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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 110, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed.It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment requirement to meet the total biofuel demand in the system. The main conclusion is that PO/BL co-gasification is a technically and economically attractive production route for production biomethanol.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor for methanol production2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor for methanol production2015In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 158, p. 451-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One alternative to reduce the motor fuel production cost and improve the operational flexibility of a black liquor gasification (BLG) plant is to add pyrolysis oil to the black liquor feed and co-gasify the blend. The objective of this study was to investigate techno-economically the possibility to increase methanol production at a pulp mill via co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor. Gasifying a blend consisting of 50% pyrolysis oil and 50% black liquor on a wet mass basis increases the methanol production by more than 250%, compared to gasifying the available black liquor only. Co-gasification would add extra revenues per produced unit of methanol (IRR > 15%) compared to methanol from unblended BLG (IRR 13%) and be an attractive investment opportunity when the price for pyrolysis oil is less than 70 €/MW h. The economic evaluation was based on a first plant estimate with no investment credit for the recovery boiler and a methanol product value volumetric equivalent to conventional ethanol, both these conditions will not applicable when the technology has been fully commercialized.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor: Optimal feedstock mix for different raw material cost scenarios2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Multiscale Reactor Network Simulation of an Entrained Flow Biomass Gasifier: Model Description and Validation2017In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1484-1494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a multiscale equivalent reactor network model for pressurized entrained flow biomass gasification to quantify the effect of operational parameters on the gasification process, including carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency, and syngas methane content. The model, implemented in the commercial software Aspen Plus, includes chemical kinetics as well as heat and mass transfer. Characteristic aspects of the model are the multiscale effect caused by the combination of transport phenomena at particle scale during heating, pyrolysis, and char burnout, as well as the effect of macroscopic gas flow, including gas recirculation. A validation using experimental data from a pilot-scale process shows that the model can provide accurate estimations of carbon conversion, concentrations of main syngas components, and cold gas efficiency over a wide range of oxygen-to-biomass ratios and reactor loads. The syngas methane content was most difficult to estimate accurately owing to the unavailability of accurate kinetic parameters for steam methane reforming.

  • 6.
    Bach Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil at high temperature: Part 1. Fate of alkali elements2017In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 202, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic activity of alkali compounds in black liquor (BL) enables gasification at low temperatures with high carbon conversion and low tar and soot formation. The efficiency and flexibility of the BL gasification process may be improved by mixing BL with fuels with higher energy content such as pyrolysis oil (PO). The fate of alkali elements in blends of BL and PO was investigated, paying special attention to the amount of alkali remaining in the particles after experiments at high temperatures. Experiments were conducted in a drop tube furnace under different environments (5% and 0% vol. CO2 balanced with N2), varying temperature (800–1400 °C), particle size (90–200 µm, 500–630 µm) and blending ratio (0%, 20% and 40% of pyrolysis oil in black liquor). Thermodynamic analysis of the experimental cases was also performed.

    The thermodynamic results qualitatively agreed with experimental measurements but in absolute values equilibrium under predicted alkali release. Alkali release to the gas phase was more severe under inert conditions than in the presence of CO2, but also in 5% CO2 most of the alkali was found in the gas phase at T = 1200 °C and above. However, the concentration of alkali in the gasification residue remained above 30% wt. and was insensitive to temperature variations and the amount of PO in the blend. Thermodynamic analysis and experimental mass balances indicated that elemental alkali strongly interacted with the reactor’s walls (Al2O3) by forming alkali aluminates. The experience indicated that adding PO into BL does not lead to alkali depletion during high temperature gasification.

  • 7.
    Bach Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil at high temperature: Part 2. Fuel conversion2017In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 197, p. 240-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency and flexibility of the BL gasification process may improve by mixing BL with more energy-rich fuels such as pyrolysis oil (PO). To improve understanding of the fuel conversion process, blends of BL and PO were studied in an atmospheric drop tube furnace. Experiments were performed in varying atmosphere (5% and 0% CO2, balanced by N2), temperature (800–1400 °C), particle size (90–200 μm and 500–630 μm) and blending ratio (0%, 20% and 40% of PO in BL on weight basis). Additionally, pine wood was used as a reference fuel containing little alkali. The addition of PO to BL significantly increased the combined yield of CO and H2 and that of CH4. BL/based fuels showed much lower concentration of tar in syngas than pine wood. Remarkably, the addition of PO in BL further promoted tar reforming in presence of CO2. Unconverted carbon in the gasification residue decreased with increasing fractions of PO. Small fuel particles showed complete conversion at 1000 °C but larger particles did not reach complete conversion even at T = 1400 °C.

  • 8.
    Bach-Oller, Albert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Bioeconomy,.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Reduction of tar and soot in biomass gasification with potassium: Effect of impregnation method and inherent inorganic speciesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    Innventia AB.
    Wolf, Jens
    Innventia AB.
    Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  • 10.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL – Swedish Environmental Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    IVL – Swedish Environmental Institute, Stockholm, Sweden;RISE Energy Technology Center AB, Piteå, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, no Part B, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning systemcomprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reductionwith zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol productionallowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantagederived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

  • 11.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE Bioeconomy.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 570-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrained flow gasification of black liquor combined with downstream-gas-derived synthesis of biofuels in Kraft pulp mills has shown advantages regarding energy efficiency and economic performance when compared to combustion in a recovery boiler. To further increase the operation flexibility and the profitability of the biofuel plant while at the same time increase biofuel production, black liquor can be co-gasified with a secondary feedstock (blend-in feedstock). This work has evaluated the prospects of producing biofuels via co-gasification of black liquor and different blend-in feedstocks (crude glycerol, fermentation residues, pyrolysis liquids) at different blend ratios. Process modelling tools were used, in combination with techno-economic assessment methods. Two methanol grades, crude and grade AA methanol, were investigated. The results showed that the co-gasification concepts resulted in significant increases in methanol production volumes, as well as in improved conversion efficiencies, when compared with black liquor gasification; 5-11 and 4-10 percentage point in terms of cold gas efficiency and methanol conversion efficiency, respectively. The economic analysis showed that required methanol selling prices ranging from 55-101 €/MWh for crude methanol and 58-104 €/MWh for grade AA methanol were obtained for an IRR of 15%. Blend-in led to positive economies-of-scale effects and subsequently decreased required methanol selling prices, in particular for low cost blend-in feedstocks (prices below approximately 20 €/MWh). The co-gasification concepts showed economic competitiveness to other biofuel production routes. When compared with fossil fuels, the resulting crude methanol selling prices were above maritime gas oil prices. Nonetheless, for fossil derived methanol prices higher than 80 €/MWh, crude methanol from co-gasification could be an economically competitive option. Grade AA methanol could also compete with taxed gasoline. Crude glycerol turned out as the most attractive blend-in feedstock, from an economic perspective. When mixed with black liquor in a ratio of 50/50, grade AA methanol could even be cost competitive with untaxed gasoline.

  • 12.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of entrained flow gasification of spent pulping liquors2018In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he main goal of this work is to investigate if thermodynamic equilibrium calculations can be useful for understanding and predicting process performance and product composition for entrained flow gasification of spent pulping liquors, such as black liquor. Model sensitivity to input data is studied and model results are compared to published pilot plant data. The high temperature and the catalytic activity of feedstock alkali make thermodynamic equilibrium a better predictor of product composition than for many other types of biomass and gasification technologies. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations can predict the flows of the main syngas and slag products with high accuracy as shown by comparison with experimental data with small measurement errors. The main process deviations from equilibrium are methane formation and sulfur distribution between gas and slag. In order to study real process deviations from equilibrium, it is very important to use consistent experimental data. Relatively small errors in the model input, primarily related to fuel composition, can lead to grossly erroneous conclusions. The model sensitivity to fuel composition also shows that the gasification process is sensitive to naturally occurring feedstock variations. Simulations of a commercial-scale gasification process show that cold gas efficiency on sulfur-free basis can reach over 80 % and that greatly improved efficiency can be obtained by reducing ballast present in the form of water or inorganics.

  • 13.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Oller, Albert Bach
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    SP ETC.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor - a new track for production of chemicals and transportation fuels from biomass2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized oxygen-blown entrained flow black liquor (BL) gasification, the Chemrec technology, has been demonstrated in a 3 MWth pilot plant in Piteå, Sweden for more than 25,000 h. The plant is owned and operated by Luleå University of Technology since 2013. It is well known that catalytic activity of alkali metals is important for the high reactivity of black liquor, which leads to a highly efficient BL gasification process. The globally available volume of BL is however limited and strongly connected to pulp production. By co-gasifying pyrolysis oil (PO) with BL it is possible to utilize the catalytic activity also for PO conversion to syngas. Adding PO leads to larger feedstock flexibility with the possibility of building larger biofuels plants based on BL gasification technology. This presentation summarizes new results from research activities aimed at developing and assessing the PO/BL co-gasification process. Results from laboratory experiments with PO/BL mixtures show that pyrolysis behavior and char gasification reactivity are similar to pure BL. This means that the decrease in the alkali metal concentration due to the addition of PO in the mixture does not decrease the reactivity. Pure PO is much less reactive. Mixing tests show that the fraction of PO that can be mixed into BL is limited by lignin precipitation as a consequence of PO acidity. Pilot scale PO/BL co-gasification experiments have been executed following design and construction of a new feeding system to allow co-feeding of PO with BL. The results confirm the conclusions from the lab scale study and prove that the co-gasification concept is practically applicable. Process performance of the pilot scale co-gasification process is similar to gasification of BL only with high carbon conversion and clean syngas generation. This indicates that the established BL gasification technology can be used for co-gasification of PO and BL without major modifications.

  • 14.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Climate & Sustainable Cities.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Carvalho, Lara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture.

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production.

    Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

  • 15.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    SP Energy Technology Center AB.
    Mixing of Fast Pyrolysis Oil and Black Liquor: preparing an Improved Gasification Feedstock2016In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 10575-10582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-gasification of fast pyrolysis oil and black liquor can be used to increase the size and improve profitability of pulp mill integrated biorefineries. The acids present in pyrolysis oil limit the amount that can be mixed into black liquor without causing precipitation of the black liquor dissolved lignin. This work shows that a simple model based on pyrolysis oil total acid number, including weak phenolic acids, can be used to predict the maximum pyrolysis oil fraction in blends. The maximum oil fraction is 20–25% for typical pyrolysis oil but can be increased up to at least 50% mass, corresponding to 70% energy, by addition of base. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to understand the effects of blend composition, including any added base, on the performance of a commercial scale gasification process. A substantial increase in overall gasification efficiency is observed with increasing pyrolysis oil fraction.

  • 16.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Stare, Ragnar
    Chemrec AB, Stockholm.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Löwnertz, Patrik
    Chemrec AB, Stockholm.
    Pilot Scale Gasification of Spent Cooking Liquor from Sodium Sulfite Based Delignification2014In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 7517-7526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a pilot scale high pressure entrained flow gasification experiment with spent cooking liquor from a sodium sulfite based delignification process in the DP-1 black liquor gasifier in Piteå, Sweden. Approximately 92 tons of sulfite thick liquor were gasified during 100 h of operation without any operational problems despite the new feedstock. The syngas quality was found to be good for all operating points with the CH4 content below 0.3% and H2/CO ratio between 1.03 and 1.15. The experiment shows that the process capacity is limited by green liquor quality parameters primarily dependent on the presence of small amounts of unconverted carbon. The pilot plant capacity was found to be somewhat lower than for Kraft black liquor on mass basis but higher when measured as thermal load, due to the higher heating value of sulfite thick liquor. Mass and energy balances were made difficult by the unavailability of measured green liquor and syngas flow rates, which lead to the necessity of using alternative approaches for the estimation of these flows. Using these estimates, overall mass and energy balances were closed to within 5% for all operating points except one, and the process cold gas efficiency was 60-68% on sulfur-free lower heating value basis. Carbon balances indicate that 95-97% of feedstock carbon leaves with the syngas, mainly as CO and CO2 with the remainder being mostly green liquor carbonate. More than 95% of the feedstock sodium is found in green liquor, while 3-5% ends up in the gas condensate purge stream. The sulfur balance does not close as well as other elements but indicates that 70-73% of the feedstock sulfur ends up in the syngas as H2S and COS with the remainder being present in green liquor as dissolved sulfide salts.

  • 17.
    Hardi, Flabianus
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Imai, Akihisa
    Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yoshikawa, Kunio
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology and ‡Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass with K2CO3 for production of gasification feedstock2018In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of alkali catalyst during hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) improves conversion and allows the aqueous liquid product to be used as gasification feedstock. This study investigates the effect of reaction temperature (240–300°C), sawdust mass fraction (9.1–25%) and reaction time (0–60 min) during K2CO3-catalytic HTL of pine sawdust. The highest biomass conversion (75.2% carbon conversion and 83.0% mass conversion) was achieved at a reaction temperature of 270°C, 9.1% sawdust mass fraction and 30 min reaction time; meanwhile, the maximum aqueous product (AP) yield (69.0% carbon yield and 73.5% mass yield) was found at a reaction temperature of 300°C, 9.1% sawdust mass fraction and 60 min reaction time. Based on the main experimental results, models for carbon and mass yields of the products were developed according to face-centered central composite design using response surface methodology. Biomass conversion and product yields had a positive correlation with reaction temperature and reaction time, while they had an inverse correlation with sawdust mass fraction. Further investigation of the effects of biomass/water and biomass/K2CO3 ratios revealed that both high water loading and high K2CO3 loading enhanced conversion and AP yield.

  • 18.
    Hardi, Flabianus
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Imai, Akihisa
    Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Theppitak, Sarut
    Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yoshikawa, Kunio
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology and ‡Department of Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology.
    Gasification of Char Derived from Catalytic Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Pine Sawdust under a CO2 Atmosphere2018In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 5999-6007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration between K2CO3 catalytic hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) and gasification is explored to improve the gasification process. In this study, the CO2 gasification characteristics and the activation energies of the chars derived from four kinds of HTL products, black liquor (BL), and virgin pine sawdust (PS) are investigated non-isothermally using a thermogravimetric analyzer. The complete conversion of BL char and HTL product chars was achieved at lower temperatures (1150 K) than that of PS char (1300 K). BL char showed the highest derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) peak, an indicator of high reactivity, followed by HTL product chars and PS char. HTL liquid product chars exhibited the lowest DTG peak temperature (1023–1058 K), which is advantageous for the low-temperature gasification. The activation energies were calculated isoconversionally using the Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS), Flynn–Wall–Ozawa (FWO), and Starink approximations. On the basis of the KAS method, the range of the activation energy for the HTL aqueous product char sample was 127–259 kJ/mol, which was wider than that for BL char (171–190 kJ/mol). The HTL process can improve the gasification feedstock reactivity, and the use of the HTL liquid product allows for the gasification at a low temperature.

  • 19.
    Imai, Akihisa
    et al.
    School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
    Hardi, Hardi
    Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
    Lundqvist, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Unit of Climate and Sustainable Cities, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Karagöz, Selhan
    Department of Chemistry, Karabük University, Karabük, Turkey.
    Tekin, Kubilay
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Karabük University, Karabük, Turkey.
    Yoshikawa, Kunio
    School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Japan.
    Alkali-catalyzed hydrothermal treatment of sawdust for production of a potential feedstock for catalytic gasification2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 231, p. 594-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of reaction temperature and catalyst loading on product yields and fuel properties of produced slurry during the alkali catalyzed hydrothermal treatment (HTT) of pine sawdust. The yield of the liquid fraction, or the aqueous product (AP), at process temperatures of 180–260 °C obtained after solid/liquid separation of the slurry ranged from 11.1 to 34.3 wt% on a dry, ash free basis. The fuel quality of the produced slurry, such as the elemental composition and the higher heating value (HHV), was mainly affected by the catalyst loading. An increase in the catalyst loading caused the ash content to increase. Although the increase in temperature leads to a higher liquid fraction in the slurry making it more homogeneous, its contribution to the elemental composition of the whole slurry was limited. HHV of the produced slurry ranged from 12.0 to 16.4 MJ/kg. These values are comparable to that of black liquor (BL), which has previously been shown to be a promising feedstock for gasification in a pilot scale entrained flow gasifier. These results imply the possibility of a fuel switch from BL to the HTT slurry for entrained flow gasification though its gasification reactivity and conversion characteristics must be investigated further.

  • 20.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Performance of a Pilot-Scale Entrained-Flow Black Liquor Gasifier2016In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 3175-3185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilot-scale entrained flow gasification experiments were carried out at the 3 MWth LTU Green Fuels black liquor gasification (BLG) plant, using ∼140 tons of Kraft black liquor (BL) with a dry solids content of ∼72.5%. Comprehensive mass and energy balances were performed to quantify process performance under varying pressure, load, and oxygen/fuel ratio. Carbon conversion efficiency of the BLG process was 98.3%–99.2% and did not vary systematically in response to process changes. The unconverted carbon is almost exclusively present as dissolved organic carbon in the green liquor (GL) stream. GL is an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfide used to recover the inorganic pulping chemicals present in BL for reuse in the pulp mill. A small fraction of syngas CO is converted to formate ions dissolved in GL through reaction with hydroxide ions. Unconverted carbon present in GL solids is insignificant. Syngas produced is subsequently upgraded to methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) in an integrated fuel synthesis facility. Concentration of H2 in syngas is not significantly affected by operating point changes in the domain investigated, while CO and CO2 concentrations are. Syngas hydrocarbon concentration values are typically in the single-digit parts per million (ppm) with the exception of C6H6, which was present at 16–127 ppm. CH4 is present at 0.5%–1.2%, with lower concentrations at higher temperatures, and shows good correlation with C6H6. A quantity of 24%–27% of BL sulfur ended up in the syngas as 1.5%–1.7% H2S and 64–72 ppm COS. Cold gas efficiencies (CGEs) on a lower heating value (LHV) basis, when including syngas CH4, were 52%–55% and decreased at higher temperature. CGEs on an LHV basis, when considering only H2 and CO with a sulfur-free BL heating value relevant for catalytic syngas upgrading, were 58%–60% and showed the opposite temperature dependence. Good mass and energy balance closures show the figures presented to be reliable. The results obtained from this study demonstrate process stability at varying operating conditions and can be further used for techno-economic analysis and design purposes.

  • 21.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Granberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A study of black liquor and pyrolysis oil co-gasification in pilot scale2018In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the blend ratio and reactor temperature on the gasification characteristics of pyrolysis oil (PO) and black liquor (BL) blends with up to 20 wt% PO was studied in a pilot-scale entrained-flow gasifier. In addition to unblended BL, three blends with PO/BL ratios of 10/90, 15/85, and 20/80 wt% were gasified at a constant load of 2.75 MWth. The 15/85 PO/BL blend was used to investigate the effect of temperature in the range 1000–1100 °C. The decrease in fuel inorganic content with increasing PO fraction resulted in more dilute green liquor (GL), and a greater portion of the feedstock carbon ended up in syngas as CO. As a consequence, the cold gas efficiency increased by about 5%-units. Carbon conversion was in the range 98.8–99.5% and did not vary systematically with either fuel composition or temperature. Although the measured reactor temperatures increased slightly with increasing PO fraction, both unblended BL and the 15% PO blend exhibited largely similar behavior in response to temperature variations. The results from this study show that blending BL with the more energy-rich PO can increase the cold gas efficiency and improve the process carbon distribution without adversely affecting either carbon conversion or the general process performance.

  • 22.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Stockholm.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 401-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-based biofuels are strategically important in forest-rich countries like Sweden but the technical performance of several promising production pathways is poorly documented. This study examines product yields and energy efficiencies in six commercially relevant forest-based “drop-in” and “high blend” biofuel production pathways by developing detailed spreadsheet energy balance models. The models are in turn based on pilot-scale performance data from the literature, supplemented with input from technology developers and experts. In most pathways, biofuel production is integrated with a market pulp mill and/or a crude oil refinery. Initial conversion is by pyrolysis, gasification or lignin depolymerization and intermediate products are upgraded by hydrotreatment or catalytic synthesis.

    While lignin oil (LO) hydrodeoxygenation had the highest expanded system efficiency, considerable uncertainty surrounds product yields owing to absence of suitable experimental data on LO upgrading. Co-feeding vacuum gas oil and fast pyrolysis oil in a fluidized catalytic cracker has a complex and uncertain effect on fossil yields, which requires further investigation. Co-locating bio-oil hydrotreatment at the refinery improves heat utilization, leading to higher system efficiencies. Explicit consideration of mill type and energy requirements is required to avoid performance misestimation as an assumption of energy surplus can confer a definite advantage.

  • 23.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Axelsson, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kinetic study of catalytic gasification of wood char impregnated withdifferent alkali salts2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 118, p. 1055-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different concentrations (0.1 and 1 M K+/Na+) of salt solutions (K2CO3, Na2CO3, NaOH and NaCl) were used to impregnate alkali in sawdust. After devolatilization, char samples were gasified at different temperatures (750–900 °C) under CO2 in a macro-thermogravimetric analyzer for gasification kinetics. Morphologically, three classes of chars could be identified. Chars experiencing the highest catalytic influence were in Class-2 (0.5 M K2CO3 and 1 M NaOH) with a swollen and molten surface. In contrast, Class-1 (wood char like) and Class-3 (with salt deposits) chars showed moderate and low catalytic effect on gasification reactivity respectively. It is believed to be related to char surface swelling and alkali salt used. At 850 °C or below, the reactivity increased linearly (Class-1 and Class-3 Char) with initial alkali content up to 2200 mmol alkali/kg of char (except for NaCl). The same reaction rate was maintained until 3600 mmol/kg of char of alkali loading (Class-2) and then decreased. However, no trend was observed at 900 °C due to drastic change in reactivity of the samples, probably due to alkali transformation. Among the salts, K2CO3 (0.5 M) was found to be the most suitable for catalytic gasification due to its high catalytic activity in combination with relatively low carbon leaching.

  • 24.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Axelsson, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alkali catalyzed gasification of solid biomass: influence on fuel conversion and tar/soot reduction2016In: Proceedings of the 24th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam: ETA Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, p. 533-536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on char gasification experiments in an isothermal thermogravimetric analyzer, a suitable concentration of alkali salt (K2CO3) was chosen for impregnation due to almost five-fold increase in gasification reactivity and relatively low amount of carbon leaching during impregnation. Furthermore, an optimum method for wet alkali impregnation was proposed based on the several tests performed by varying temperature and time. To study the catalytic effect on tar and soot yield, untreated and impregnated woody biomass were gasified under entrained flow condition between 900 oC and 1200 oC. Impregnation leads to 70% lower tar yield from gasification around 1000 oC and 1100 oC. The lowest amount of soot was detected for the same temperature range whereas the soot yield was one order of magnitude higher for untreated biomass. For tar, this influence became insignificant at a higher temperature (1200 oC). This defines the suitable temperature range for alkali catalyzed gasification without the loss of catalytic activity.

  • 25.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Häggström, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory,.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cogasification of crude glycerol and black liquor blends: char morphology and gasification kinetics2017In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4296, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1272-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the feasibility of black liquor/glycerol blends as potential gasification feedstock. The char gasification reactivity and kinetics were studied at T = 750 °C, 800 °C, 850 °C and 900 °C for 20% and 40% blends of glycerol with black liquor. Three qualities of glycerol were used including two industrial grade crude glycerols. Gasification rates were similar for all blends, indicating sufficient alkali metal catalysis also for the char blends (Alkali/C atomic ratio between 0.45 and 0.55). The blends with the most impure glycerol (containing K) were found to have the lowest activation energies (~120 kJ/mol) and reaction times for char gasification indicating fuel properties suitable for gasification. Char particles from different blends showed similar surface morphology as black liquor chars with even surface distribution of alkali elements. A loss of alkali (mainly, K) from the fuel blends during pyrolysis indicated the necessity to perform gas-phase studies of alkali release. Overall, these results encourage the use of glycerol as a potential gasification feedstock for catalytic gasification based bio-refineries.  

  • 26.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Marke, Birgitta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, TVM Green Fuels Operation.
    Granberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, TVM Green Fuels Operation.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Löwnertz, Patrik
    Chemrec AB, Stockholm.
    Öhrman, Olov
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå.
    Sørensen, Esben Lauge
    Haldor Topsøe A/S, R&D Department.
    Salomonsson, Per
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Gothenburg.
    Two years experience of the BioDME project: A complete wood to wheel concept2014In: Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1944-7442, E-ISSN 1944-7450, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 744-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimethyl ether (DME), is an excellent diesel fuel that can be produced through gasification from multiple feedstocks. One particularly interesting renewable feedstock is the energy rich by-product from the pulping process called black liquor (BL). The concept of utilizing BL as gasifier feed, converting it via syngas to DME and then compensating the withdrawal of BL energy from the pulp mill by supplying biomass to a conventional combined heat and power plant, is estimated to be one of the most efficient conversion concepts of biomass to a renewable fuel on a well-to-wheel basis. This concept has been demonstrated by the four-year BioDME project, including field tests of DME-fueled heavy-duty trucks that are operated commercially. Up till the summer of 2013 more than 500 tons of BioDME has been produced and distributed to 10 HD trucks, which in total has run more than 1 million km in commercial service

  • 27.
    Lee, Uisung
    et al.
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Han, Jeongwoo
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Wang, Michael
    Argonne National Laboratory.
    Ward, Jacob
    US Department of Energy.
    Hicks, Elliot
    Oberon Fuels.
    Goodwin, Dan
    Oberon Fuels.
    Boudreaux, Rebecca
    Oberon Fuels.
    Hanarp, Per
    Volvo Group.
    Salsing, Henrik
    Volvo Group.
    Desai, Parthav
    Volvo Group.
    Varenne, Emmanuel
    Volvo Group.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Volvo Group.
    Willems, Werner
    Ford Motor Company.
    Winkler, Sandra L.
    Ford Motor Company.
    Maas, Heiko
    Ford Motor Company.
    De Kleine, Robert
    Ford Motor Company.
    Hansen, John
    Haldor Topsoe A/S.
    Shim, Tine
    Haldor Topsoe A/S.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe2016In: SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, ISSN 1946-3952, E-ISSN 1946-3960, Vol. 9, article id 2016-01-2209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The five DME pathways include 1) fossil NG with large-scale DME plants, 2) methanol from fossil NG with large-scale plants for both methanol and DME (separately), 3) LFG with small-scale DME plants, 4) manure-based biogas with small-scale DME plants, and 5) methanol from black liquor gasification with small-scale DME plants. This study analyzes DME production and use in the U.S. and Europe, and in two vehicle classes (light and heavy duty vehicles [LDVs and HDVs]). The WTW results show significant reductions in fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by DME compared to gasoline and diesel if DME is produced from LFG and manure-based biogas. When methanol from black liquor is used for DME production, there are reductions in GHG emissions, though smaller than DME produced from LFG and MANR. Meanwhile, fossil NG-based DME produced in large-scale DME plants or from NG-based methanol shows GHG emissions at the similar level as petroleum diesel does.

  • 28.
    Oller, Albert Bach
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Fuel conversion characteristics of black liquor and pyrolysis oil mixture for efficient gasification with inherent catalyst2014In: European biomass conference and exhibition proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the technical feasibility of a catalytic co-gasification process using a mixture of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO). A technical concern is if gasifiers can be operated at low temperature (~1000 ºC) without problems of tar, soot or char, as is the case for pure BL due to the catalytic effect of fuel alkali. Hence, we investigated fuel conversion characteristics of BL/PO mixture: conversion of single droplet in flame, and char gasification reactivity. 20wt.% (BP20) and 30wt.% (BP30) were selected for weight fraction of PO because of lignin precipitation in BP30. Single droplet was devolatilized and gasified in a methane flame with a flat flame burner at various droplet sizes. Conversion time and swelling ratio were investigated with imaging. They were more sensitive to initial droplet size and reaction atmosphere than the mixing of BL and PO. Char gasification reactivity was measured in an isothermal thermogravimeter (iTG) at T=880–940 ºC and PCO2=1 bar. Both BP20 and BP30 showed complete char conversion and there was no statistically significant difference in char reactivity among BP20, BP30 and BL. These results show that PO can be co-gasified in BL gasification process without major changes in the operation.

  • 29.
    Oller, Albert Bach
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Fuel conversion characteristics of black liquor and pyrolysis oil mixtures: Efficient gasification with inherent catalyst2015In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 79, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali metals inherent in black liquor (BL) have strong catalytic activity during gasification. A catalytic co-gasification process based on BL with pyrolysis oil (PO) has the potential to be a part of efficient and fuel-flexible biofuel production systems. The objective of the paper is to investigate how adding PO into BL alters fuel conversion under gasification conditions. First, the conversion times of single fuel droplet were observed in a flat flame burner under different conditions. Fuel conversion times of PO/BL mixtures were significantly lower than PO and comparable to BL. Initial droplet size (300–1500 μm) was the main variable affecting devolatilization, indicating control by external heat transfer. Char oxidation was affected by droplet size and the surrounding gas composition. Then, the intrinsic reactivity of char gasification was measured in an isothermal thermogravimetric analyser at T = 993–1133 K under the flow of CO2–N2 mixtures. All the BL-based samples (100% BL, 20% PO/80% BL, and 30% PO/70% BL on mass basis) showed very high char conversion. Conversion rate of char gasification for PO/BL mixtures was comparable to that of pure BL although the fraction of alkali metal in char decreased because of mixing. The reactivities of BL and BL/PO chars were higher than the literature values for solid biomass and coal chars by several orders of magnitude. The combined results suggest that fuel mixtures containing up to 30% of PO on mass basis may be feasible in existing BL gasification technology.

  • 30.
    Oller, Albert Bach
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Characterization of tar and soot formation for an improved co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil2015Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Black liquor (BL) gasification is a proven process with very low tar generation at lower temperature than other entrained-flow biomass gasification processes. Recently, BL gasification technology was further expanded to increase feedstock flexibility by co-gasifying pyrolysis oil (PO) with BL. Economic advantage was shown by a techno-economic study. Our previous lab-scale studies using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer and a flat flame burner showed high char reactivity of sample mixture (30wt.% blend of PO into BL) as alkali content in BL kept high catalytic activity despite being diluted by the addition of PO. However, tar and soot formation from this new feedstock remained unknown. In this study, we investigated how the reaction conditions affect the formation of tar and soot to understand their formation mechanism and to suggest suitable operation conditions for the industrial processes. Experiments were carried out with fuel blends containing between 0 and 40wt.% of PO in BL using a laminar entrained flow reactor under the flow of N2/CO2. The effects of operating parameters were evaluated by varying temperature (1073-1673 K), partial pressure of CO2 (0-20 kPa), particle size (90-200 μm and 500-630 μm) and residence time. High temperature (i.e. 1673 K), high heating rate and short residence time experiments were performed to mimic industrial-scale conditions. Soot yield was under detection limit while low amounts of tar (mainly benzene) were formed at low temperature and decreased as the temperature increased. Addition of PO maintained the yields of tar and soot very low while it increased the syngas yield. Overall, this study demonstrated the feasibility of co-gasification of PO and BL and provided valuable information about tar formation under different operating conditions.

  • 31.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Häggström, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bach-Oller, Albert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Reduction of tar and soot formation from entrained-flow gasification of woody biomass by alkali impregnation2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 5104-5110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tar and soot in product gas have been a major technical challenge toward the large-scale industrial installation of biomass gasification. This study aims at demonstrating that the formation of tar and soot can be reduced simultaneously using the catalytic activity of alkali metal species. Pine sawdust was impregnated with aqueous K2CO3 solution by wet impregnation methods prior to the gasification experiments. Raw and alkali-impregnated sawdust were gasified in a laminar drop-tube furnace at 900–1400 °C in a N2–CO2 mixture, because that creates conditions representative for an entrained-flow gasification process. At 900–1100 °C, char, soot and tar decreased with the temperature rise for both raw and alkali-impregnated sawdust. The change in tar and soot yields indicated that potassium inhibited the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and promoted the decomposition of light tar (with 1–2 aromatic rings). The results also indicated that the catalytic activity of potassium on tar decomposition exists in both solid and gas phases. Because alkali salts can be recovered from product gas as an aqueous solution, alkali-catalyzed gasification of woody biomass can be a promising process to produce clean product gas from the entrained-flow gasification process at a relatively low temperature.

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