples were collected from the bottom of Mosul reservoir covering most of the reservoir area. The results of the analysis of these samples revealed that they were composed of gravel (3.8%), sand (15%), silt (55.5%) and clay (25.7%). The distribution of these sediments indicates that the silt portion represents the highest followed by clay and then sand. However, sand percentages are the highest in the northern zone of the reservoir where the River Tigris enters the reservoir and decreases gradually toward the dam site. In the meantime, silt percentage decreases toward the dam site while the finer fraction (i.e. clay) increases.

  • 8.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa E
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwani, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education, KRG.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sedimentation in the Mosul reservoir of northern Iraq2013Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq. It was constructed in 1986 on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq for multiple purposes: irrigation, flood control and power generation. The initial storage capacity and water surface area of its reservoir reaches 11.11 km3 and 380 km2 respectively at the maximum operation level 330 m a.s.l. The dam was operated in 1986. Blockage of the intakes of the pump station for North Al-Jazira Irrigation Project in Mosul Dam reservoir has highlighted the importance of sedimentation problems within the reservoir. A total of 56 samples were collected from the bottom of Mosul reservoir covering most of the reservoir area. The results of the analysis of these samples revealed that they were composed of gravel (3.8%), sand (15%), silt (55.5%) and clay (25.7%). The distribution of these sediments indicates that the silt portion represents the highest 77% of the bottom sediments of this reservoir followed by clay (13.5%) and then sand (9.5%). However, sand percentages are the highest in the northern zone of the reservoir where the River Tigris enters the reservoir and decreases gradually toward the dam site. In the meantime, silt percentage decreases toward the dam site while the finer fraction (i.e. clay) increases. Statistically, the average median and mean sizes of the sediments are 2.81 phi (0.142 mm) and 6.1 phi (0.0146 mm) respectively. In addition, the sediments are poorly sorted, nearly symmetrical in skewness and leptokurtic, very leptokurtic, to mesocratic. Finally, it is believed that the geometry and hydrodynamics of the Mosul reservoir, the location of the River Tigris entrance together with the side tributary valleys have played the most important role in the sediments distribution and their characteristics.

  • 9.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: The project2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 15-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam is an earthfill multipurpose dam. It is located on the River Tigris in northwestern Iraq. The dam is 3.65 km long and its crest elevation is at 341 m above sea level. The storage capacity at normal operation level (330 m above sea level) is 11.11km3. The work to build the dam started on 25thJanuary, 1981 and finished on 24thJuly, 1986. The total cost of the development was estimated at 2.6 billion US$.The foundation of the dam lies on the Fatha Formation. This formation is composed of alternating beds of marls, limestone, gypsum and claystone. It is highly karstified, which has which created a lot of problems during the construction, impounding and operation phases.

  • 10.
    Elias, Issa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Area-Storage Capacity curves for Mosul Dam, Iraq Using Empirical and Semi-Empirical Approaches2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The storage capacity of reservoirs is gradually depleted due to sediment accumulation that causes changes in the area-storage capacity curves (ASC). These curves are important for planners, designers and operators of dams. Many empirical and semi-empirical approaches have been suggested for establishing and predicting these curves. In this study four empirical and semi-empirical methods were evaluated and used to determine the ASC curves for Mosul dam reservoir (MDR), which is the biggest hydraulic structure on the River Tigris in northern Iraq. MDR started operating in 1986 with a storage capacity of 11.11 km3 and a water surface area 380 km2 at normal operation stage (330 m a.s.l.). The results obtained from these methods were evaluated using observed bathymetric survey data that had been collected in 2011 after 25 years of the operation of the dam. The evaluation results showed three methods presented more accurate results for estimating water depth or sedimentation depth at dam site with percentage error about 1.06% to 3.295%.

  • 11.
    Elias, Issa
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi. Department of Dams and Water Resources Engineering, University of Mosul, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwany, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Kurdistan Region.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Evaluation and modification of some empirical and semi-empirical approaches for prediction of area-storage capacity curves in reservoirs of dams2017Inngår i: International Journal of Sediment Research, ISSN 1001-6279, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 127-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The storage capacity of reservoirs is gradually reduced due to sediment accumulation that causes changes in the area-storage capacity (ASC) curves. Establishing these curves and predicting their future change is an important issue for planners, designers and operators of dams. Many empirical and semi-empirical approaches have been suggested for establishing and predicting the future changes for these curves. In this study four empirical and semi-empirical methods were evaluated and three of them were modified to be used for the prediction of changes in the ASC curves due to sedimentation, based on the existing sedimentation survey data for 11 reservoirs in the USA. For evaluation, these approaches were reviewed and used to determine sedimentation depth and establishing the ASC curves for the Mosul dam reservoir (MDR), which is the biggest hydraulic structure on the River Tigris in northern Iraq. MDR started operating in 1986 with a storage capacity of 11.11 km3 and a water surface area 380 km2 at normal operation stage (330 m a.s.l.). The results obtained from these methods were evaluated using observed bathymetric survey data that had been collected in 2011 after 25 years of the operation of the dam. The evaluation results showed three methods had presented more accurate results for estimating water depth or sedimentation depth at dam site with percentage error about 1.06–3.30%. Whilst for establishing ASC curves, one method presented good agreement result with survey data. Furthermore, ASC and sedimentation depths at dam site of MDR for periods 50, 75, 100 and 125 years were estimated using the modified approaches and the area reduction method. The results of the modified methods provided reasonable agreement when compared with the area reduction method proposed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the agreement became better with an increase in time period.

  • 12.
    Issa, Issa E
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sedimentological and Hydrological Investigation of Mosul Dam Reservoir2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoir sedimentation is the main problem that directly affects the performance of dams due to the reduction in the storage capacity of their reservoirs. Monitoring the storage capacity of reservoirs is an important issue for the planners, designers and operators of the dams. Iraq mainly depends on the rivers Tigris and Euphrates for its water resources. Until the 1970s, Iraq was regarded as a rich country with regard to its water resources, due to the presence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Recently, its water resources have decreased significantly due to an increased water demand and global climate changes. In view of this situation, it became necessary to know about Iraq’s water resource trends to adopt prudent water resource management strategies. Among these strategies is the assessment of the sedimentation rates in its reservoirs to determine their actual storage capacities and reduction rates of storage capacity through time. Mosul Dam Reservoir (MDR) is the biggest and one of the most important strategic projects in Iraq. It is a multipurpose project constructed to store water and to handle flood control and hydropower generation but the main purpose was to provide water for three irrigation projects that cover 2,500 km2 of agricultural areas. The dam is located on the River Tigris in northern Iraq, 60 km north-west of the city of Mosul. The project was designed to store 11.11 km3 with water surface area of about 380 km2 at the maximum operation level 330 m a.s.l. It is noteworthy to mention that MDR has operated since 1986, and no detailed studies have been carried out to determine the sedimentation characteristics in its reservoir since that time. In the present work, the storage capacity, sedimentation rates, area-storage capacity (ASC) curves, sediment nature and their grain size distribution and bottom morphology of its reservoir were studied. Direct and indirect methods were used to achieve these goals. In the direct methods, two topographic maps for MDR’s area were established in a triangular irregular network (TIN) format using Arc/GIS software. One of them before dam construction from pre-construction topographic map scale 1:50000 and other from bathymetric survey that was conducted in 2011. These maps were used; to calculate the volume of deposited sediment, to develop and evaluate ASC curves, to determine the bed morphology and to estimate the useful life of MDR. The results of the two surveys indicated that 1.143 km3 of sediment were deposited in MDR during the 25 years of its operation. This implies that the reduction in its original storage capacity was 10.29% with an annual reduction rate of 0.441% which is less than the sedimentation rates in the worldwide and Middle East. Furthermore, the results showed that 0.563 km3 and 0.58 km3 of sediment were deposited in live storage and dead storage zones respectively. This indicates that the live and dead storage zones lost 6.9% and 19.66% of their storage capacity till 2011 respectively. According to these results, MDR’s useful life will be about 127 years or 121.5 years based on the depletion of its dead storage or 50% of its maximum storage capacity respectively. Likewise, the survey suggested new ASC curves for MDR. Comparison of the two TIN maps showed most of the sediment was deposited in the upper part of MDR, where the River Tigris enters MDR and it gradually reduced towards the dam site. There were erosion areas within the reservoir and mainly close to the dam body which might be due to dissolving the gypsum.In addition, fifty six sediment samples were collected from the bottom of its reservoir to study the nature of sediment deposited using the Van-Veen grab sampler. The samples were covering most of the reservoir area. The results revealed that the sediments were comprised of gravel, sand, silt and clay in the ratios 3.8%, 15%, 55.5% and 25.7% respectively. The distribution of these sediments indicates that the silt portion represents the highest or 77% of the bottom sediment of this reservoir followed by clay 13.5% and then sand with gravel 9.5%. However, sand percentages are the highest in the northern zone of the reservoir where the River Tigris enters the reservoir and decrease gradually towards the dam site. In the meantime, silt percentage decreases towards the dam site whilst the finer fraction (i.e. clay) increases. The sediment is poorly sorted, nearly symmetrical in skewness and leptokurtic, very leptokurtic, to mesocratic.Indirect approaches using several empirical and semi-empirical techniques to determine sedimentation characteristics in MDR were used. Three empirical approaches based on the particle grain size of the sediment deposited showed that MDR’s useful life ranged from 122.5 to 132 years. Six different empirical methods to determine the sediment trap efficiency (TE) of MDR were adopted. These methods were based on the residence time principle (water retention time). The methods were used to determine monthly TE and long-term TE for MDR for the period 1986 to 2011. The TE results with sediment entering MDR were used to calculate the amount of sediment deposited during its operational period. The comparison of the results with the bathymetric survey showed that all techniques gave good agreement, especially those depending on monthly TE, but the method that was proposed for large dams gave a more accurate result with 0.350% percentage error. To find out the sediment deposited depth at the Mosul dam site and to establish and predict changes in its ASC curves, four empirical and semi-empirical techniques were used for MDR. The results obtained were evaluated using the bathymetric survey data. The comparison of the results for establishing the ASC curves showed that one method agreed with bathymetric results whilst two methods gave good results for the sedimentation depth at the dam site. Furthermore, three of these methods were modified to predict the future changes in the ASC curves with sedimentation, based on the data from 11 reservoirs in the USA. The modified approaches were applied to MDR to predict the future ASC curves for 50, 75, 100 and 125 years. The curves predicted by these methods demonstrated compliance with the method adopted by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation ‘area reduction method’. Finally, the indirect approaches can help decision makers, planners and designers, to monitor sedimentation characteristics and to implement prudent strategies for management of MDR in the future and to know the most suitable technique to adopt for MDR in the future.

  • 13.
    Issa, Issa E.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Siltation and sedimentation problem in Mosul reservoir dam2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq depends on the Rivers Tigris and Euphrates for its water resources. Recently the flow of these rivers decreased drastically. In view of this situation the true storage capacity of the dams are to be evaluated to ensure prudent water resources management strategies. In this research, the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq, Mosul Dam Reservoir, was studied to evaluate its present storage capacity.Mosul dam reservoir is located on the River Tigris in the north of Iraq, 60 km north-west Mosul city. The dam is a multipurpose project for irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation. The storage capacity of its reservoir is 11.11×109 m3 and water surface area is 380 km2 at the maximum operation level 330 m.a.s.l. The dam was operated on July 24th, 1986 and no survey had been conducted to determine its storage capacity since that time. A pre-construction topographic map for the studied area scale 1: 50000 dated 1983 was converted to a triangular irregular network (TIN) format using “Arc/GIS software version 9.3”. The TIN was used to establish the stage-area and stage-storage capacity curves before dam construction. The resultant curves were compared with the adopted operational curves. The results of this comparison showed that the percentage difference was 4.0% and 7.7% for stage-storage capacity and stage-water surface area curves respectively.Mosul reservoir was surveyed to find out the reduction in its storage capacity and to develop new operational curves. The survey was performed over 12 days from May 15th to June 3rd, 2011 using to “Echo sounder sonar viewer type Sea Charter 480DF” linked to a “Real-Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS)”. The bathymetric survey results indicated that the reduction in the storage capacity of the reservoir due to sediment deposition during the operating period was 1.143×109 m3. This represents 14.73% of the total storage capacity and the reduction in the live storage and dead storage was 11.8% and 19.62% respectively. Likewise, the survey suggested new operational curves for Mosul dam reservoir. The survey showed that most of the sedimentation was in the upper zone of the reservoir and gradually decreased towards the dam.

  • 14.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Khaleel, Moayad
    Mosul University.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Experimental Analysis of Sediment Deposition Due to Backwater Effect up-stream a Reservoir2014Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 8, nr 9, s. 1185-1193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of aggradation due to sediment accumulation upstream reservoirs had been studied in this research. For this purpose, group of experiments were conducted in a laboratory channel 25 m long, 0.80 m wide and 0.70 m deep. A block was built at the end of the channel to work as a dam to impound water. The channel was supplied with drainage pipes on both sides to release water out in a manner similar to what happens in reservoirs. The bed of the channel was filled with sand of 0.80 mm median sieve diameter and 0.72 geometric standard deviation. The slope was 0.0093 for all experiments. Two sizes of sand were used representing the sediment. The median diameter and geometric standard deviation of the first were 0.365 mm and 0.46 respectively. The second sample had 0.65 mm median diameter and 0.67 standard deviation. A total of seventy experiments were conducted in two groups to examine effect the sediment transport rate, particle size of sediment and flow velocity on aggradation characteristics. The results showed that there is a strong linear direct relationship between aggradation elements (length and depth) with the rate of sediment transport. Group of dimensionless parameters affecting the aggradation characteristics were used to develop empirical equations to predict the length, maximum depth of aggradation and predict transient bed profile. The results of empirical approach were compared with the measurement data and previous numerical method. The results indicated that the percentage error was –19 to 31% for length of aggradation and –21 to 26% for maximum depth of aggradation. The results also showed that the sediment material were deposited closer to the body of the dam when the released water from the dam is higher than the inflow.

  • 15.
    Issa, Issa E
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment of Sedimentation Characteristics and Capacity Curve for Mosul Dam Reservoir, Iraq2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sedimentation process is the most important problems that affect directly the performance of reservoirs due to the reduction of the storage capacity and possible problems effecting the operation. Thus periodic assessment of the storage capacity and determining sediment deposition patterns is an important issue for operation and management of reservoirs. In this study, bathymetric survey results had been used to assess the characteristics of sedimentation of Mosul Reservoir. It is located on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq. The water surface area of its reservoir is 380 km2 with a designed storage capacity of 11.11 km3 at a maximum operating level (330 m a.s.l). The dam started operating in 1986. No detailed study was yet carried out to assess its reservoir. The present study indicated that the annual sediment deposited in the reservoir is 45.72 × 106 m3year-1 which is divided into 23.2 × 106 and 22.52 × 106 m3year-1 for dead and live zones respectively. This implies the annual reduction rate in the dead and live storage capacities of the reservoir is 0.786% and 0.276% respectively. Furthermore, the stage-storage capacity curves for the future periods (prediction curves) were assessed using 2011 bathymetric survey data.

  • 16.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Assessment sedimentation rate in the Mosul dam reservoir, Iraq2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq that was built on the Tigris River 60 km north-west Mosul city north of Iraq. The water surface area of its reservoir is 380 km2 with a storage capacity of 11.11×109 m3 at a maximum operation level (330 m.a.s.l). The dam became operational in 1986. No study has been conducted to determine the sedimentation rate, storage capacity and new operational curve since that date. To develop an up to date operational curve, a new bathymetric survey was conducted in 2011. The results indicated that the reduction in the storage capacity of the reservoir was 10.29 %. This implies that the annual sedimentation rate within the reservoir was 45.72×106 m3.yr-1 (0.41%) that is less than the average worldwide rate. Consequently, a new operational curve was constructed.

  • 17.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Changes in bed morphology of Mosul dam reservoir2013Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, ISSN 2231-8844, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 86-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq. It was constructed on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq for multiple purposes: irrigation, flood control and power generation. The initial storage capacity and water surface area of its reservoir reach 11.11 km3 and 380 km2 respectively at the maximum operation level 330 m.a.s.l. The dam was operated in 1986. Since that time no survey has been conducted to determining the characteristics of sedimentation in the reservoir. Blockage of the intakes of the pump station for North Al-Jazira Irrigation Project in Mosul dam reservoir has highlighted the importance of sedimentation problems within the reservoir.Sediment distribution was studied within the reservoir. A comparison was made between the conditions at the start of the dam operation and a recent bathymetric survey conducted in 2011.The former was achieved using a topographic map scale 1: 50000 dated 1983 which was converted to a triangular irregular network (TIN) format using the Arc/GIS program. The results of the bathymetric survey were also converted to the TIN map format using the above program. Comparison of the two maps shows that the sedimentation magnitude in the upper zone of the reservoir, where the River Tigris enters, was highest and gradually reduced toward Mosul dam site. Maximum deposition thickness within the reservoir was 17.6 m. The thalweg bed slope of the River Tigris within reservoir area changed from 0.65 m.km-1 before dam construction to 0.71 m.km-1 on the 2011 survey. Zones within the

  • 18.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mosul Dam Resorvoir Sedimentation Characteristics, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Hydrology, ISSN 1058-3912, E-ISSN 1996-7918, Vol. 22, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment transported by rivers and finally deposited in reservoirs directly affects dam performanceand causes a reduction in their storage capacity and hence operating efficiency. In this study, thesedimentation characteristics of Mosul dam reservoir have been evaluated using two topographic mapsof the reservoir area at different times (1986 and 2011) via Arc/GIS software. The dam is located on theTigris River in the northern part of Iraq and started operating in 1986. The water surface area of itsreservoir is 380 km2 with a designed storage capacity of 11.11 km3 at a maximum operating level (330m a.s.l). The results showed that the annual sediment deposition rate is 45.72 × 106 m3 year-1 of which23.2 × 106 and 22.52 × 106 m3 year-1 are in the dead storage and live storage zones respectively. As aconsequence, the live and dead storage zones lost 6.9% and 19.66% respectively of their storagecapacity during the 25 year of operation of the dam. The water-spread area (water surface area) of thereservoir at dead storage level (300 m a.s.l) was reduced annually by about 1.34 km2. Furthermore,the stage-storage capacity curves for future periods (prediction curves) were assessed and comparedwith adopted prediction curves using 2011 bathymetric survey data.

  • 19.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sedimentation and new operational curves for Mosul Dam, Iraq2013Inngår i: Hydrological Sciences Journal, ISSN 0262-6667, E-ISSN 2150-3435, Vol. 58, nr 7, s. 1456-1466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam is one of the biggest hydraulic structures in Iraq. Its storage capacity is 11.11×109 m3 at a maximum operation level 330 m of a.s.l. The dam became operational in 1986 and no survey has been conducted to determine its storage capacity and establish new operational curves since this date. In this research topographic map scale 1: 50000 dated 1983 was converted to triangulated irregular network (TIN) format using the Arc/GIS program to evaluate the operational curves. Then the reservoir was surveyed in 2011 to establish the reduction in its storage capacity and to develop new operational curves. The results indicated that the reduction in the storage capacity of the reservoir was 14.73%. This implies that the rate of sedimentation within the reservoir was 45.72×106 m3.yr-1. The results indicated that most of the sediment was deposited within the upper zone of the reservoir where the River Tigris enters the reservoir.

  • 20.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Khaleel, Moayad
    Mosul University.
    Sediment delivered in the upper part of Mosul reservoir using physical model2012Inngår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, ISSN 1934-7359, E-ISSN 1934-7367, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 1544-1550Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq located on the River Tigris 60 km northwest of Mosul city. Its storage capacity is 11.11 × 109 m3 and it had been in operation since 1986. A physical distorted model with movable bed having a vertical scale 1:100 and a horizontal scale 1:1000 was used to conduct the experiments relating the water level at the reservoir and water discharge upstream the reservoir with the bed load transport rate. The model represents the first 15 km of most northern part of Mosul dam reservoir. The construction of the model was based on bathymetric survey conducted in 2009. Twenty-four experiments were executed using four different discharges (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 L/s) which represent the average discharges in the flood period of River Tigris. At each individual discharge six operations were assumed where the reservoir’s water level was 305, 307, 309, 310, 312, 315 meters above sea level respectively. In all the experiments conducted, bedload transport was measured in the physical model at section representing the River Tigris 1 km upstream the reservoir. The results showed that the bedload rate was decreasing when the water level within the reservoir was increasing. It was also evident that bedload transport rate dramatically decreased at level 310 meter above sea level onward. This is due to the fact that at this level represent the effect of backwater which was noticeable on the river cross section.

  • 21.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Khaleel, Moayad
    Mosul University.
    The effect of operation of Mosul dam on sediment transport in its reservoir2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul dam is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq located on the River Tigris 50 Km north of Mosul city. Its storage capacity is 11.1 x 109 m3 and it had been in operation since 1986.A physical model representing the most northern part of Mosul dam reservoir was used to conduct the experiments. The construction of the model was based on field survey conducted in 2010. Twenty-four experiments were executed using four different discharges (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 m3/s respectively). At each individual discharge six operations were assumed where the reservoirs water level was 305,307,309,310, 312, 315 MSL respectively. In all the experiments conducted, bedload transport rate was decreasing when the water level within the reservoir was increasing. It was also evident the bedload transport rate dramatically decreased at level 310 onward. This is due to the fact that at this level the effect of backwater was noticeable on the river cross section

  • 22.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwany, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research—KRG, Erbil.
    Monitoring and Evaluating the Sedimentation Process in Mosul Dam Reservoir Using Trap Efficiency Approaches2015Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 190-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reservoirs are usually exposed to sediment accumulation problems that will lead to reduction in their storage capacity. This problem directly affects the performance of the dams and causes shortage of their useful life. The simplest technique to estimate sediment deposition rate is using sediment rating curve with sediment trapping efficiency (TE) of the reservoir. Many empirical and semi-empirical approaches have been suggested for to determine this term depending on the annual inflow rate, reservoir characteristics and features of the catchments area. In this study six different empirical methods depending on the residence time principle (water retention time) were used. These approaches were reviewed and applied to determine TE of Mosul dam reservoir (MDR) for period 1986 to 2011. The monthly operating data for inflow, outflow and water elevations for MDR were used to determine monthly TE and long-term TE for whole period of MDR using the mentioned methods. Furthermore, the monthly inflow rate for River Tigris upstream MDR, its sediment rating curve and sediment feeding from valleys around MDR were used to estimate the amount sediment coming to the reservoir. The results provided by these methods for TE withsediment coming to MDR were used to compute the amount of sediment deposited in MDR on monthly bases during this period. The results obtained were evaluated using observed bathymetric survey data that had been collected in 2011 after 25 years of the operation of the dam. The results showed all the mentioned methods gave convergent results and they were very close to bathymetric survey results for estimating the volume of sediment deposited especially that proposed by Ward which gave 0.368% percentage error. Furthermore, the result computed using monthly TE gave good agreement if compared with that long-term TE where the percentage error was ranging between −3.229% to 1.674% for monthly adopted data and −4.862% to −2.477% for whole period data. It is believed that this work will help others to use this procedure on other reservoirs.

  • 23.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwany, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Kurdistan Region.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Expected Future of Water resources within Tigris–Euphrates Rivers basin, Iraq2014Inngår i: Journal of Water Resource and Protection, ISSN 1945-3094, E-ISSN 1945-3108, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 421-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Iraq is one of the riparian countries within basins of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East region. The region is currently facing water shortage problems due to the increase of the demand and climate changes. In the present study, average monthly water flow measurements for 15 stream flow gaging stations within basins of these rivers in Iraq with population growth rate data in some of its part were used to evaluate the reality of the current situation and future challenges of water availability and demand in Iraq. The results showed that Iraq receives annually 70.92 km3 of water 45.4 and 25.52 km3 from River Tigris and Euphrates respectively. An amount of 18.04 km3 of the Tigris water comes from Turkey while 27.36 km3 is supplied by its tributaries inside Iraq. The whole amount of water in the Euphrates Rivers comes outside the Iraqi borders. Annual decrease of the water inflow is 0.1335 km3 year-1 for Tigris and 0.245 km3 year-1 for Euphrates. This implies the annual percentage reduction of inflow rates for the two rivers is 0.294% and 0.960% respectively. Iraq consumes annually 88.89% (63.05 km3) of incoming water from the two rivers, where about 60.43 and 39.57 % are from Rivers Tigris and Euphrates respectively. Water demand increases annually by 1.002 km3; of which 0.5271 km3 and 0.475 km3 within Tigris and Euphrates basins respectively. The average water demand in 2020 will increase to 42.844 km3 year-1 for Tigris basin and for Euphrates 29.225 km3 year-1 (total 72.069 km3 year-1), while water availability will decrease to 63.46 km3 year-1. This means that the overall water shortage will be restricted to 8.61 km3.

  • 24.
    Issa, Issa E.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sherwany, Govand
    Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Kurdistan Region.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Sedimentation processes and useful life of Mosul dam Reservoir, Iraq2013Inngår i: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, nr 10, s. 779-784Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sedimentation process is the most important problems that affect directly the performance of reservoirs due to the reduction of the storage capacity and possible problems effecting the operation. Thus periodic assessment of the storage capacity and determining sediment deposition patterns is an important issue for operation and management of the reservoirs. In this study, bathymetric survey results and an analytical approach had been used to assess the characteristics of sedimentation and estimate the useful life of Mosul Reservoir. It is located on the Tigris River in the north of Iraq. The water surface area of its reservoir is 380 km2 with a designed storage capacity of 11.11 km3 at a maximum operating level (330 m a.s.l). The dam started operating in 1986. No detailed study was yet carried out to assess its reservoir. The present study indicated that the annual reduction rate in the dead and live storage capacities of the reservoir is 0.786% and 0.276% respectively. The observed results (bathymetric survey) and algebraic formula show approximately that the useful life of Mosul dam reservoir is about 125 years. Furthermore, the stage-storage capacity curves for the future periods (prediction curves) were established using bathymetric survey data.

  • 25.
    Sissakian, Varoujan
    et al.
    Consultant Geologist, Erbil.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Issa, Issa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Adamo, Nasrat
    LTU team.
    Knutsson, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Mystery of Mosul Dam the most Dangerous Dam in the World: General Geology2015Inngår i: Journal of Earth Sciences and Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN 1792-9040, E-ISSN 1792-9660, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosul Dam project is the most important water resources project in Iraq. It is located on the River Tigris in northwestern part of Iraq, about 60 km north of Mosul city. This project is multipurpose project; to provide water for three irrigation projects in the north of Iraq and many other projects in the middle and south of the country, flood control and hydropower generation. Its storage capacity is 11.11 km3. The oldest exposed rocks in the reservoir area belong to the Pila Spi Formation of Late Eocene age, while at the dam site; the oldest exposed rocks belong to the Fatha Formation (ex-Lower Fars) of Middle Miocene age. The topography of the Mosul Dam and reservoir area is characterized by hilly terrain that rise to low mountainous area; representing physiographically Low Mountainous Province. Tectonically, Mosul Dam site and reservoir area are located within the Cham – Chamal Subzone of the Low Folded Zone of the Outer Platform of the Arabian Plate. The project is located far from Zagros Active Seismic Zone, but still many earthquakes were recorded in areas surrounding the project area.

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