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  • 1.
    Al-Hamadandy, Raied
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, J.P.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Mojarad, Shahin A.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Al-Hadidi, Meaad
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    O'Neill, A.G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Oxygen vacancy migration in compressively strained SrTiO32013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The intrinsic properties of strontium titanate render it promising in applications such as gate dielectrics and capacitors. However, there is growing evidence that oxygen vacancies significantly impact upon its use, with the diffusion and deep donor level of the oxygen vacancy leading to electrical leakage. Where grown epitaxially on a lattice mismatched substrate, SrTiO 3 undergoes bi-axial strain, altering its crystal structure and electronic properties. In this paper, we present the results of first-principles simulations to evaluate the impact of strain in a (001) plane upon the migration of oxygen vacancies. We show that in the range of strains consistent with common substrate materials, diffusion energies in different directions are significantly affected, and for high values of strain may be altered by as much as a factor of two. The resulting diffusion anisotropy is expected to impact upon the rate at which oxygen vacancies are injected into the films under bias, a critical factor in the leakage and resistive switching seen in this material

  • 2.
    Al-Hamadany, R.
    et al.
    Newcastle University.
    Goss, J.P.
    Newcastle University.
    Briddon, P.R.
    Newcastle University.
    Mojarad, S.A.
    Newcastle University.
    O'Neill, A.G.
    Newcastle University.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Impact of tensile strain on the oxygen vacancy migration in SrTiO3: Density functional theory calculations2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strontium titanate is a promising dielectric material for device applications including capacitors and gate dielectrics. However, oxygen vacancies, which are inevitable donor defects mobile under bias at room temperature, lead to undesirable leakage current in SrTiO3 thin films. Epitaxially grown SrTiO3 on lattice mismatched substrates leads to strained SrTiO3, inducing structural phase transitions from a cubosymmetric non-ferroelectric geometry to tetragonal and orthorhombic structures, depending upon the sign of the strain. In this study, density functional calculations have been performed to determine the impact of isotropic biaxial tensile strain in a (001) plane upon the phase of SrTiO3 and the activation energy for the migration of oxygen vacancies in such strained SrTiO3. The phase transition of the host material yields anisotropy in oxygen vacancy diffusion for diffusion within and between planes parallel to the strain. We found a general reduction in the barrier for diffusion within and normal to the plane of tensile strain. The inter-plane diffusion barrier reduces up to 25% at high values of strain. The variation in the barrier corresponding to in-plane diffusion is smaller in comparison to inter-plane diffusion. Finally, we reflect upon how the interplay between lattice strain with native defects plays a crucial role in the conduction mechanism of thin film, strained SrTiO3

  • 3.
    Atumi, M.K.
    et al.
    Newcastle University.
    Goss, J.P.
    Newcastle University.
    Briddon, P.R.
    Newcastle University.
    Shirf, F.E.
    Newcastle University.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Hyperfine interactions at nitrogen interstitial defects in diamond2013Ingår i: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 25, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond has many extreme physical properties and it can be used in a wide range of applications. In particular it is a highly effective particle detection material, where radiation damage is an important consideration. The WAR9 and WAR10 are electron paramagnetic resonance centres seen in irradiated, nitrogen-containing diamond. These S = 1/2 defects have C2v and C1h symmetry, respectively, and the experimental spectra have been interpreted as arising from nitrogen split-interstitial centres. Based upon the experimental and theoretical understanding of interstitial nitrogen defect structures, the AIMPRO density functional code has been used to assess the assignments for the structures of WAR9 and WAR10. Although the calculated hyperfine interaction tensors are consistent with the measured values for WAR9, the thermal stability renders the assignment problematic. The model for the WAR10 centre yields principal directions of the hyperfine tensor at variance with observation. Alternative models for both centres are discussed in this paper, but no convincing structures have been found.

  • 4.
    Briddon, Patrick
    et al.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Accurate Kohn–Sham DFT with the speed of tight binding: Current techniques and future directions in materials modelling2011Ingår i: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 248, nr 6, s. 1309-1318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a review of methodological and implementation details of the AIMPRO Kohn–Sham density functional code. It is demonstrated that full Kohn–Sham density functional theory calculations can be performed in a time only marginally greater than tight binding implementations and a route is opened to achieve full and demonstrable convergence with respect to basis size. Topics covered will include both the kernel and functionality of the current code, a discussion of recent developments as well as future research directions and perspectives. Also, a broad discussion regarding the application of these methods is made that, it is hoped, will serve as a useful guide to application specialists.

  • 5.
    Camps, I.
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Alfenas—Unifal-MG.
    Coutinho, J.
    University of Aveiro.
    Mir, M.
    Universidade Federal de Alfenas—Unifal-MG.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Elastic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSn(SexS1 − x)4 alloys: density functional calculations2012Ingår i: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 27, nr 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cu2ZnSn(S1 − xSex)4 (CZT(S, Se)) is emerging as a very credible alternative to CuIn1 − xGaxSe2 (CIGS) as the absorber layer for thin film solar cells. The former compound has the important advantage of using abundant Zn and Sn instead of the expensive In and Ga. A better understanding of the properties of CZT(S, Se) is being sought through experimental and theoretical means. Thus far, however, very little is known about the fundamental properties of the CZT(S, Se) alloys. In this work, theoretical studies on the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of CZT(S, Se) alloys through first-principles calculations are reported. We use a density functional code (aimpro), along with the Padé parametrization for the local density approximation to the exchange correlation potential. For the alloying calculations we employed 64 atom supercells (approximately cubic) with a 2 × 2 × 2 k-point sampling set. These supercells possess a total of 32 chalcogen species and the CZTSexS1 − x alloys are described by using the ordered alloy approximation. Accordingly, to create a perfectly diluted alloying host, the species type of the 32 chalcogen sites is selected randomly with uniform probability x and 1 − x for Se and S, respectively. Properties of alloys (structural, elastic, electronic and optical) are obtained by averaging the results of ten supercell configurations generated for each composition. For each configuration, lattice vectors and atomic positions were allowed to relax (although enforcing the tetragonal lattice type) and the Murnaghan equation of state was fitted to the total energy data. The results presented here permit a better understanding of the properties of the CZT(S, Se) alloys which in turn result in the design of more efficient solar cells.

  • 6.
    Carvahlo, A.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Coutinho, J.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Barroso, M.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Silva, E.L.
    Department of Physics, CEMDRX and CFC, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P.R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Electronic structure modification of Si nanocrystals with F(4)-TCNQ2011Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, nr 12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use first-principles models to demonstrate how an organic oxidizing agent F(4)-TCNQ (7,7,8,8-tetracyano-2,3,5,6-tetrafluoroquinodimethane) modifies the electronic structure of silicon nanocrystals, suggesting it may enhance p-type carrier density and mobility. The proximity of the lowest unoccupied level of F(4)-TCNQ to the highest occupied level of the Si nanocrystals leads to the formation of an empty hybrid state overlapping both the nanocrystal and molecule, reducing the excitation energy to similar to 0.8-1 eV in vacuum. Hence, it is suggested that F(4)-TCNQ can serve both as a surface oxidant and as a mediator for hole hopping between adjacent nanocrystals in p-type doped silicon nanocrystal networks

  • 7.
    Carvahlo, A.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P.R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Electronic properties, doping, and defects in chlorinated silicon nanocrystals2012Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 86, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon nanocrystals with diameters between 1 and 3 nm and surfaces passivated by chlorine or a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen were modeled using density functional theory, and their properties compared with those of fully hydrogenated nanocrystals. It is found that fully and partially chlorinated nanocrystals are stable, and have higher electron affinity, higher ionization energy, and lower optical absorption energy threshold. As the hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals, chlorinated silicon nanocrystals doped with phosphorus or boron require a high activation energy to transfer an electron or hole, respectively, to undoped silicon nanocrystals. The electronic levels of surface dangling bonds are similar for both types of surface passivation, although in the chlorinated silicon nanocrystals some fall outside the narrower energy gap.

  • 8.
    Carvalho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Effect of oxidation on the doping of silicon nanocrystals with group III and group v elements2012Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 116, nr 14, s. 8243-8250Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Substitutional group III and group V elements, though commonly used as shallow dopants in bulk silicon, have a limited efficiency in silicon nanocrystals. In this work, we use first-principles models of 1.5 nm nanocrystals with hydride- and silanol-terminated surfaces to understand how oxidation influences the segregation and deactivation of dopants at the surface and the dopant binding energies. We show that the surface oxygen layer changes drastically the radial dependence of the dopant formation energy both for donors and for acceptors, but that, independently from the oxidation, dopant diffusion does not take place at operating conditions. Additionally, we show that the oxidation increases the electron binding energy of the P, As, and Sb and decreases the hole binding energy of B, Al, Ga, and In.

  • 9.
    Carvalho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Manzhos, Sergei
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore.
    Effect of the adsorption of ethylene carbonate on Si surfaces on the Li insertion behavior2013Ingår i: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 585, s. 157-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of the ethylene carbonate (EC) solvent on Li insertion and diffusion in Si anodes are studied using density functional theory. On both (100) and (111) reconstructed surfaces of Si, a semi-dissociated (SD) configuration of EC is stable and most favorable for Li insertion, lowering its barrier by up to 0.2 eV vs a clean surface. The less stable molecular adsorption has little effect on Li insertion and diffusion, while the surface ketone formed by dissociating the SD configuration at a cost of 0.6 eV has a strong detrimental effect on Li insertion, increasing its barrier by up to 0.4 eV.

  • 10.
    Carvalho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Santos, Paulo
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Coutinho, José
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Jones, Robert
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Light induced degradation in B doped Cz-Si solar cells2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, nr 10, s. 1894-1897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyse the formation energy of interstitial boron (Bi) and the properties of the defect resulting from its association with an oxygen dimer (BiO2i) to evaluate the possibility that it may be the slow-forming centre responsible for the light-induced degradation of B-doped Si solar cells. However, we find that the formation energy of Bi is too high, and therefore its concentration is negligible. Moreover, we find that the lowest energy form of BiO2i is a shallow donor, and the deep donor form is high in energy. Lowest energy structure of the BiO2i defect.

  • 11.
    Carvalho, Alexandra T.G.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Electronic and optical properties of chlorinated silicon nanoparticles2013Ingår i: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 1039-1042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles calculations are used to investigate the structure, electronic and optical properties of silicon nanocystals with chlorine-passivated surface. The nanocrystals considered were approximately spherical, with diameters between 1.5 and 3.0 nm. We show that the nanocrystals with chlorinated surface have a smaller bandgap, lower optical absorption threshold, and greater ionization energy and electron affinity than hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals of the same size

  • 12.
    Carvalho, Alexandra T.G.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Increased electronic coupling in silicon nanocrystal networks doped with F4-TCNQ2013Ingår i: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 1035-1038Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The modification of the electronic structure of silicon nanocrystals using an organic dopant, 2,3,5,6- tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F 4-TCNQ), is investigated using first-principles calculations. It is shown that physisorbed F4-TCNQ molecules have the effect of oxidizing the nanocrystal, attracting the charge density towards the F 4-TCNQ-nanocrystal interface, and decreasing the excitation energy of the system. In periodic F4-TCNQ/nanocrystal superlattices, F 4-TCNQ is suggested to enhance exciton separation, and in the presence of free holes, to serve as a bridge for electron/hole transfer between adjacent nanocrystals.

  • 13.
    Carvalho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Barroso, Manuel
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Briddon, Patrick
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Boron doped Si nanoparticles: the effect of oxidation2013Ingår i: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 250, nr 9, s. 1799-1803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The preferred location of boron in oxidized free-standing Si nanoparticles was investigated using a first-principles density functional approach. The nanoparticles were modeled by a silicon core about 1.5 nm in diameter surrounded by an outer shell of SiO2 with a thickness of about 0.5 nm, and considered negatively charged. The calculated formation energies indicate that B is equally stable in the Si core and in the SiO2 shell, showing preference for interface sites. This indicates that, in contrast with phosphorus, the ratio of the boron concentration in the silicon core to that of the silicon shell will not be improved over one upon thermal annealing.

  • 14.
    Carvalho, Alexandra
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Barroso, Manuel
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    P-doping of Si nanoparticles: the effect of oxidation2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, nr 10, s. 1847-1850Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The radial dependence of the formation energy of substitutional phosphorus in silicon nanoparticles covered by an amorphous oxide shell is analysed using local density functional theory calculations. It is found that P+ is more stable at the silicon core. This explains the experimental observation of segregation of phosphorus to the Si-rich regions in a material consisting of Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix [Perego et al., Nanotechnology 21, 025602 (2010)]. Formation energy of positively charged substitutional phosphorus in a 1.5 nm diameter Si nanoparticle covered by a ∼2 nm-thick amorphous SiO2 shell, as a function of its distance to the centre.

  • 15.
    Coutinho, Jose
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Markevich, V.P.
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Peaker, A.R.
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Hamilton, B.
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Lastovskii, S.B.
    Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus.
    Murin, L.I.
    Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus.
    Svensson, B. G.
    Department of Physics, Oslo University.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Electronic and dynamical properties of the silicon trivacancy2012Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 86, nr 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The trivacancy (V3) in silicon has been recently shown to be a bistable center in the neutral charge state, with a fourfold-coordinated configuration, V3[FFC], lower in energy than the (110) planar one [ V. P. Markevich et al. Phys. Rev. B 80 235207 (2009)]. Transformations of the V3 defect between different configurations, its diffusion, and disappearance upon isochronal and isothermal annealing of electron-irradiated Si:O crystals are reported from joint deep level transient spectroscopy measurements and first-principles density-functional calculations. Activation energies and respective mechanisms for V3 transformation from the (110) planar configuration to the fourfold-coordinated structure have been determined. The annealing studies demonstrate that V3 is mobile in Si at T>200 ∘C and in oxygen-rich material can be trapped by interstitial oxygen atoms so resulting in the appearance of V3O complexes. The calculations suggest that V3 motion takes place via consecutive FFC/planar transformation steps. The activation energy for the long-range diffusion of the V3 center has been derived and agrees with atomic motion barrier from the calculations

  • 16. Genovese, L.
    et al.
    Neelov, A.
    Goedecker, S.
    Deutsch, T.
    Ghasemi, S. A.
    Willand, A.
    Caliste, D.
    Zilberberg, O.
    Rayson, Mark
    Bergman, A.
    Schneider, R.
    Daubechies wavelets as a basis set for density functional pseudopotential calculations2008Ingår i: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 129, s. 14109-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 17. Goss, J. P.
    et al.
    Briddon, P. R.
    Rayson, Mark
    Sque, S. J.
    Jones, R.
    Vacancy-impurity complexes and limitations for implantation doping of diamond2005Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 72, s. 35214-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18. Goss, J. P.
    et al.
    Jones, R.
    Shaw, T. D.
    Rayson, Mark
    Briddon, P. R.
    First principles study of the of the self-interstitial defect in diamond2001Ingår i: Physica status solidi. A, Applied research, ISSN 0031-8965, E-ISSN 1521-396X, Vol. 186, s. 215-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19. Goss, J. P.
    et al.
    Rayson, Mark
    Briddon, P. R.
    Baker, J. M.
    Metastable Frenkel pairs and the W11--W14 electron paramagnetic resonance centers in diamond2007Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 76, s. 45203-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Goss, J.P.
    et al.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Coomer, B.J.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Jones, R.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Shaw, T.D.
    Department of Physics, University of Newcastle.
    Briddon, P.R.
    Department of Physics, University of Newcastle.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Self-interstitial aggregation in diamond2001Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 63, nr 19, s. 195208-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles methods are used to investigate the self-interstitial and its aggregates in diamond. The experimental assignment of the spin-1 R2 EPR center to the single interstitial has been questioned because of the small fine-structure term observed. We calculate the spin-spin interaction tensor for the three interstitial defects I1〈001〉, I2NN, and I3 and compare with the experimental D tensors. The results give support for the assignments of the single and di-interstitials to microscopic models and allow us to conclusively identify a recently observed EPR center, O3, with I3. This identification, in turn, suggests a low-energy structure for I4 and a generic model for an extended defect called the platelet. We also determine the optical properties of I1〈001〉 as well as its piezospectroscopic or stress tensor and find these to be in agreement with experiment. Several multi-interstitial defects are found to possess different structural forms which may coexist. We propose that a different form of the charged I2 defect gives rise to the 3H optical peak. Several structures of the platelet are considered, and we find that the lowest-energy model is consistent with microscopic and infrared studies.

  • 21.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Korelskiy, Danil
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriell miljö- och processteknik.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Mass transport in porous media from first principles: an experimental and theoretical study2012Ingår i: Journal of Membrane Science, ISSN 0376-7388, E-ISSN 1873-3123, Vol. 415-416, s. 271-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, the mass transport of helium through zeolite is experimentally determined by measuring the flow of helium through a zeolite membrane. By using a mathematical model, the mass transport through defects was accounted for to arrive at mass transport through zeolite pores. For the first time, we could thereby experimentally show that the mass transport of helium in zeolite pores is strongly controlled by the amount and location of hydrocarbons in the zeolite pores and varies several orders of magnitude. The mass transport of helium in ZSM-5 zeolite pores is first reduced gradually more than one order of magnitude when the loading of n-hexane is increased from 0 to 47% of saturation. As the loading of n-hexane is further increased to 54% of saturation, the mass transport of helium in the zeolite pores is further reduced abruptly by more than two orders of magnitude. This gradual decrease followed by an abrupt decrease of mass transport is caused by adsorption of n-hexane in the zeolite pores. In a similar yet different fashion, the mass transport of helium in the zeolite pores is reduced abruptly by almost two orders of magnitude when the loading of benzene is increased from 0 to 19% of saturation due to adsorption of benzene in the pore intersections. Effective medium approximation percolation models with parameters estimated using density functional theory employing the local density approximation, i.e. models with no adjustable parameters and the most sophisticated theory yet applied to this system, can adequately describe the experimental observations.

  • 22.
    Ivanovskaya, Viktoria V.
    et al.
    Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502 CNRS, University of Nantes.
    Zobelli, Alberto
    Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8502, F-91405, Orsay.
    Wagner, Philipp
    Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502 CNRS, University of Nantes.
    Heggie, Marlcolm I.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Ewles, Chris P.
    Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502 CNRS, University of Nantes.
    Low-energy termination of graphene edges via the formation of narrow nanotubes2011Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 107, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate that free graphene sheet edges can curl back on themselves, reconstructing as nanotubes. This results in lower formation energies than any other nonfunctionalized edge structure reported to date in the literature. We determine the critical tube size and formation barrier and compare with density functional simulations of other edge terminations including a new reconstructed Klein edge. Simulated high resolution electron microscopy images show why such rolled edges may be difficult to detect. Rolled zigzag edges serve as metallic conduction channels, separated from the neighboring bulk graphene by a chain of insulating sp3-carbon atoms, and introduce van Hove singularities into the graphene density of states.

  • 23.
    Markevich, A.
    et al.
    College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Jones, R.
    College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    First-principles study of hydrogen and fluorine intercalation into graphene-SiC(0001) interface2012Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 86, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC substrates can be modified by intercalation of different atomic species. In this work, mechanisms of hydrogen intercalation into the graphene-SiC(0001) interface, and properties of hydrogen and fluorine intercalated structures have been studied with the use of density functional theory. Our calculations show that the intercalation of hydrogen and fluorine into the interface is energetically favorable. Energy barriers for diffusion of atomic and molecular hydrogen through the interface graphene layer with no defects and graphene layers containing Stone-Wales defect or two- and four-vacancy clusters have been calculated. It is argued that diffusion of hydrogen towards the SiC surface occurs through the hollow defects in the interface graphene layer. It is further shown that hydrogen easily migrates between the graphene layer and the SiC substrate and passivates the surface Si bonds, thus causing the graphene layer decoupling. According to the band structure calculations the graphene layer decoupled from the SiC(0001) surface by hydrogen intercalation is undoped, while that obtained by the fluorine intercalation is p-type doped.

  • 24.
    Markevich, Vladimir P.
    et al.
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Peaker, Anthony R.
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Hamilton, Btruce
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Lastovskiǐ, S.B.
    State Scientific and Production Association, Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.
    Murin, Leonid I.
    State Scientific and Production Association, Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus.
    Coutinho, José A.
    I3N, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Svensson, Bengt Gunnar
    Department of Physics, Oslo University.
    The trivacancy and trivacancy-oxygen family of defects in silicon2014Ingår i: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 205-206, s. 181-190Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The data obtained recently from combined deep-level-transient spectroscopy (DLTS), local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy and ab-initio modeling studies on structure, electronic properties, local vibrational modes, reconfiguration and diffusion paths and barriers for trivacancy (V3) and trivacancy-oxygen (V3O) defects in silicon are summarized. New experimental results on the introduction rates of the divacancy (V2) and trivacancy upon 4 MeV electron irradiation and on the transformation of V3 from the fourfold coordinated configuration to the (110) planar one upon minority carrier injection are reported. Possible mechanisms of the transformation are considered and discussed.

  • 25. Markevich, Vladimir P.
    et al.
    Peaker, Anthony R.
    Hamilton, Bruce
    Litvinov, Valentin V.
    Pokotilo, Yurii M.
    Petukh, Alla N.
    Lastovskii, Stanislav B.
    Coutinho, Jose
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    Radiation-induced defect reactions in tin-doped Ge crystals2011Ingår i: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 178 - 179, s. 392-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have recently shown that Sn impurity atoms are effective traps for vacancies (V) in Ge:Sn crystals irradiated with MeV electrons at room temperature [V.P. Markevich et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109 (2011) 083705]. A hole trap with 0.19 eV activation energy for hole emission to the valence band (Eh) has been assigned to an acceptor level of the Sn-V complex. In the present work electrically active defects introduced into Ge:Sn+P crystals by irradiation with 6 MeV electrons and subsequent isochronal annealing in the temperature range 50-300 oC have been studied by means of transient capacitance techniques and ab-initio density functional modeling. It is found that the Sn-V complex anneals out upon heat-treatments in the temperature range 50-100 oC. Its disappearance is accompanied by the formation of vacancy-phosphorus (VP) centers. The disappearance of the VP defect upon thermal annealing in irradiated Sn-doped Ge crystals is accompanied by the effective formation of a defect which gives rise to a hole trap with Eh = 0.21 eV and is more thermally stable than other secondary radiation-induced defects in Ge:P samples. This defect is identified as tin-vacancy-phosphorus (SnVP) complex. It is suggested that the effective interaction of the VP centers with tin atoms and high thermal stability of the SnVP complex can result in suppression of transient enhanced diffusion of phosphorus atoms in Ge.

  • 26.
    Markevich, V.P.
    et al.
    University of Manchester.
    Peaker, A.R.
    University of Manchester.
    Hamilton, B.
    University of Manchester.
    Lastovskii, S.B.
    Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus.
    Murin, L.Il
    Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus.
    Coutinho, J.
    Department of Physics, University of Aveiro.
    Markevich, A.V.
    Department of Physics, University of Aveiro.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Svensson, B.G.
    Department of Physics, Oslo University.
    Reconfigurations and diffusion of trivacancy in silicon2012Ingår i: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 107, nr 15, s. 2974-2977Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Disappearance of the divacancy (V2) and trivacancy (V3) complexes upon isochronal and isothermal annealing of electron irradiated Si:O crystals has been studied by means of deep level transient spectroscopy. The annealing studies have shown that the V2 and V3 defects are mobile in Si at T>200 °C and in oxygen-rich material are trapped by interstitial oxygen atoms so resulting in the appearance of V2O and V3O defects. The activation energies for diffusion of the V2 and V3 centers have been determined. Density functional modeling calculations have been carried out to investigate the migration and reorientation mechanisms of V3 in large silicon supercells. It is proposed that these comprise a sequence of transformations between V3(D3) and V3(C2v) configurations.

  • 27.
    Markevich, V.P.
    et al.
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Peaker, A.R.
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Hamilton, B
    Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester.
    Litvinov, V.V.
    Belarusian State University, Minsk.
    Pokotilo, Yu.M.
    Belarusian State University, Minsk.
    Lastovskii, S.B.
    Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center of NAS of Belarus.
    Coutinho, J
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Carvalho, A
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Tin-vacancy complex in germanium2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, s. 083705-1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically active defects introduced into Ge crystals co-doped with tin and phosphorus atoms by irradiation with 6 MeV electrons have been studied by means of transient capacitance techniques and ab-initio density functional modeling. It is shown that Sn atoms are effective traps for vacancies (V) in the irradiated Ge:Sn+P crystals. The electronic structure of Sn-V is unraveled on the basis of hybrid states from a Sn atom and a divacancy. Unlike the case for Si, Sn-V in Ge is not a donor. A hole trap with 0.19 eV activation energy for hole emission to the valence band is assigned to an acceptor level of the Sn-V complex. The Sn-V complex anneals out upon heat-treatments in the temperature range 50–100 °C. Its disappearance is accompanied by the formation of phosphorus-vacancy centers.

  • 28.
    Pinto, H.
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Jones, R.
    School of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Palmer, D.W.
    School of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter.
    Goss, J.P.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, Nick G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, Alton B.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    First-principles studies of the effect of (001) surface terminations on the electronic properties of the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond2012Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 86, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Density functional calculations have been carried out on (001)-orientated slabs of diamond with different surface terminations. A negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy defect (NV-) is placed in the middle of the slab approximately 1 nm from each surface and the effect of the surface on the internal optical transition in NV- investigated. The calculations show that the chemical nature of the surface is important. We find that although the clean surface does not lead to charge transfer between the defect and the surface, there is a splitting of the empty excited state, the final state in optical absorption, arising from a strong hybridization of the surface and defect bands. This leads to a broadening of the 1.945-eV transition of the NV- defect. OH- and F-terminated surfaces have no surface states in the band gap and again charge transfer between the defect and surface does not occur. The splitting of the e levels responsible for the optical transitions for OH or F termination is similar to that found in periodic boundary condition simulations for bulk diamond where the defects are separated by 1 nm, and thus the calculations show that hydroxylated or fluorinated surfaces give favorable optical properties.

  • 29. Rayson, Mark
    Activity: International Conference on Advanced Materials Modelling: Towards large-­scale accurate Kohn­-Sham DFT for the cost of tight-­binding2012Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 30. Rayson, Mark
    Activity: NanoTP : Cost Action MP0901 : WG4 Meeting 20112011Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 31. Rayson, Mark
    Activity: Progress in techniques for large-scale density functional calculation2010Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 32. Rayson, Mark
    Activity: Psi-k 20102010Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33. Rayson, Mark
    Activity: Quantum-chemical modelling of large nanostructures: Towards large-­scale accurate Kohn­-Sham DFT for the cost of tight-­binding2012Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 34. Rayson, Mark
    Activity: Seminar: Fritz Haber Institute Theory Department, Berlin: Towards large-­scale accurate Kohn­-Sham DFT for the cost of tight-­binding2012Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 35. Rayson, Mark
    Lagrange-Lobatto interpolating polynomials in the discrete variable representation2007Ingår i: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 76, s. 26704-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36. Rayson, Mark
    Low-complexity method for large-scale self-consistent ab initio electronic structure calculations without localization2007Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 75, s. 153203-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37. Rayson, Mark
    Rapid filtration algorithm to construct a minimal basis on the fly from a primitive Gaussian basis2010Ingår i: Computer Physics Communications, ISSN 0010-4655, E-ISSN 1879-2944, Vol. 181, s. 1051-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38. Rayson, Mark
    et al.
    Briddon, P. R.
    First principles method for the calculation of zero-field splitting tensors in periodic systems2008Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 77, s. 35119-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 39. Rayson, Mark
    et al.
    Briddon, P. R.
    University of Newcastle.
    Highly efficient method for Kohn-Sham density functional calculations of 500-10,000 atom systems2009Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 80, s. 205104-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40. Rayson, Mark
    et al.
    Briddon, P. R.
    Rapid iterative method for electronic-structure eigenproblems using localised basis functions2008Ingår i: Computer Physics Communications, ISSN 0010-4655, E-ISSN 1879-2944, Vol. 178, s. 128-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41. Rayson, Mark
    et al.
    Goss, J. P.
    Briddon, P. R.
    First principles calculation of zero-field splitting tensors2003Ingår i: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 340, s. 673-676Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    Ryden, Jens
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex.
    Öberg, Sven
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Heggie, Malcolm
    Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, Patrick
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Hydrogen storage in the manganese containing metal-organic framework MOF-732013Ingår i: Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, ISSN 1387-1811, E-ISSN 1873-3093, Vol. 165, nr 1, s. 205-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations have been performed to investigate the possibility for hydrogen adsorption in the manganese containing metal-organic framework MOF-73. A supercell of 348 atoms in total were employed and the computer code Aimpro with the LDA functional PW92 was used to relax the different structures in the study. The results clearly show that MOF-73 is a suitable candidate for hydrogen storage since the coordination/binding energy for a hydrogen molecule to the MOF structure falls in the range of a few tens of kJmol-1.

  • 43.
    Santos, P.
    et al.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Couthino, J.
    Department of Physics, I3N, University of Aveiro, Campus Santiago.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Electrical activity of multivacancy defects in silicon2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi. C, Current topics in solid state physics, ISSN 1610-1634, E-ISSN 1610-1642, Vol. 9, nr 10-11, s. 2000-2004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation processes and properties of multivacancy defects in Si have been recently the subject of several re-search studies. Here we report on density functional calculations concerning the stability and electrical activity of the tetravacancy, pentavacancy and hexavacancy complexes in Si. Formation energy calculations indicate that Four-Fold Coordinated (FFC) V4 and V5 are more stable than Part-of-Hexagonal-Ring (PHR) or planar structures by at least 1.2 eV and 0.6 eV, respectively. This relative stability order between configurations remains unchanged for different charged states from double plus to double minus. Calculations of the electrical activity predict deep acceptor levels for the FFC defects. Accordingly, electron traps related to (–/0) and (=/–) levels near Ec – 0.5 eV were found for V4 and V5, whereas levels for V6 were estimated at Ec – 0.35 eV. No donor levels were found for these defects

  • 44. Shaw, M. J.
    et al.
    Briddon, P. R.
    Goss, J. P.
    Rayson, Mark
    Kerridge, A.
    Harker, A. H.
    Stoneham, A. M.
    Importance of Quantum Tunneling in Vacancy-Hydrogen Complexes in Diamond2005Ingår i: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 95, s. 105502-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 45.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    et al.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, J. P.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P. R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, Nick G.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, Alton B.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Jones, R.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Pinto, H.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Calculated electron affinity and stability of halogen-terminated diamond2011Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, nr 24, artikel-id 245305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical termination of diamond has a dramatic impact on its electrical and chemical properties, where hydrogen and oxygen termination produce negative and positive electron affinities, respectively. However, the impact of halogen termination is not fully understood. We show that for low-index surfaces, 100% fluorinated surfaces exhibit chemically stable positive electron affinities in the 1.17 to 2.63 eV range, whereas 100% chlorination is energetically unfavorable. At lower coverage the positive electron affinity is smaller, being a combination of halogen-terminated and unterminated sites. For mixed halogen and hydrogen termination, a wide range of negative and positive electron affinities can be achieved by varying the relative concentrations of adsorbed species.

  • 46.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, Jonathan P.G.
    School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, Patrick R.
    Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, Nick G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, Alton B.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Ultra thin transition metal oxide coatings on diamond for thermionic applications2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the MRS Fall Meeting Symposim, MRS Fall Meeting, 24-29 November 2012, Boston, USA, Warrendale: Materials Research Society, 2013, s. 13-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated, using density functional simulations, the energetics and the electronic properties of oxides of selected transition metals, TMs, adsorbed onto a diamond (001) surface. We find that stoichiometric oxides of TMs, particularly Ti and Zn, influence the electron affinity of diamond strongly. The electron affinities of stoichiometric oxides of Ti and Zn are calculated to be around -3eV, significantly higher than 1.9eV of commonly used H-termination. The reactions of TMs with an oxygenated diamond are found to be highly exothermic. Based upon the energetics and the electronic properties, we propose that in the regime of ultra thin films, oxides of TMs are promising options for surface coating of diamond-based electron emitters, as these coatings are compatible with semiconductor device fabrication processes, while having the benefit of inducing a large negative electron affinity

  • 47.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, J.P.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, N.G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, A.B.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Jones, R.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Pinto, H.
    School of Physics, University of Exeter.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of F- and Cl-terminated diamond2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, nr 9, s. 1709-1714Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical termination of diamond has important consequences for its electrical and chemical properties. Despite the impressive potential for various scientific and technological applications, halogen termination of diamond is not fully understood. We find using first principle atomistic simulation that 100% fluorinated diamond (100) surface exhibit a chemically stable positive electron affinity of 2.13 eV, whereas 100% chlorination is energetically unfavourable. The positive electron affinity of halogenated diamond generally increases with increasing surface coverage. For mixed halogen and hydrogen termination, a wide range of negative and positive electron affinities can be achieved theoretically by varying the relative concentrations of adsorbed species.

  • 48.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, J.P.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, N.G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, A.B.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Bromine functionalisation of diamond: an ab initio study2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, nr 9, s. 1703-1708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Immobilisation of organic molecules on diamond surfaces is of great interest for biomedical applications. While H, F and Cl terminations, as a linker, have been studied extensively, the bromination of diamond is not fully understood. We have performed ab initio simulations to investigate the chemisorption of Br onto C- and H-terminated diamond (100) surfaces. We find that due to steric interaction, 100% surface coverage of Br is not stable, however, surface coverage up to around 50% is theoretically achievable. The chemisorption energies corresponding to lower surface coverages of Br are found comparable to those of hydrogen. Partial surface coverages (25 and 50%) of Br on C-terminated diamond exhibit nearly equal positive electron affinities of 0.45 and 0.52 eV, respectively. Addition of hydrogen reduces the electron affinity and for 25% of Br on an otherwise H-terminated surface, a negative electron affinity of 0.57 eV is calculated.

  • 49.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, J.P
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, N.G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, A.B.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Effect of different surface coverages of transition metals on the electronic and structural properties of diamond2012Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (a) applications and materials science, ISSN 1862-6300, E-ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 209, nr 9, s. 1697-1702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of adsorbate species on diamond surfaces, even in relatively small concentrations, strongly influences electrical, chemical and structural properties. Despite the technological significance, coverage of diamond by transition metals has received relatively little attention. In this paper, we present the results of density functional calculations examining up to a mono-layer of transition metals on the (001) diamond surface. We find that addition of carbide forming species, such as Ti, results in significantly higher adsorption energies at all surface coverages relative to non-carbide forming species. For monolayer coverage by Cu, and sub-monolayer coverage by Ti, we find a negative electron affinity. We propose that based upon the electron affinities and binding energies, metal-terminated (001) diamond surfaces are promising candidates for electron emission device applications.

  • 50.
    Tiwari, Amit K.
    et al.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Goss, J.P.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Briddon, P.R.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Wright, Nick G.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Horsfall, Alton B.
    School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.
    Rayson, Mark
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Matematiska vetenskaper.
    Electronic and structural properties of diamond (001) surfaces terminated by selected transition metals2012Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 86, nr 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of adsorbate species on diamond surfaces, even in small concentrations, strongly influences electrical, chemical, and structural properties. Despite the technological significance, coverage of diamond by transition metals has received relatively little attention. In this paper, we present the results of density functional calculations examining up to a monolayer of selected metals (Cu, Ni, Ti, and V) on the (001) diamond surface. We find that addition of carbide forming species (Ti and V) results in significantly higher adsorption energies at all surface coverages relative to those of the non-carbide-forming species. For monolayer coverage by Cu or Ni, and submonolayer coverage by Ti and V, we find large, negative electron affinities. We propose that based upon the electron affinities and binding energies, metal-terminated (001) diamond surfaces are promising candidates for electron emission device applications

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