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  • 1.
    Jassim, Hassanean
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Krantz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A Cradle-to-Gate Framework for Optimizing Material Production in Road Construction2016Ingår i: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, nr 19, s. 758-764Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In road construction, large quantities of raw materials are extracted and transported duringseveral stages of its life cycle. Consequently, processing and preparation of raw materials fordifferent purposes inevitably result in considerable amount of energy use and emissions of airpollutants. The Swedish Transportation Administration has an ambition to minimizeenvironmental impacts from transport infrastructure projects by, for instance, reducing the energyuse and emissions of greenhouse gases. This can be achieved by implementing specific strategiesand techniques during various stages throughout the life cycle of the project. In this paper aframework is proposed to manage the energy use and greenhouse gases emissions from rawmaterials extraction processes in road construction projects. A prototype is developed based onthe framework and demonstrated in a small case study.

  • 2.
    Jassim, Hassanean
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Krantz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande. Luleå University of Technology.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    A Model to Reduce Earthmoving Impacts2019Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3. Krantz, Jan
    An Earthworks Energy Model for Practical use in Road Construction2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With growing concern for rising fuel prices, peak oil, global warming and climate change in the last few decades, efforts have been made to address and alleviate the possible problems resulting from these threats. Within the transport sector these efforts have been made largely with respect to fuel efficiency of vehicles and alternative fuels. However one aspect not addressed to any great extent is the construction of the transportation infrastructure such as roads and railroads although it is known that this process consumes a lot of energy and causes emissions of greenhouse gases.The main idea behind this thesis is to formulate an energy model in order to assess energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in road construction projects. The scope of the thesis focuses on what is called the earthworks which includes the mass hauls, cutting, filling and crushing of materials. The process of forming the energy model was lead with the help of the following research questions:RQ 1: How can earthworks be optimized in a road construction project?RQ 2: How can energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of earthworks be assessed with the data available in the planning stage?RQ 3: What is the relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in road construction projects?The proposed energy model helps understanding the energy use in earthworks processes and is complemented with equations for calculating the corresponding energy use. Implementing the model in road projects requires a bill of mass quantities, a mass haul plan and a production plan. Knowledge about the location and project is helpful for further improving the accuracy of assessments when implementing the model.. In the model the energy use of earthworks is divided into three categories of machines or vehicles namely hauling vehicles, off-road mobile machines and crushing plants. Each category requires different methods for assessing their energy use.The application of the earthworks energy model is analyzed using a case study, based on two road projects in the city of Kiruna in Sweden. The source of crushed aggregates for the base course and subbase of the roads are compared. One alternative is to use nearby sources of gangue which is a by-product of the mining industry. This material can be crushed by a mobile crushing plant next to the road line. The other alternative is to buy these products from LKAB, the local mining corporation which also runs a stationary crushing plant located further away from the road projects. The first alternative will mean shorter mass hauls but might require its mobile crushing plant to run by a diesel electric generator instead of electricity from the grid. The latter issue turns out to be of crucial importance when the earthworks energy model is applied to the case study. In short, unless the energy source of the crushing of aggregates is electricity then the second alternative pays off even if the hauls are longer.One conclusion from the case study is that crushing of aggregates is a very energy consuming activity. Therefore it is an activity worth paying close attention to in order to improve the accuracy of its energy consumption. The fuel consumption of mass hauls is another aspect. It is not so well known how much the fuel consumption can differ between articulated haulers and trucks with trailers under given circumstances. They are designed for different types of conditions and hauling distances but there is an area where these uses overlap and within this area it is important to be able to establish which type of vehicle is the most energy efficient.The earthworks energy model is by no means complete. It is possible to expand it to involve more activities in road construction projects as well as increasing the detail. One way to increase the detailing in the energy evaluation is to connect it closer to the production planning and the implementation and use as a module in a planning software such as DynaRoad, which was used in the case study of this thesis. While increased detail and improved accuracy is important, what’s perhaps more important is to make the model more user friendly in order to spread its use to a wider audience.

  • 4.
    Krantz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Mitigating Carbon Emissions during the Planning and Execution of Transport Infrastructure Projects2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Krantz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Transport Infrastructure Projects2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    On- and off-site construction activities during transport infrastructure projectsare major contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The SwedishTransport Administration (STA) has stated the goal of gradually reducing itsemissions from transport infrastructure projects to zero by 2050. However,current life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approaches for estimating GHGemissions are static and location-independent, and thus do not account for thedynamics of construction. Some project-based methods have been proposed,but there is little guidance and insight available to facilitate theirimplementation in real projects during project planning.This thesis aims to explore how CO2 emissions can be reduced during differentstages of the planning process for transport infrastructure. The analysis focuseson emissions during project execution, i.e. on- and off-site constructionactivities including material production, and transportation. An exploratoryresearch approach is used to develop practical CO2 reduction methods thatcould be implemented during the feasibility studies, the design stage, and theprocurement stage of the planning process. These methods and models aredeveloped and demonstrated in case studies. This is a similar to the prototypingmethod in which early drafts of a new system are developed and tested toenable further development into a finalized system. The findings show thatconsiderable CO2 reductions can be achieved if project alternatives areevaluated systematically during the planning process. Although most majordecisions are made during the early stages of the planning process, later stagesshould not be ignored because these offer opportunities to include moredefinitive project data and thereby improve the certainty of the assessments.Future research in this area should look at the entire planning process up to thestart of construction.

  • 6.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Feng, Kailun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande. Department of Construction Management, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    ‘Eco-Hauling’ Principles to Reduce Carbon Emissions and the Costs of Earthmoving: a Case Study2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 208, s. 479-489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is critical if we are to meet the increasing threats posed by global warming. Previous studies have shown conclusively that a substantial part of all carbon dioxide emissions comes from transportation, and that Eco-Driving principles based upon strategic, tactical, and operational decisions have the potential to reduce these emissions. However, these well-established principles have been neglected within the construction industry despite the large number of transport-related activities that attend most construction projects. This paper therefore aims to increase awareness and understanding within the industry of the potential reductions of both carbon dioxide emissions and the costs of earthmoving activities that could be achieved through the use of Eco-Driving principles. A new concept labeled ‘Eco-Hauling’, which extends the Eco-Driving concept to earthmoving, is proposed. A case study of a road project has been conducted and used to demonstrate the new concept. Discrete-event simulation is used to support the data analysis as it enables modeling of the dynamic interactions between equipment and activities of multiple different construction scenarios. The presented findings show that a combination of decisions taken from the proposed Eco-Hauling concept can enable earthmoving contractors to substantially reduce carbon dioxide emissions and costs while maintaining productivity. This study has implications for the general advancement of Eco-Driving theory, as well as for project management as it sets out a viable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in construction projects.

  • 7.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Assessing the Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Maritime Infrastructure Projects2018Ingår i: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2018: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference in Sustainability on Energy and Buildings (SEB’18) / [ed] Prasad Kaparaju; Robert J. Howlett; John Littlewood; Chandima Ekanyake; Ljubo Vlacic, Switzerland, 2018, s. 43-51Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of maritime infrastructure, such as waterways and seaports, often require large-scale dredging processes. These processes are often both energy-intensive, using various fuels and emit considerable amounts of greenhouse gases such as CO2. Studies on road infrastructure have introduced and successfully implemented a number of sophisticated approaches for assessing and reducing energy use and associated CO2 emissions at a project level. However, research on maritime infrastructure construction has primarily focused on dredging at an equipment level despite the promising opportunities of assessing and reducing the climate impact at a project level. This study proposes a workflow for assessing the energy use and associated CO2 emissions of maritime infrastructure projects and demonstrates its use in a case study. The case study shows that these types of assessments are possible to conduct which also implies that alternative scenarios, such as different material uses, equipment or design choices can be compared. In practical terms project managers can benefit from such assessments and comparisons to lower the overall climate impact of their maritime infrastructure projects.

  • 8.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Evaluating Construction-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Alternative Road Alignments2017Ingår i: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, s. 527-534Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Road projects generally begin with broad investigations and progressively advance towards more detailed and immediate issues. Road corridors, which represent rough locations of alternative road alignments, are usually identified, evaluated and compared in early planning stages. Commonly at this stage, costs estimates of the identified road alignment are made whereas their environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, often are insufficiently accounted for. GHG emissions caused by the construction process are frequently ignored altogether. Despite indications that benefits of decisions and measures can be considerably higher if implemented in early planning stages, much emphasis is put on later stages. Our study presents an approach for estimating project-based GHG emissions of alternative alignments in early planning stages. The findings indicate that if adopted in the planning process, the approach can support projects in reducing their GHG emissions.

  • 9.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Integrating Production Planning into Road Corridor Evaluation Using ETL2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering / [ed] Nobuyoshi Yabuki and Koji Makanae, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex road projects, particularly near sensitive locations, often have substantial effects on humans and theenvironment caused by construction, production processes and the use phase. Before a road alignment isdetermined, several road corridors are identified and evaluated during early planning stages. Oftentimes thisevaluation focuses on impacts of the finished road whereas construction and production processes frequently areignored, risking viable corridors to be discarded before having been sufficiently evaluated. Existing IT-systemsenables modeling of relevant aspects such as road corridors, noise, pollution, production and construction, butthere is often a lack of interoperability between these systems. Interoperability problems can be faced withExtract Transform Load (ETL) tools but this has not been adequately examined regarding infrastructure projects.Our study presents a novel method for evaluating road corridors that includes production aspects, which arevisualized and analyzed in 3D. By using ETL technology to handle interoperability problems, existing tools forroad corridor planning, production planning and 3D visualization are used to demonstrate the method. Thefindings indicate that large scale production aspects related to road corridors can be modeled, analyzed andvisualized in 3D, which can benefit stakeholders in making decisions.

  • 10.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Exploring the Case Study Usage in Construction Engineering and Management Research2017Ingår i: ICCREM 2017: Project Management and Construction Technology : Proceedings of the International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2017 / [ed] Yaowu Wang, Yongshi Pang, Geoffrey Q. P. Shen, and Yimin Zhu,, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, s. 38-46Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Case studies have become more common and accepted among researchers across a wide array of academic disciplines including construction engineering and management (CEM) research. Among mainstream case study literature, the case study approach is seen primarily as a research method to be used in social sciences to study social phenomena. However, CEM is not considered a social science and construction engineering (CE) often do not study social phenomena. Instead, the field revolves around quantitative and engineering-based matters. This paper aims at studying the usage and characteristics of case studies in CEM research to determine if current literatures on case studies are sufficient for the field or if new approaches are needed. This is conducted through a quantitative inquiry into data from scientific databases and a qualitative analysis of several case study papers in the field of CEM. The results show that case studies are common in the field and in CE they often are used to demonstrate proposed frameworks or models. However, case study literature does not sufficiently describe this approach to case studies, which suggests that the literature needs to be complemented to meet the needs in CEM research.

  • 11.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects2015Ingår i: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 1156-1170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management) as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  • 12.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    An Energy Model for Sustainable Decision-Making in Road Construction Projects2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Road construction operations often require considerable amounts of energy in the form of fossil fuels, thus generating considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. While fuel efficiency of the heavy construction equipment is extensively studied, limited attention is given to how the construction process can be planned in order to reduce energy use and GHG-emissions. In this paper a conceptual model is proposed for the assessment of energy use and GHG-emission in road construction projects. When applied to a case study the conceptual energy model is a useful tool to asses and evaluate project alternatives in the early planning stages of road construction projects. As a result both the energy use and GHG-emissions in road construction projects can be reduced.

  • 13.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Johansson, Tim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Industriellt och hållbart byggande.
    Analysis of alternative road construction staging approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions2017Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 143, s. 980-988Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many studies focusing on assessing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in road projects, limited attention has been given to practical methods for mitigating environmental impacts at the project planning stage. Our study addresses this issue by proposing a model incorporating a step-by-step guide for calculating carbon dioxide emissions in the project. This model is practically applied to a road construction project where two major supply chain alternatives are evaluated and compared. The findings suggest that major reductions of carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved by (1) identifying and comparing a set of realistic project alternatives, and (2) conducting this at an early stage of the project planning process so that favorable alternatives can be implemented during construction.

  • 14.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    A Model for Assessing Embodied Energy and GHG Emissions in Infrastructure Projects2015Ingår i: ICCREM 2015: Environment and the Sustainable Building : proceedings of the 2015 international conference on construction and real estate management : August 11-12, 2015 Luleå, Sweden / [ed] Yaowu Wang; Thomas Olofsson; Geoffrey Qiping Shen; Yong Bai, Reston, Va: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2015, s. 1070-1077Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and operation of buildings and infrastructure is a main contributor to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in Sweden. The embodied energy of construction, meaning all the energy that is used until the completion of the construction project (see Figure 1), cause roughly 10 million tones of CO2 equivalent emissions each year which equals to the emissions from all cars in Sweden (IVA 2014). About 6 million tones of CO2 equivalent emissions are attributed to the embodied energy of roads, railroads and other civil works while the remaining 4 million tones are attributed to the embodied energy of buildings (IVA 2014). Although reducing energy use and associated GHG-emissions in road and railroad construction is prioritized by the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket 2012), the GHG-emissions from such construction projects have increased in recent years (Boverket 2014). Many of the existing efforts to reduce energy use and associated GHG-emissions focus on individual phases of the life cycle and don’t take into consideration the effects at other stages during the whole life cycle of a project (Boverket 2011). A crucial step in the assessment of energy use and associated GHG-emissions is to clarify and categorize the different phases of a life cycle. Figure 1 shows a proposed categorization of life cycles phases and use of energy based on previous research (Davies et al. 2014). Buildings’ main use of energy happens during its operational phase from e.g. heating, lighting and use of electrical appliances (Sartori and Hestnes 2007). In infrastructure projects such as road construction the embodied energy is roughly equal to the operational energy for roads with lighting, or in fact considerably higher if the road lacks lighting (Stripple 2001).

  • 15.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Krantz, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och -produktion.
    Discrete Event Simulation Analysis of Product and Process Platforms: A Bridge Construction Case Study2016Ingår i: Journal of construction engineering and management, ISSN 0733-9364, E-ISSN 1943-7862, Vol. 142, nr 4, artikel-id 4015097Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product and process platforms have been promoted as possible enablers of increased productivity in civil engineering. However, such platforms are traditionally applied in mass manufacturing industries where production assets are employed in continuous production of uniform products, which strongly facilitates continuous improvement. The discontinuous nature of project-based production in civil engineering restricts such possibilities. Thus, if platforms are implemented there is a need for methods capable of evaluating the performance of integrated product and production process configurations in specific projects. A possibility, explored in this paper, is to use database-driven simulation. As a case study, a configurable simulation model, based on standardized process patterns and values stored in a platform, has been developed of the production for a bridge concept. The presented results provide evidence that database-driven simulation can support efficient platform evaluation and development by integrating product and process information, even in discontinuous, project-based industrial sectors. The results specifically demonstrate that this approach can be used to evaluate effects of different configurations of construction methods on working time requirements without time-consuming updates of models.

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