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  • 1. Berthon, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Opoku, Robert
    Pitt, Leyland
    Nel, Deon
    Department of Marketing, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
    Brand management and strategic performance: some evidence from South Africa2007In: Journal of African Business, ISSN 1522-8916, E-ISSN 1522-9076, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on a study using a previously published checklist to assess the brand management practices of South African firms. Indications are that the perceptions of a sample of senior managers regarding how well their institutions manage their brands are reasonably positive, and that the management of brands has effects on a firm's profitability, market share and growth compared to competitors. While the checklist used seems to possess the characteristic of reliability, further development needs to be done on aspects of its underlying structure. Implications for managers and further avenues for research are identified and discussed.

  • 2. Berthon, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Prinsloo, Mélani
    Pitt, Leyland
    From service factory to service theatre: solving the positioning dilemma in the medical practice2007In: Journal of Medical Marketing, ISSN 1745-7904, E-ISSN 1745-7912, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doctor's surgeries are typically inefficient: They are generally stuck in the middle of the market, neither providing an individually tailored personal experience, nor one that is fast, efficient and cost effective. Introducing ideas from service simultaneity, and dramaturgy (the theory and practice of dramatic composition), this paper provides a simple but powerful model for the conceptualisation and redesign of the doctor's surgery. We argue that doctor's surgeries that are successful will be those that focus either on standardisation of activities in a back office environment (Service Factory), or high customisation of activities in a front office environment (Service Theatre). Those that attempt to do everything will succeed in doing nothing well.

  • 3. Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Ewing, Michael
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Naudé, Peter
    Department of Management, University of Bath.
    Understanding B2B and the Web: the acceleration of coordination and motivation2003In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 553-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores business-to-business (13213) marketing on the Internet, and how the confluence of the two may transform the 13213 landscape. Specifically, it discusses the notion of linkage value to demonstrate why the 13213 phenomenon on the Internet is so significant. It then considers the mechanisms and enablers that have made the Web such an important 13213 marketing channel. It also explores how the Web can reduce transaction costs, thereby facilitating more efficient exchanges and markets. The concepts of links and nodes are then introduced and the processes of disintermediation, reintermediation, disaggregation and reaggregation are explored. Finally, Web B2B configurations are considered by way of a model that describes four archetypal configurations, and the factors that are antecedent to these modes and how the Web may influence them.

  • 4.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    McCallum School of Business, Bentley College, Waltham, MA.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Campbell, Colin
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Thwaites, Des
    University of Leeds.
    e-Relationships for e-Readiness: culture and corruption in international e-B2B2008In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of electronic networks in B2B relationships has been growing exponentially. From massive internet B2B exchanges to tiny RFID chips, B2B is increasingly becoming e-B2B. Whilst e-B2B has been explored intra-nationally, its international counterpart is less well documented; as has been the role that culture might play in the development of international e-B2B relationships. In this paper we address this important issue of international e-business relationships. Specifically we explore the interconnection between national e-readiness and cultural values, and address the research question: How do cultural values impact a nation's readiness to engage in e-business? Drawing upon international surveys we link cultural values with national e-business infrastructure. Our findings suggest an intriguing link between cultural values and a nation's readiness for e-B2B. From these results we develop managerial recommendations and extrapolate research opportunities.

  • 5.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Bentley University Waltham.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Campbell, Colin
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    (Un)believable blogs: Blogs, Skepticism and Product Reviews2010In: New Directions, New Insights: Conference Proceedings, GFA 2010, Fourth German-French-Austrian Conference on Quantitative Marketing, Vienna, September 16-18, 2010, p. 85-86Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Blogs (short for "web logs") are websites, owned and written by individuals ("bloggers"). While most blogs serve merely as a way for individuals to record and report their thoughts and activities and have little commercial or organizational impact whatsoever, a smaller number enable those with more expertise to commentate on advanced and specialized phenomena, subjects, industries, products, and services. In doing so they reach very large audiences and become very influential. Blogs have become important marketing communication devices in recent years, because, used effectively, they can be very helpful relationship management tools. Blogger credibility in particular is of crucial importance from a communication perspective -recent research has demonstrated strongly that blogger credibility plays a positive role in relational trust. It begins to answer the issue: to what extent are readers skeptical about the content of blogs? This is an important question, because, if general skepticism is low, then blogs will prove to be effective ways of communicating with broad publics. If it is high, then marketing communicators need to factor this into their use of blogs as tools of communication and persuasion. In this research, a scale to measure advertising skepticism (STA) is adapted to a blogging context. Belief in a communication is a function of the both the source of that communication (source credibility) and the specific content of the communication (content credibility). Because the STA scale focuses primarily on the informational aspect of advertising, we integrate this into a more generalizable causal model of skepticism toward blogging. We argue that an individual's overall skepticism toward blogs impacts on their skepticism toward the information contained in blogs, and the extent to which they believe blogs are credible. This in turn influences the frequency with which they then read blogs. This structure is then tested empirically.

  • 6.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    McCallum School of Business, Bentley University.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Simon Fraser University.
    Halvorson, Wade
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Ewing, Michael
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Crittenden, Victoria L.
    Carroll School of Management, Boston College.
    Advocating avatars: the salesperson in second life2010In: Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, ISSN 0885-3134, E-ISSN 1557-7813, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 195-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive digital media are revolutionizing the marketing landscape. The virtual world is a dominant player in this new panorama, with exchanges in the virtual marketplace approaching $2 billion annually. While virtual, like real world, exchanges require buyers and sellers, there is little or no understanding of this disembodied sales process. The current study seeks to address this gap in knowledge by employing an ethnographic methodology in which researchers incarnate in Second Life to explore the personal selling process. Specifically, the various notions of the "self" that constitute the avatar salesperson are explored. Findings from this exploratory study suggest a relationship between the nature of the self and the type of exchange. From this, a conceptual model for the study of the virtual selling self is presented, propositions developed, and managerial implications for the virtual sales force suggested. © 2010 PSE National Educational Foundation

  • 7. Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Nel, Deon
    Deakin University, Melbourne.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Engström, Anne
    The biotechnology and marketing interface: functional integration using mechanistic and holographic responses to environmental turbulence2008In: Journal of Commercial Biotechnology, ISSN 1462-8732, E-ISSN 1478-565X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 213-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper serves to specify and ground research into interfunctional integration in a wider theoretical context with particular reference to the interaction between technology and marketing in the biotechnology sphere. The general and specific problem areas are specified as those of interfunctional relations and the dyadic relationship between marketing and biotechnical managerial functions in particular. The contextual/organisational generative mechanisms that are likely to keep interfunctional relations at the centre of scholarly attention for some time are explored from the perspective of cybernetic theory. The law of requisite variety states that in an effective open system environmental variety is matched by internal structural variety. As organisations are faced with ever more turbulent, and complex environments, this must be matched by an increased internal complexity within the organisation. The two modes of response, namely holographic and mechanistic, both highlight the need to further our understanding of interfunctional differences. Having established the problem and its genesis, a specific research agenda is outlined as the exploration of the interfunctional differences from a decision-making perspective.

  • 8.
    Berthon, Pierre
    et al.
    Bentley University, Waltham.
    Pitt, Leyland
    imon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Parent, Michael
    Segal Graduate School of Business, Simon Fraser University.
    Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Aesthetics and ephemerality: observing and preserving the luxury brand2009In: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 45-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While luxury brands are one of the most profitable and fastest growing segments of the brand pantheon, they are the least understood. There is no established definition as to what a luxury brand is; no clear understanding of the value dimensionality of luxury brands; and no rigorous conceptualization of the different types of luxury brands. They are generally treated as homogenous. Little wonder the management of these brands is shrouded in mystery. This article explores the value dimensionality of luxury brands, differentiates among luxury brands, and proposes a typology to help firms understand the managerial implications and challenges of each type. All luxury brands are not the same-they can mean different things to different people or even different things to the same people, which makes target marketing of luxury brands both difficult and important. This also means that they react differently to each other both in times of economic prosperity and in downturns. This article also explores strategies for migrating mass-market brands into luxury brand markets.

  • 9.
    Caruana, Albert
    et al.
    University of Malta.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Berthon, Pierre
    Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Branding and diversity: the role of brand personality in positioning business schools2007In: Marketing theory and practice in an inter-functional world: Proceedings of the 2007 World Marketing Congress, Verona, Italy / [ed] Carol W. DeMoranville, The Academy of Marketing Science, 2007, p. 86-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Chan, Anthony
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Mills, Adam
    How readable are environmental policy statements?: an exploratory study within the IT industry2011In: Corporate Ownership & Control, ISSN 1727-9232, E-ISSN 1810-3057, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 258-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental policy statements are nowadays fairly ubiquitous, particularly among large organizations. Environmental policy statements continue to be seen as an important element in the sustainability initiatives of organizations. However, if they are to have a chance of achieving the desired positive outcomes that those in their favor highlight, they must first be readable and comprehensible to the targeted stakeholders. To investigate the readability of environmental policy statements of IT companies, the individual environmental policy statements were collected of the IT companies within the 2009 Greenfactor study. A readability calculation tool was then employed to assess the readability of each of these environmental policystatements. Results are reported, and the implications are considered, while limitations are noted and directions for future research are identified.

  • 11.
    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Chaharsooghi, S. Kamal
    A conceptual model for the internet's impact on marketing in Iran2007In: Direct Marketing: An International Journal, ISSN 1750-5933, E-ISSN 1750-5941, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 125-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The potential impact of the internet on marketing is a common topic of discussion in marketing literature. However, there is still much debate on exactly what impact it will have on developing countries. To perceive this impact world-wide, it is essential to spread some light to the less investigated parts of the globe as well. This study aims to reach a better conceptual model for the internet's impact on marketing in Iran, by examining Iranian marketing managers' perceptions of the internet's impact on their key marketing activities and comparing the results with other parts of the world. Design/methodology/approach - The paper employs a cross-sectional research design involving self-administered delivery and collection surveys to Iranian marketing decision makers. Findings - The findings suggest that the impact of these new media will be to cause firms to redefine markets, marketing activity and value creation, although these changes are not dramatic. Research limitations/implications - The findings reported here are snapshots in time. The internet's rapid evolution and growth demand that regular tracking with longitudinal designs be implemented. Practical implications - Firms need to make changes in the marketing activities and market definitions and to try to reach the new ways that are created through the internet. Originality/value - A modified model for the world wide web marketing that seems to be more realistic for developing countries is presented.

  • 12.
    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Believing the bloggers: some implications of consumer skepticism for PR professionals2010In: Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, ISSN 1440-4389, E-ISSN 1839-8227, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 79-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online blogs, specifically those that offer reviews of products, services and technologies, increasingly attract interest among practitioners of public relations as well as academic scholars. While the literature has addressed the significance of blogs as a public relations tool, limited research has been devoted to the responses of blog readers. This paper focuses on the extent to which online consumers exhibit scepticism towards these blogs. We validated a scepticism scale traditionally employed in advertising research to understand consumer scepticism towards blogs. The survey amongst Australian online consumers confirmed the relationship between selected demographics and blog reader scepticism.

  • 13. Halvorson, Wade
    et al.
    Parent, Michael
    Pitt, Leyland
    Selling green dots in second life: case study2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14. Halvorson, Wade
    et al.
    Parent, Michael
    Pitt, Leyland
    Selling green dots in second life: teaching note2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15. Heerden, Gene van
    et al.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Caruana, Albert
    University of Malta.
    Do b2b bloggers believe in blogs?: PR insights on blogger skepticism2010In: Asia Pacific Public Relations Journal, ISSN 1440-4389, E-ISSN 1839-8227, Vol. 10, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Karlsson, Ted
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Kuttainen, Christer
    Pitt, Leyland
    Spyropoulou, Stavroula
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Price as a variable in online consumer trade-offs2005In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 350-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - To determine the impact of price on consumer decision making in online environments. Design/methodology/approach - Uses a conjoint experiment to investigate the trade-offs customers make when choosing and to establish their relative weights in online and offline situations. Findings - Finds that customers expect prices to be lower in an online environment than in a traditional sales channel. Research limitations/implications - Despite acknowledged limitations of experimental design and student samples, the findings have both theoretical and practical implications. Practical implications - Marketing planners can use the intelligence gained from conjoint studies such as this to improve the design and implementation of online retail experiences. Originality/value - Compares online and offline shopping environments with specific regard to the importance of price in each in the consumer decision-making processes, a hitherto overlooked issue in marketing research.

  • 17.
    Merwe, Rian van der
    et al.
    User Experience Research - e-Bay, San Jose, CA.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Barnes, Bradely R.
    Kent Business School, University of Kent.
    Berthon, Pierre R.
    Department of Marketing, Bentley College, Waltham, Mass..
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Finding the hidden value in SME networks2008In: International Journal of Enterprise Network Management, ISSN 1748-1252, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 145-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on both social network and social capital theory, this study explores the formation of 'elusive ensembles' on the internet in BioTech Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Social network and structural hole theories are combined to identify the social capital associated with a network, and this in turn is used to signal entrepreneurial opportunity. Interestingly the findings outline areas where better network coordination is possible. Specifically, the research suggests that entrepreneurial opportunities exist (1) to develop better relationships with those key actors who can exert influence on the network and (2) for enhancing value in the distribution channel by taking on the role as a network intermediary where suitable.

  • 18.
    Mills, Adam J.
    et al.
    Beedie School of Business Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Sattari, Setayesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Reading between the vines: analyzing the readability of consumer brand wine web sites2012In: International Journal of Wine Business Research, ISSN 1751-1062, E-ISSN 1751-1070, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 169-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many audiences might view wine brand web sites as complex or unapproachable. Wine drinking is no longer a pastime of the affluent and elite; rather, it is increasingly popular among younger consumer groups and those from broader socio-economic backgrounds. In order to communicate effectively with newer consumer demographics, wine brand web sites must first and foremost be understandable and readable. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this issue, aiming to answer the question of whether the web sites of popular wine brands are readable or not. Design/methodology/approach – To investigate the readability of consumer brand wine web sites, web site copy from the 20 most popular wine brands in the USA was calculated across multiple readability indices employing content analysis. Findings – The findings suggest that, while certain target demographics may be assumed by grouping wine brand web sites based on readability measures, there are marked differences in readability across wine web sites of a similar nature that only serves to reinforce consumer confusion, rather than help remove it. Originality/value – There is scant literature on readability in the wine business literature in general, and with regard to the readability of wine web sites in particular. The research highlights the need for those who communicate with a broad audience of wine consumers to give attention to web site content, and readability in particular. This is for two reasons: less sophisticated consumers will not respond to wine marketing messages they cannot understand, and more sophisticated wine drinkers will react more positively to messages that are clear and well-written. Readability is equally important for these more sophisticated consumers.

  • 19.
    Mills, Adam
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Reyneke, Mignon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Campbell, Colin
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Drawing meaning from online user discussions about brands: A study of comments in response to luxury advertisements on YouTube2015In: The Sustainable Global Marketplace: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing Science, Coral Gables, FL USA May 24-27, 2011 / [ed] Mary Conway, Cham: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 398-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet and how consumers make use of it is constantly changing. The Internet has evolved from an information retrieval source to a place of interactivity, and a place for dialogue from one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. Many term the Internet today “Web 2.0.” As one of many social platforms of Web 2.0, the use of video as a means of online communication is gaining increasing popularity among Internet users. Video publishing is no longer accessible solely to trained and skilled videographers; assisted by the development of inexpensive and user-friendly media software, consumers are now creating their own content. The accessibility of video publishing, combined with the network effects of video-driven social media platforms such as YouTube, is changing the advertising landscape. This paper discusses Consumer Generated Advertising (CGA), where consumers create brand messages independent of the brands themselves in order to persuade, inform or remind fellow consumers. Because of the anonymity, visibility and interactivity of online CGA, consumer dialogues and market conversations are difficult to interpret through traditional advertising research methods (surveys, ratings services, etc). However, there may be an opportunity for brand managers to capitalize on Web 2.0 to gain valuable insight into the ways consumers interact with their brands. In this exploratory study, we make use of the content analysis software Leximancer to make sense of and measure consumer feedback around conversations on CGA. We study consumer comments posted on You Tube in response to three video advertisements in order to draw meaningful trends and insights from the large volume of seemingly disorganized consumer discussion

  • 20.
    Mills, Adam
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Reyneke, Mignon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Campbell, Colin
    Monash University, Melbourne, VIC.
    Drawing meaning from online user discussions about brands: A study of comments in response to luxury advertisements on YouTube2011In: The Sustainable Global Marketplace: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Academy of Marketing Science, Coral Gables, FL USA May 24-27, 2011 / [ed] Mary Conway, The Academy of Marketing Science, 2011, p. 398-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet and how consumers make use of it is constantly changing. The Internet has evolved from an information retrieval source to a place of interactivity, and a place for dialogue from one-to-one, one-to-many and many-to-many. Many term the Internet today “Web 2.0.” As one of many social platforms of Web 2.0, the use of video as a means of online communication is gaining increasing popularity among Internet users. Video publishing is no longer accessible solely to trained and skilled videographers; assisted by the development of inexpensive and user-friendly media software, consumers are now creating their own content. The accessibility of video publishing, combined with the network effects of video-driven social media platforms such as YouTube, is changing the advertising landscape. This paper discusses Consumer Generated Advertising (CGA), where consumers create brand messages independent of the brands themselves in order to persuade, inform or remind fellow consumers. Because of the anonymity, visibility and interactivity of online CGA, consumer dialogues and market conversations are difficult to interpret through traditional advertising research methods (surveys, ratings services, etc). However, there may be an opportunity for brand managers to capitalize on Web 2.0 to gain valuable insight into the ways consumers interact with their brands. In this exploratory study, we make use of the content analysis software Leximancer to make sense of and measure consumer feedback around conversations on CGA. We study consumer comments posted on You Tube in response to three video advertisements in order to draw meaningful trends and insights from the large volume of seemingly disorganized consumer discussion

  • 21. Opoku, Robert
    et al.
    Abratt, Russell
    Wayne Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Communicating brand personality: Are the websites doing the talking for the top South African Business Schools?2006In: Journal of Brand Management, ISSN 1350-231X, E-ISSN 1479-1803, Vol. 14, no 1-2, p. 20-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study extends the conceptualisation and measurement of brand personality to the online environment. We contend that websites are an important element of corporate identity management in today's competitive environment. We investigated the websites of South African Business Schools in order to find out what brand personality each school features. Our multistage methodology revealed a measure of business school brand personality that to some extent portrays the dimensions Aaker postulated. This study illustrates a powerful, but simple and relatively inexpensive way business school managers can study communicated brand personality. The results also offer new ways for business schools (and other organisations) to strengthen their brand and market position in a competitive environment. It also is a relatively simple way to differentiate their school in the crowded MBA education marketplace.

  • 22. Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Prinsloo, Mélani
    Nel, Deon
    University of the Witwatersrand.
    Do I like my ICON?: determining preferences for firms' mode of strategic focus2007In: International Journal of Technology Marketing, ISSN 1741-878X, E-ISSN 1741-8798, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether they intend to or not, firms adopt a strategic mode of focus, a way of directing efforts towards markets, products, both or neither. However, in a fast changing environment, such as South Africa, little information exists on whether managers within these organisations feel that the archetype they have adopted will be appropriate for survival in the near mid-term future. This paper reports on the results of a study that identified the modes of focus of South African firms as perceived by senior marketing managers. It then matches these to the strategic mode that the managers see as most likely to guarantee the future success of their firms. Limitations of the study are identified, implications for management highlighted and avenues for future research discussed.

  • 23. Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Merwe, Rian van der
    User Experience Research - e-Bay, San Jose, CA.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Barnes, Bradley R
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Swedish BioTech SMEs: The veiled values in online networks2006In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 26, no 5-6, p. 553-560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, sociologists have conceptualized and debated the value of ‘social capital', the resources embedded in an actor's social network. The notions of network organizations and strategic alliances have become important forms of entrepreneurial venture, yet often the value in these networks is veiled by network complexity. These associations of individuals and organizations are typically undocumented, difficult to identify by third parties, and even pass unrecognized by their constituent members. They consist of informal Internet networks that are extremely valuable because of the strategic social capital embedded in them. Drawing on social network theory, this paper outlines a methodology for viewing and valuing informal Internet networks, using small-to-medium sized enterprises in the Swedish biotechnology arena as a backdrop. It demonstrates that networks can be constructed from the links between the web sites of actor firms, and that it is possible to use social network theory to identify the most prominent actors. Then, using structural hole analysis, the entrepreneurial opportunities surrounding these actors can be unveiled.

  • 24.
    Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Parent, M.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Bentley University, Waltham.
    Steyn, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Aha! Research, Hong Kong.
    Event sponsorship and ambush marketing: lessons from the Beijing olympics2010In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sponsorship of large sporting and cultural events has become a major marketing communication tool, particularly when firms obtain exclusive rights and garner the hype associated with this honor. Concomitantly, ambush marketing-defined as attempts by competitors to exploit the event-has also increased in prominence. This article outlines what is known as the Li Ning affair, whereby major Olympic sponsor Adidas was ambushed by lesser-known Chinese sportswear company Li Ning, whose namesake founder was the most decorated Chinese Olympian and who lit the Olympic flame at the 2008 Beijing Olympiad. Data collected immediately following the closing of the Beijing Games isolates what we call the Li Ning effect-or, being incorrectly identified as an official sponsor-and the positive effects this has on measures of brand attitude and recommendation likelihood. As presented herein, seven lessons about ambush marketing can be derived from the Li Ning affair, which sponsors and those considering sponsorship opportunity might wish to learn.

  • 25.
    Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Parent, Michael
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Junglas, Iris
    University of Houston.
    Chan, Anthony
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Spyropoulou, Stavroula
    Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds.
    Integrating the smartphone into a sound environmental information systems strategy: principles, practices and a research agenda2011In: Journal of strategic information systems, ISSN 0963-8687, E-ISSN 1873-1198, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones are both green technologies and an integral parts of green information systems that are beginning to make serious contributions toward a sustainable environment. We trace the rise of the smartphone, with particular attention given to the iPhone and its many applications. The fundamental differences between smartphone-based and more common Internet applications, and how these might enhance sustainable strategies for organizations with a green agenda are highlighted. U-Commerce is suggested as a theoretical framework that best explains this, and the four dimension of U-Commerce are employed to illustrate how innovative organizations are using the unique characteristics of smartphones to pursue environmentally sound strategies. A process that might be followed for indentifying applications for sustainable issues, making sure that the applications take advantages of a smartphone's unique features, and that contribute to sustainability by using fewer resources, protecting resources, and improving our use of current resources. The paper concludes by identifying a research agenda for information systems scholars to pursue studying the use of smartphones in search of a sustainable information technology agenda.

  • 26. Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Berthon, Jean-Paul
    Nel, Deon
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
    The "ICON" archetype: its influence on customer orientation and innovation in South African firms2007In: Marketing Intelligence & Planning, ISSN 0263-4503, E-ISSN 1758-8049, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 157-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the relationship between a firm's "ICON" archetype, turbulence in its operating environment and its performance. Design/methodology/approach - A questionnaire-based survey of 258 marketing managers in South Africa used a modified ICON scale to identify archetypes, assess perceived turbulence, and measure performance with respect to profitability, market share and growth rate. Findings - The archetype to which a firm conforms depends to some extent on its perception of environmental turbulence, and has an influence on all aspects of its performance. "Isolate" firms tend to under-perform on all measures; "shapers" exhibit significantly higher rates of growth. Research limitations/implications - The limitations are associated with mail surveys, single-respondent bias, and subjective assessment of performance. The study nevertheless demonstrates the validity and usefulness of the ICON matrix and scale, and sets directions for further investigation. Practical implications - Offers a simple yet powerful way for marketing managers and planners to identify their firm's ICON archetype, and illustrates the impact it can have on performance. Originality/value - A managerially useful adaptation of the original ICON scale is applied beyond the conventional setting of North America or Europe, in a challenging managerial environment.

  • 27. Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Sattari, Setayesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bevelander, Diane
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Are business school mission statements readable?: Evidence from the top 1002010In: Journal of Strategic Management Education, ISSN 1649-3877, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mission statements are fairly ubiquitous, particularly among large organizations. Although opinions on mission statements are split among those in favor, those less so, and those that are cynical of them; they continue to be seen as an important element in strategy formulation. However, if they are to have a chance of achieving the desired positive outcomes that those in their favor highlight, they must first be readable and comprehensible to the targeted stakeholders. To investigate the readability of mission statements of business schools, the individual mission statements were collected of the business schools offering the top 100 MBA programs in the Financial Times rankings of 2009. A readability calculation tool was then employed to assess the readability of each of these mission statements. Results are reported, and the implications are considered, while limitations are noted and directions for future research are identified.

  • 28. Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Steyn, Peter
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Heerden, Gene van
    Terblanche, N.
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Consumer skepticism and blogs: implications for marketing communicators2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29. Pitt, Leyland
    et al.
    Watson, Richard
    Terry College of Business, University of Georgia.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Piccolo, Gabriele
    Department of Economics, Enterprise and Regulation, University of Sassari.
    Engström, Anne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    E-commerce, Web 2.0 and entrepreneurship: opportunities in the U-space2009In: International Journal Entrepreneurship Education, ISSN 1649-2269, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web 2.0 is not so much about new technologies as it is about new ways of using the internet and its associated technologies. In this article, we briefly describe the technological situation frequently referred to as Web 2.0, and distinguish it from its preceding phase, or "Web 1.0". Then, using the distinguishing characteristics of Web 2.0, we outline a framework that we call the "U-space" that can assist in identifying and classifying the opportunities and issues that will present themselves to entrepreneurs in the Web 2.0 environment. In conjunction with this, weoutline four short cases that illustrate this framework. We conclude by identifying some questions Web 2.0 entrepreneurs and those who teach entrepreneurship should answer in the utilization of the framework in the Web 2.0 milieu.

  • 30. Prinsloo, Mélani
    et al.
    Tudhope, Lynne
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Campbell, Colin
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Using demographics to predict smoking behavior2008In: Health Marketing Quarterly, ISSN 0735-9683, E-ISSN 1545-0864, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 289-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoking and nicotine addiction are among the major preventable causes of disease and mortality. Being able to target promotional campaigns effectively relies on a good understanding of the demographics of smokers and potential smokers. This study reports on the results of a large sample survey of the demographics of smoker and non-smokers in South African townships. Using logistical regression, it finds that smokers tend to be significantly, older males who are less educated, and somewhat surprisingly, with no religious affiliation. Implications for public health policy are identified, and avenues for future research recognized.

  • 31.
    Reyneke, Mignon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Berthon, Pierre R.
    McCallum School of Business, Bentley College, Waltham, MA.
    Luxury wine brands visibility in social media: an exploratory study2011In: International Journal of Wine Business Research, ISSN 1751-1062, E-ISSN 1751-1070, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 21-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the visibility of luxury wine brands, in particular the Bordeaux first growth brands in social media. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses data from howsociable.com to portray similar luxury wine brands in multi-dimensional space. To identify the associations between the brands and the social media visibility indicators, the paper uses correspondence analysis. Findings – The findings of the paper show that some of the brands considered did not, at the time the data were gathered, have a clearly defined social media strategy. Practical implications – The indication is that there are opportunities for luxury wine brand managers to use social media as a tool in their marketing strategies; also some threats may exist to these brands should they take a laissez faire approach to social media, particularly when social media are becoming as influential, if not more so than conventional media. Originality/value – Brands can take directions in social media today that would have been unlikely if not impossible five years ago. While brand managers may not fully be able to control the destinies of these brands, this paper suggests that the approaches followed in this particular research will present brand managers with a tool that will assist them in directing conversations that occur around their brands.

  • 32.
    Reyneke, Mignon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sorokáčová, Alexandra
    University of Vienna.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Managing brands in times of economic downturn: how do luxury brands fare?2012In: Journal of Brand Management, ISSN 1350-231X, E-ISSN 1479-1803, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 457-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spending in virtually every category of non-essential offerings declines during economic downturn. The recent global recession has confronted the luxury goods industry with questions of how well luxury brands do in times of economic downturn, and what kinds of strategies luxury brand managers implement in order to deal with economic asperity. In this article we address the relationship between the performance of luxury brands and the economic cycle, specifically the effect that recessions have on luxury brands, by means of an exploratory qualitative study. We evaluate the luxury goods industry as well as changes within it in recent years. We further consider luxury consumers and the effect the recent recession has had on their behavior, and outline a study of executives within the luxury goods industry designed to capture their impressions of the effects of an economic downturn on the brands they manage. The conclusions and managerial implications of the article afford managers of luxury brands some insight into strategies followed by luxury brands during the recession, as well as some interesting elements of consumer behavior during this time.

  • 33.
    Sattari, Setayesh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Caruana, Albert
    University of Malta.
    How readable are mission statements?: An exploratory study2011In: Corporate Communications. An International Journal, ISSN 1356-3289, E-ISSN 1758-6046, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 282-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Mission statements are fairly ubiquitous, particularly among large organizations. However, if they are to have a chance of achieving the desired positive outcomes, they must first be readable and comprehensible to the targeted stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this issue, to answer the question of whether the mission statements of large companies are readable or not. Design/methodology/approach – Content analysis and appropriate scores were employed to investigate the readability of the mission statements collected from a random sample of 100 firms in the Fortune 500 annual rankings. Findings – The results indicate that on average, the mission statements of the studied companies are not that readable, and that in the case of many of them, the mission statements assume the readings skills of a university graduate. Research limitations/implications – The results of this paper suggest that if the target audience of a mission statement is broad, and includes stakeholders such as customers and lower level employees, then firms would do well to test the readability of their mission statements, and revise them where necessary. Mission statements are not the only tools that organizations use to communicate with stakeholder. This encourages future research on readability analysis of other communication tools in firms. A larger sample of companies and other approaches to measure readability can be included in future research. Originality/value – This paper adds to the related literature, as the level of readability of mission statements has received limited attention in the past.

  • 34.
    Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Heerden, Gene van
    Pitt, Leyland
    Boshoff, Christo
    Meet the bloggers: some characteristics of serious bloggers in the Asia-Pacific region and why PR professionals might care about them2008In: Public Relations Quarterly, ISSN 0033-3700, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 39-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Strasheim, Arien
    University of Pretoria.
    Boshoff, Christo
    University of Stellenbosch.
    Abratt, Russell
    Huizenga School of Business and Entrepreneurship.
    A cross-cultural study of the perceived benefits of a retailer loyalty scheme in Asia2010In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 355-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore loyalty, loyalty schemes, and loyalty cards, as well as the internationalisation of loyalty schemes. We focus on loyalty schemes in Asia to define the primary objective of our study: to assess the impact of perceived benefits on the feelings of participants of a specific retailer's loyalty scheme, as well as customer loyalty towards the retailer. A literature review of loyalty schemes and loyalty cards is undertaken as well as the internationalisation of these cards. A survey was conducted in five Asian countries in which Toys'R'Us operates, namely Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Thailand. Data was collected among members of the Toys'R'Us Star Card loyalty programme. Structural equation modelling was used to build a model that can be used to explain the simultaneous structural relations between perceived benefits, emotional feelings, and loyalty behaviours. Invariance testing was applied in order to test whether the model holds across the five countries. Our findings suggest that perceived benefits have a weak direct effect on loyalty behaviours. However, perceived benefits have a much stronger effect on feelings, which in turn have a strong effect on loyalty behaviours. We also found subtle differences between the countries in the study, which could either be attributed to cultural differences, to marketing practices, or to both, which can only be ascertained through further research.

  • 36. Steyn, Peter
    et al.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Parent, Michael
    Simon Fraser University, Vancouver.
    Berthon, Pierre
    The social media release as a public relations tool: intentions to use among B2B bloggers2010In: Public Relations Review, ISSN 0363-8111, E-ISSN 1873-4537, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 87-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Social Media Release (SMR) is emerging as a potentially powerful public relations tool in a world of social network media, particularly when targeted at influential bloggers. The research described here studies the factors that influence bloggers to use SMRs, using the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical framework, concentrating specifically on their perceptions of usefulness and ease of use.

  • 37. Tudhope, Lynne
    et al.
    Prinsloo, Mélani
    Pitt, Leyland
    Barnes, Bradley R.
    Leeds University.
    Physician compliance and market demographics2007In: Journal of Medical Marketing, ISSN 1745-7904, E-ISSN 1745-7912, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of patient compliance is a significant topic of debate, as by nature it has implications on a broad community of stakeholders including pharmaceutical manufacturers, physicians who prescribe drugs, patients who may or may not decide to comply, as well as national governments that operate under budgetary constraints. Based on data collected from 2921 South Africa respondents, it would appear that in order to increase sample compliance, the various stakeholders in South Africa may need to undertake further research with the male population, young patients, the relatively more educated and middle income groups, as these sub-categories of individuals have less of a tendency to comply with their physicians' instructions when taking drugs.

  • 38.
    Watson, Richard T.
    et al.
    University of Georgia.
    Pitt, Leyland
    Berthon, Pierre
    Bentley College, Waltham.
    Zinkhan, George M.
    University of Georgia.
    U-commerce: expanding the universe of marketing2002In: Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, ISSN 0092-0703, E-ISSN 1552-7824, p. 333-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces several new concepts that lay the conceptual foundation for thinking about next-generation marketing based on ubiquitous networks. U-commerce, orÜber-commerce, is predicated on the characteristics of network ubiquity, universality, uniqueness, and unison. It is proposed that the keys to managing network-driven firms are the concepts of u-space and attention analysis. The implications for next-generation marketing in the u-space are explored, with a research agenda identified for scholars and managerial implications recognized for practitioners

1 - 38 of 38
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