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  • 1.
    Berggren, Karolina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sensitivity of urban stormwater systems to runoff from green/pervious areas in a changing climate2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Johansson, Lars
    Tekniska Verken i Kiruna AB.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmedlt in urban catchments2015In: Urban Drainage Modelling 2015: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Urban Drainage Modelling, Mont-Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada 20-23 Swptember 2015 / [ed] Thomas Maere; Sovanna Tik; Sophie Duchense; Peter A. Vanrolleghem, 2015, p. 25-31Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    An exploratory study of snowmelt runoff modelling in an urban catchment using the US EPASWMM model2017In: 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference On Urban Drainage, 2017, p. 78-81Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Generation of urban runoff: Seasonal and climate change perspective2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Runoff generation in cold regions is characterized by snowmelt contributions to runoff during the periods of thawing and changing runoff patterns due to frozen ground. This thesis project aimed at addressing these challenges by advancing the procedures for winter urban runoff computations and the assessment of control measures during the winter/spring period, when the snowmelt and frozen soils dominantly impact runoff generation in the current and future climates. In such considerations, contributions of green/pervious areas to runoff and stormwater drainage systems were found particularly important and were addressed in one of the study components by conducting sensitivity analysis of the runoff modelling tool used, the MIKE SHE model. For this purpose, four runoff generation scenarios were defined, including the baseline reference scenario, a future climate scenario with up-scaled precipitation, and two scenarios with widely different infiltration rates. The results showed that the variations of infiltration capacity and the precipitation magnitude largely influenced runoff generation and impacted on the drainage system. Such impacts were measured by the number of flooded nodes and surcharged pipes, which greatly increased with decreasing infiltration capacity (described by Ks=1×10-10 m/s, which corresponds to the bedrock) and somewhat increased for increasing future precipitation (+20%). Projection of future climatological parameters to 2100 (i.e. temperature, precipitation and maximum hourly precipitation) were obtained for investigating seasonal changes in the town of Kalmar (southern Sweden). The results indicated that the seasonal precipitation patterns would become more similar in all the seasons, and the winter period would experience more changes in runoff generation, which would require more attention in stormwater management with respect to both snowmelt simulation and considerations of frozen grounds. To advance the understanding of urban snowmelt modelling, a literature review of selected snowmelt models was undertaken to identify which of them could be readily used, or easily modified, for improving the current snow modelling practice. For this purpose an urban snow cover classification (13 classes) was developed on the basis of the following considerations: human activities affecting snowmelt, land use, and the origin of deposited snow. Various snow covers in urban areas were then assessed and general recommendations were made for selecting the most appropriate model for specific studies, considering the study goals, constraints on the collection of field data, budget/time restriction, and the required accuracy. Urban runoff controls by green infrastructures, during the cold season, were studied for green roofs and infiltration facilities. Green roofs were found to be effective in warm weather, when they could counterbalance almost all the extra rainfall imposed by climate change, in a mixed land use catchment in Luleå, retrofitted with green roofs covering 30% of the catchment area. On the other hand, green roofs produced no benefits in the cold season with sub-zero temperatures and snow removal. Infiltration of runoff into two frozen engineered (sandy) soils, with slightly varying gradation, was studied in the laboratory for two values of the initial gravimetric water content (5 and 10%). Soil thawing process and restoration of infiltration capacity was slowed down by increasing water content and the content of fines in the soil. Thus, the soil with higher water content and finer gradation required more time for attaining full infiltration capacity after soil thawing. Practical implications of study results for bioretention facilities include the recommended use of coarser engineered soils, conservative estimation of infiltration rates, provision for bypassing of high flows, and fitting the facility with a valve-controlled under-drain facilitating bioretention drainage before the onset of freezing weather.

  • 7.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Urban Runoff and Snowmelt: Quantity and Quality Processes in Snow Deposits and Hydrologic Abstractions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Berggren, Karolina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Regional and seasonal variation in future climate: is green roof one solution?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, regional climate data was used to investigate the trend of changes for some climatic parameters, i.e. temperature, precipitation and maximum hourly precipitation in four different regions in Sweden. The general trend shows that Sweden will have warmer and wetter climatic conditions by 2100; however, the seasonal changes will affect the system differently, which makes them one of the main factors to be considered. The climatic data was used to determine the probable magnitude of changes by 2100 and to investigate the climate change impacts on urban drainage systems. The problems arising due to such changes were discussed regionally and seasonally and finally BMP methods, as an alternative way, to mitigate the climate change impacts were considered. As an example, green roof was applied to different urbanized conditions to estimate the approximate reduction of the extra water into the drainage system. As well as to investigate how much each of the BMP methods (green roof as an example for opening the further studies) could be useful for city planners towards more secure and sustainable cities in the future against the climate change.

  • 9.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Hydraulic and Environment Engineering, Trondheim, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Trondheim.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Review of models and procedures for modelling urban snowmelt2016In: Urban Water Journal, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 396-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature review of selected snowmelt models or algorithms was undertaken to identify which of these tools could be readily used, or easily modified, for simulating urban snowmelt. In this context, the urban factors influencing snowmelt were classified into three categories: human activities, land use, and the origin of deposited snow; and served to develop a classification of urban snow covers with characteristic properties influencing snowmelt. Finally, the assessment of capabilities of the surveyed models or algorithms to simulate snowmelt for these covers indicated that: (i) only two of the tools addressed the critical characteristics of urban snow covers (for specific cases only), (ii) urban runoff models with snowmelt subroutines offered best operational flexibility, though modifications and/or guidance on input values would be required for satisfactory simulations, and (iii) the review findings should help modellers in choosing a snowmelt simulation tool best serving their task with respect to urban conditions.

  • 10.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Modeling Urban Runoff from Rain-on-Snow Events with the U.S. EPA SWMM Model for Current and Future Climate Scenarios2018In: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 04017021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodological study of modeling runoff from rain-on-snow events was conducted using the northern Swedish city of Kiruna as a test case, with respect to physiographic, drainage system, and the current and projected future climate data. Runoff simulations were carried out with the PCSWMM, which is a geographic information system (GIS) supported version of the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (U.S. EPA SWMM5) developed by Computational Hydraulics International (CHI). In total, 177 simulations were run covering four scenario categories: eight rain events, three climates (the current and two projected), three soil infiltration rates, and five snow water equivalent (SWE) values. Simulation results were analyzed with respect to influential rainfall/snowmelt/runoff factors and the noted differences were statistically tested for significance. Result analysis revealed new findings concerning the differences between runoff generated by rain-on-snow and summer thunderstorm events. In particular, it was noted that a relatively frequent rain-on-snow event, with a return period of 1.4 year, caused fewer flooded nodes and surcharged pipes in the catchment sewer system, but almost five times greater runoff volume, when compared to the same drainage system performance indicators corresponding to a 10-year event occurring in the summer. Depending on the physical characteristics of the snow cover, among which the depth appears the most important, rainwater and snowmelt may be retained in, or released from, the snowpack, which acts as a dynamic reservoir controlling the generation and release of runoff. Smaller snow depths produce smaller volumes of melt, smaller storage capacity and less effective insulation of soils, which may freeze to greater depths and become practically impervious, until the process of soil thawing has been completed. The impacts of climate change in the study area, described by increases in precipitation and air temperatures, are likely to cause more frequent runoff problems attributed to the future rain-on-snow events. Even though the runoff tendencies reported here reflect the characteristics of the study area and climate, they suggest the need to consider rain-on-snow events in sewer design and storm water management in regions with seasonal snow covers, certainly with respect to runoff volumes.

  • 11.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Paus, Kim, H.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Hydraulic and Environment Engineering, Trondheim, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Trondheim.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Accumulation of Traffic-Related Trace Metals in Urban Winter_Long Roadside Snowbanks2015In: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, no 12, article id 404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulations of mass loads of selected chemicals in roadside snowbanks were studied at five sites with various traffic densities in the City of Trondheim (Norway) by collecting snow samples throughout the winter period and analysing them for 13 water quality constituents: pH, EC, alkalinity, Cl, Na, TSS, Cd, Cr, Cu. Ni, Pb, W, and Zn. The resulting dataset was then supplemented by similar data collected earlier in the City of Luleå (Sweden). Regression analyses for individual sites indicated linear trends in unit-area constituent accumulations with time (0.65

  • 12.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Perttu, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Laboratory study of infiltration into two frozen engineered (sandy) soils recommended for bioretention2016In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 1251-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infiltration of water into two frozen engineered soils of different gradation was studied in laboratory soil columns 1.2 m long and 0.1 m in diameter. Prior to testing, the soil moisture was adjusted to two levels, described by the gravimetric water content of 5 or 10%, soils were compacted to about 80-90% of the maximum dry density, and refrigerated to temperatures ranging from −8 to −2 °C. Water with temperatures 8-9 °C was thereafter fed on the top of columns at a constant head and the times of water break through the column and reaching a steady percolation rate, as well as the percolation rate, were recorded. The soil water content was a critical factor affecting the thawing process; during freezing, soil moisture was converted into ice, which blocked pores, and its melting required high amounts of energy supplied by infiltrating water. Hence, the thawing of soils with higher initial water content was much slower than in lower moisture soils, and water breakthrough and the attainment of steady percolation required much longer times in higher moisture soils. Heat transfer between infiltrating water, soil ice and frozen soil particles was well described by the energy budget equations, which constitute a parsimonious model of the observed processes. The finer grained soil and more compacted soil columns exhibited reduced porosity and required longer times for soil thawing. Practical implications of study results for design of bioretention facilities (BFs) in cold climate include the use of coarse engineered soils and fitting BFs with a drain facilitating soil drainage before the onset of freezing weather. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Snowmelt modeling in urban areas: sensitivity analysis of the energy and mass balance method2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding is one of the main concerns in seeking safe and sustainable urban areas. In many cases the design criteria are based on intense rainfall. It is, therefore, assumed that the peak flow in cities’ drainage systems is due to heavy and fast rainfalls. However snowmelt pattern could be more important for places with cold climate; therefore the need of a better snowmelt and runoff simulation becomes more important particularly when the effects of climate change needs to be considered. Two main methods are basically used for urban snowmelt simulation i.e. temperature index and energy budged methods. Studies done previously show that the energy balance method gives a better estimation for volume and time compare to the temperature index. For urban areas though, it is argued that the data demanding of the energy balance method can be a disadvantage and it could affect the model precision. However, the advances in geographical information systems (GIS) and the requirement for better time resolution than daily have increased the tendency of applying it for urban snow melt. There are couples of studies during recent years e.g. (Ho& Valeo 2005) applying energy budget method in urban areas, even though the efforts basically focused on developing routines and comparing it with the degree day method. There is still a gap in parameter sensitivity analysis especially with two main features of urban snowmelt modeling; firstly, the importance of input data along with difficulties in providing them; and secondly the classification of snow in urban areas based on snow properties. These two concerns were the motives to go one step ahead and to conduct a sensitivity analysis. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the dependency of the simulation results to the different model parameters as built-in parameters and input data. Such analysis eventually can be used for snow classification which along with GIS technology can provide a reliable platform to simulate snowmelt over an urban catchment more precisely than what the current models are capable of today. Here in this study, a model namely Utah Energy Balance Snow Model (UEB) is used. The model uses a complete energy and mass balance routine to simulate snow accumulation and melt at a point scale. Except using the measured climatic values to run the model, the routines in this model has the capability of producing (simulating) solar radiation and albedo if the measured values are not available. The model has simulated the snow accumulation and melts in rural area with reasonable accuracy in previous studies i.e. (Tarboton et al. 1995). For this research, three snow deposits from 1991 and 1992 are taken to calibrate the model with. The pilot snow packs are identical to municipal snow deposit with density more than natural snow, around 700 Kg/m3. The snowmelt runoff has been measure between March and Jun 1991 and 1992. The necessary input values are collected from Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) for the same periods. All input parameters are available on hourly and 3 hourly periods. The method is to run the model with real values collected from SMHI and calibrate it versus the measured data. The model is run using modified parameters to investigate the possible change in the simulation result. Eventually an analysis is done on each parameter and the dependency of the model. An analysis also is done by running the model with different time resolution, i.e. hourly, 3-hourly, and 6-hourly and to investigate the effect of time span in modeling snowmelt and simulation precision.

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