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  • 1.
    Adu, Cynthia
    et al.
    Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Eichhorn, Stephen J.
    Bristol Composites Institute (ACCIS), Queens Building, School of Engineering, Bristol University.
    Jolly, Mark
    Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University.
    Zhu, Chenchen
    Bristol Composites Institute (ACCIS), Queens Building, School of Engineering, Bristol University.
    Properties of cellulose nanofibre networks prepared from never-dried and dried paper mill sludge2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, no 1, p. 765-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper mills yield large volumes of sludge materials which pose an environmental and economic challenge for disposal, despite the fact that they could be a valuable source for cellulose nanofibres (CNF) production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the production process and properties of CNF prepared by mechanical fibrillation of never-dried and dried paper mill sludge (PMS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that average diameters for both never-dried and dried paper sludge nanofibres (PSNF) were less than 50 nm. The never-dried and dried sludge nanofibres showed no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05) in strength 92 MPa, and 85 MPa and modulus 11 GPa and 10 GPa. The study concludes that paper mill sludge can be used in a dried state for CNF production to reduce transportation and storage challenges posed on industrial scale.

  • 2.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Noël, Maxime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Linder, Tomas
    Löfqvist, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Light scattering in cellulose nanofibre suspensions: Model and experiments2016In: Computers in Chemistry Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego: Proceeding from ACS National Meeting San Diego, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2016, p. 122-, article id CELL 235Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Here light scattering theory is used to assess the size distribution in a suspension of cellulose as it is fibrillated from micro-scaled to nano-scaled fibres. A model based on Monte carlo simulations of the scattering of photons by different sizes of cellulose fibres was used to predict the UV-IF spectrum of the suspensions. Bleached cellulose hardwood pulp was tested and compared to the visually transparent tempo-oxidised hardwood cellulose nanofibres (CNF) suspension. The theoretical results show that different diameter size classes exhibit very different scattering patterns. These classes could be identified in the experimental results and used to establish the size class dominating the suspension. A comparison to AFM/microscope size distribution was made and the results indicated that using the UV-IF light scattering spectrum maybe more reliable that size distribution measurement using AFM and microscopy on dried CNF samples. The UV-IF spectrum measurement combined with the theoretical prediction can be used even at this initial stage of development of this model to assess the degree of fibrillation when processing CNF.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    From bio-based residues to nanofibers using mechanical fibrillation for functional biomaterials2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-based resource utilization in different forms has been driven by societal, industrial and academic research interests towards the development of “green”, sustainable materials from renewable sources. Within this context, exploiting biomass from different industrial residues is further advantageous from an environmental and economic point of view, leading to minimization of residues by means of waste treatment and to the development of high-addedvalue- products. Breaking down the cell wall structure to its smallest structural components is one means of turning bio-based residues into high-value products, leaving us with nanofibers. The aim of this work has been to understand how these nanofibers can be liberated from various cellulosic sources using mechanical fibrillation and how they can be assembled into functional hydrogels.

    The production of bio-based nanofibers as a sustainable bio-based material is in the early stages of commercialization and considerable research has been devoted to explore different methods of reaching nanoscale. However, the extraction process by chemical and/or mechanical means is still associated with a relatively high energy demand and/or cost. These are key obstacles for use of the material in a wide range of applications. Another challenge is that methods to characterize nanofiber dimensions are still being developed, with few options available as online measurements for assessing the degree of fibrillation. Allowing for assessment during the fibrillation process would enable not only optimization towards a more energy efficient fibrillation, but also matching of the nanofiber quality to its intended function, since different applications will require widely different nanofiber qualities. Energy-efficient fibrillation and scalability from industrial residues were explored using upscalable ultrafine grinding processes.

    Nanofibers from various industrial bio-residues and wood were prepared and characterized, including the development of a method for evaluation of the fibrillation process online via viscosity measurements as an indication of the degree of fibrillation down to nanoscale. Furthermore, the correlation of viscosity to that of the strength of the nanopapers (dried fiber networks) was evaluated for the different raw materials.

    Switchable ionic liquids (SIL) were tested as a green pretreatment for delignification, without bleaching of wood prior to fibrillation, with the aim to preserve the low environmental impact that the raw material source offers.

    In order to employ the hydrophilic nature and strong network formation ability of the fibrillated nanofibers, they were utilized in the preparation of functional biomaterials in the form of hydrogels. Firstly, brewer’s spent grain nanofibers were used to promote and reinforce hydrogel formation of lignin-containing arabinoxylan, resulting in a hydrogel completely derived from barley residues. In addition, alginate-rich seaweed nanofibers from the stipe (stem-like part of the seaweed) were used directly after fibrillation as an ink and hydrogels were formed via 3D printing.

  • 4.
    Berglund, Linn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Anugwom, Ikenna
    Technical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Chemical-Biological Centre, Umeå University .
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Technical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Chemical-Biological Centre, Umeå University .
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Technical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Chemical-Biological Centre, Umeå University.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Fibre and Particle Engineering, University of Oulu.
    Switchable ionic liquids enable efficient nanofibrillation of wood pulp2017In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 3265-3279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of switchable ionic liquid (SIL) pulp offers an efficient and greener technology to produce nanofibers via ultrafine grinding. In this study, we demonstrate that SIL pulp opens up a mechanically efficient route to the nanofibrillation of wood pulp, thus providing both a low cost and chemically benign route to the production of cellulose nanofibers. The degree of fibrillation during the process was evaluated by viscosity and optical microscopy of SIL treated, bleached SIL treated and a reference pulp. Furthermore, films were prepared from the fibrillated material for characterization and tensile testing. It was observed that substantially improved mechanical properties were attained as a result of the grinding process, thus signifying nanofibrillation. Both SIL treated and bleached SIL treated pulps were fibrillated into nanofibers with fiber diameters below 15 nm thus forming networks of hydrophilic nature with an intact crystalline structure. Notably, it was found that the SIL pulp could be fibrillated more efficiently than traditional pulp since nanofibers could be produced with more than 30% less energy when compared to the reference pulp. Additionally, bleaching reduced the energy demand by further 16%. The study demonstrated that this switchable ionic liquid treatment has considerable potential in the commercial production of nanofibers due to the increased efficiency in fibrillation.

  • 5.
    Berglund, Linn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Jonoobi, Mehdi
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Wood and Paper Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Fibre and Particle Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Promoted hydrogel formation of lignin-containing arabinoxylan aerogel using cellulose nanofibers as a functional biomaterial2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 67, p. 38219-38228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, three-dimensional (3D) aerogels and hydrogels based on lignin-containing arabinoxylan (AX) and cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were prepared. The effects of the CNF and the crosslinking with citric acid (CA) of various contents (1, 3, 5 wt%) were evaluated. All the aerogels possessed highly porous (above 98%) and lightweight structures. The AX-CNF hydrogel with a CA content of 1 wt% revealed a favorable network structure with respect to the swelling ratio; nanofiber addition resulted in a five-fold increase in the degree of swelling (68 g of water per g). The compressive properties were improved when the higher CA content (5 wt%) was used; when combined with CNF, there was a seven-fold enhancement in the compressive strength. The AX-CNF hydrogels were prepared using a green and straightforward method that utilizes sustainable resources efficiently. Therefore, such natural hydrogels could find application potential, for example in the field of soft tissue engineering.

  • 6.
    Berglund, Linn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Noël, Maxime
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Öman, Tommy
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Production potential of cellulose nanofibers from industrial residues: Efficiency and nanofiber characteristics2016In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 92, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production potential of cellulose nanofibers from two different industrial bio-residues: wastes from the juice industry (carrot) and the beer brewing process (BSG). The mechanical separation of the cellulose nanofibers was by ultrafine grinding. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the materials were mechanically isolated without significantly affecting their crystallinity. The carrot residue was more easily bleached and consumed less energy during grinding, using only 0.9 kWh/kg compared to 21 kWh/kg for the BSG. The carrot residue also had a 10% higher yield than the BSG. Moreover, the dried nanofiber networks showed high mechanical properties, with an average modulus and strength of 12.9 GPa and 210 MPa, respectively, thus indicating a homogeneous nanosize distribution. The study showed that carrot residue has great potential for the industrial production of cellulose nanofibers due to its high quality, processing efficiency, and low raw material cost

  • 7.
    Berglund, Linn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Luleå university of technology.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forsberg, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Direct preparation of alginate/cellulose nanofiber hybrid-ink from brown seaweed for 3D biomimetic hydrogelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hassan, Enas A.
    et al.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Hassan, Mohammad L.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Abou-zeid, Ragab Esmail
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Use of bacterial cellulose and crosslinked cellulose nanofibers membranes for removal of oil from oil-in-water emulsions2017In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Never-dried bacterial cellulose (BC) and crosslinked cellulose nanofibers (CNF) were used for the removal of oil from stabilized and non-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with droplet sizes less than 1 µm. The CNF membranes were exchanged with isopropyl alcohol before drying. The microscopic structure of the prepared membranes was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM); the water flux and the rejection of oil were evaluated using a dead-end filtration cell. BC harvested after different incubation time periods (2 to 10 days) did not show a change in the width of the nanofibers, but only the thickness of the membranes was increased. Pure water flux was not affected as a result of increasing thicknesses of BC membranes harvested after 4–10 days while BC harvested after two days had significantly higher water flux than the others. BC showed a higher flux and efficiency in removing oil from oil emulsions than CNF membranes. Removal of oil by the different membranes from the non-stabilized oil emulsion was more efficient than from the stabilized one.

  • 9.
    Hassan, Mohammad
    et al.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt; Egypt Nanotechnology Centre, Cairo University, 6th October City, Egypt.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Abou-Zeid, Ragab
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza , Egypt.
    Hassan, Enas
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza , Egypt.
    Abou-Elseoud, Wafaa
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza , Egypt.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Fibre and Particle Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Nanocomposite Film Based on Cellulose Acetate and Lignin-Rich Rice Straw Nanofibers2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofibers isolated from unbleached neutral sulfite rice straw pulp were used to prepare transparent films without the need to modify the isolated rice straw nanofibers (RSNF). RSNF with loading from 1.25 to 10 wt.% were mixed with cellulose acetate (CA) solution in acetone and films were formed by casting. The films were characterized regarding their transparency and light transmittance, microstructure, mechanical properties, crystallinity, water contact angle, porosity, water vapor permeability, and thermal properties. The results showed good dispersion of RSNF in CA matrix and films with good transparency and homogeneity could be prepared at RSNF loadings of less than 5%. As shown from contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements, the RSNF resulted in increased hydrophilic nature and roughness of the films. No significant improvement in tensile strength and Young’s modulus was recorded as a result of adding RSNF to CA. Addition of the RSNF did not significantly affect the porosity, crystallinity and melting temperature of CA, but slightly increased its glass transition temperature

  • 10.
    Hassan, Mohammad
    et al.
    Cellulose and Paper Department, Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt. Egypt Nanotechnology Centre, Cairo University, El-Sheikh Zayed, City, Egypt.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Hassan, Enas
    Cellulose and Paper Department, Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.
    Abou-Zeid, Ragab
    Cellulose and Paper Department, Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Fibre and Particle Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Effect of xylanase pretreatment of rice straw unbleached soda and neutral sulfite pulps on isolation of nanofibers and their properties2018In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 2939-2953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a recent interest in producing cellulose nanofibers with different surface properties from unbleached cellulose pulps for economic and environmental reasons. In the current study we investigated the use of xylanase pretreatment on two types of unbleached rice straw pulps, namely, soda and neutral sulfite, and their fibrillation to nanofibers using ultrafine grinding. The effect of xylanase pretreatment on the fibrillation progress, energy consumption, and nanofiber dimensions was studied. In addition, mechanical properties, water contact angle, water absorption, and roughness of produced nanopapers were studied. Although very thin nanofibers with a homogenous width could be isolated from both xylanase-treated and untreated pulps, the xylanase pretreatment resulted in faster fibrillation. In addition, nanopapers prepared from xylanase-treated nanofibers had better mechanical properties than those isolated from the untreated pulps. The energy consumption during fibrillation depended on the type of pulp; a slightly lower energy consumption (~ 8%) was recorded for xylanase-treated soda pulp while a higher energy consumption (~ 21%) was recorded for xylanase-treated neutral sulfite pulp compared to the untreated pulps.

  • 11.
    Hassan, Mohammad L.
    et al.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Abou-zeid, Ragab Esmail
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Hassan, Enas A.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Membranes based on cellulose nanofibers and activated carbon for removal of Escherichia coli bacteria from water2017In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulosic nanomaterials are potential candidates in different areas, especially in water treatment. In the current work, palm fruit stalks cellulose nanofibers (CNF), TEMPO-oxidized CNF (OCNF), and activated carbon (AC) were used to make thin film membranes for removal of E. coli bacteria from water. Two types of layered membranes were produced: a single layer setup of crosslinked CNF and a two-layer setup of AC/OCNF (bottom) and crosslinked CNF (up) on hardened filter paper. The prepared membranes were evaluated regarding their microstructure and layers thickness using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water flux and rejection of E. coli bacteria was tested using dead end stirred cells at 1 MPa pressure. Thickness of the cosslinked CNF layer in both types of membranes was about 0.75 micron. The results showed that exchanging water by isopropyl alcohol before drying increased porosity of membranes, and thus resulted in increasing pure water flux and flux of bacteria suspension. The two-layer AC/OCNF/CNF membrane had much higher water flux than the single layer CNF due to higher porosity seen on the surface of the former. Both types of membranes showed high capability of removing E. coli bacteria (rejection ~96–99%) with slightly higher efficiency for the AC/OCNF/CNF membrane than CNF membrane. AC/OCNF/CNF membrane also showed resistance against growth of E. coli and S. aureus bacteria on the upper CNF surface while the single layer CNF membrane did not show resistance against growth of the aforementioned bacteria

  • 12.
    Hassan, Mohammad L.
    et al.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Hassan, Enas A.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Fadel, Shaimaa M.
    Cellulose and Paper Department and Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Giza.
    Abou-zeid, Ragab Esmail
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Fibre and Particle Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu.
    Metallo-Terpyridine-Modified Cellulose Nanofiber Membranes for Papermaking Wastewater Purification2018In: Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers, ISSN 1053-0495, E-ISSN 1572-8870, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 439-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metallo-terpyridine compounds and polymers exhibit unique optical, electrical, magnetic and antimicrobial properties. Recently, metallo-terpyridine-modified cellulosic films with interesting porous structure, that exhibit these properties, have been prepared. Herein we report the use of Cu-terpyridine-modified oxidized cellulose nanofibers (OXCNF-Cu-Tpy) as membranes for treatment of effluents of paper mills to produce re-usable water. The OXCNF-Cu-Tpy was prepared by modification of TEMPO-oxidized CNF (OXCNF) using copper(II) complex of 4′-Chloro [2,2′:6′,2″] terpyridine. The modification was proven by elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The prepared OXCNF-Cu-Tpy was also characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The prepared membranes were evaluated regarding their microscopic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurement, water flux and rejection of sub-micron size suspended particles in papermaking wastewater effluent. Chemical modification of OXCNF with the Cu-Tpy groups significantly increased pure water flux of the membranes by about 52 and 194% depending on pressure used during filtration (0.5 and 1 MPa, respectively). Although both OXCNF and OXCNF-Cu-Tpy exhibited high efficiency in removing the sub-micron size suspended particles from wastewater effluent, OXCNF-Cu-Tpy membranes showed about 30% higher flux rate than OXCNF membranes.

  • 13.
    Hassan, Mohammad
    et al.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. Egypt Nanotechnology Centre, Cairo University, 6th October City, Egypt.
    Zeid, Ragab E. Abou
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
    Abou-Elseoud, Wafaa S.
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
    Hassan, Enas
    Cellulose and Paper Department & Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Effect of Unbleached Rice Straw Cellulose Nanofibers on the Properties of Polysulfone Membranes2019In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 6, article id 938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to their lower cost and more environmentally friendly nature, cellulose nanofibers isolated from unbleached pulps offer different surface properties and functionality than those isolated from bleached pulps. At the same time, nanofibers isolated from unbleached pulps keep interesting properties such as hydrophilicity and mechanical strength, close to those isolated from bleached pulps. In the current work, rice straw nanofibers (RSNF) isolated from unbleached neutral sulfite pulp (lignin content 14%) were used with polysulfone (PSF) polymer to make membrane via phase inversion. The effect of RSNF on microstructure, porosity, hydrophilicity, mechanical properties, water flux, and fouling of PSF membranes was studied. In addition, the prepared membranes were tested to remove lime nanoparticles, an example of medium-size nanoparticles. The results showed that using RSNF at loadings from 0.5 to 2 wt.% can significantly increase hydrophilicity, porosity, water flux, and antifouling properties of PSF. RSNF also brought about an increase in rejection of lime nanoparticles (up to 98% rejection) from their aqueous suspension, and at the same time, with increasing flux across the membranes. Tensile strength of the membranes improved by ~29% with addition of RSNF and the maximum improvement was obtained on using 0.5% of RSNF, while Young’s modulus improved by ~40% at the same RSNF loading. As compared to previous published results on using cellulose nanofibers isolated from bleached pulps, the obtained results in the current work showed potential application of nanofibers isolated from unbleached pulps for improving important properties of PSF membranes, such as hydrophilicity, water flux, rejection, and antifouling properties

  • 14.
    Hietala, Maiju
    et al.
    Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Varrio, Kalle
    Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Soini, Jaakko
    Fortum Recycling and Waste Solutions, Oulu, Finland.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Potential of municipal solid waste paper as raw material for production of cellulose nanofibres2018In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 80, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When aiming for higher resource efficiency, greater utilization of waste streams is needed. In this work, waste paper separated from mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) was studied as a potential starting material for the production of cellulose nanofibres (CNFs). The waste paper was treated using three different techniques, namely pulping, flotation and washing, after which it was subjected to an ultrafine grinding process to produce CNFs. The energy consumption of the nanofibrillation and nanofibre morphology, as well as properties of the prepared nanofibers, were analysed. Despite the varying amounts of impurities in the waste fibres, all samples could be fibrillated into nanoscale fibres. The tensile strengths of the CNF networks ranged from 70 to 100 MPa, while the stiffness was ∼7 GPa; thus, their mechanical strength can be adequate for applications in which high purity is not required. The contact angles of the CNF networks varied depending on the used treatment method: the flotation-treated networks were more hydrophilic (contact angle 52.5°) and the washed networks were more hydrophobic (contact angle 72.6°).

  • 15.
    Hooshmand, Saleh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mathew, Aji P.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Enhanced alignment and mechanical properties through the use of hydroxyethyl cellulose in solvent-free native cellulose spun filaments2017In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 150, p. 79-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the addition of hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) in cellulose nanofiber filaments is shown to improve the solvent-free processing and mechanical properties of these biobased fibers as well as their compatibility with epoxy. An aqueous dope of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) with HEC was spun and the resulting filaments cold-drawn. The HEC increased the wet strength of the dope allowing stable spinning of low concentrations of CNF. These lower concentrations promote nanofiber alignment which is further improved by cold-drawing. Alignment improves the modulus and strength and an increase of over 70% compared to the as-spun CNF only filaments was achieved. HEC also decreases hydrophilicity thus increasing slightly the interfacial shear strength of the filaments with epoxy resin. The result is continuous biobased fibers with improved epoxy compatibility that can be prepared in an upscalable and environmentally friendly way. Further optimization is expected to increase draw ratio and consequently mechanical properties.

  • 16.
    Kusano, Yukihiro
    et al.
    Department of Wind Energy, Section of Composites and Materials Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Roskilde.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Madsen, Bo
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Wind Energy, Risø Campus.
    Gliding arc surface modification of carrot nanofibre coating: Perspective for composite processing2016In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 139, article id 012027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surfaces of carrot nanofibre coatings were modified by a gliding arc in atmospheric pressure air. The treatment strengthened wetting of deionized water and glycerol, increased an oxygen content, C-O and C=O, and moderately roughened the surfaces. In the perspective of composite materials, these changes to the nanofibres can potentially improve their processability when they are to be impregnated with a polymeric matrix. However, longer exposure to the gliding arc reduced oxidation and roughness of the surface, and thus there exists an optimum condition to achieve good wetting to solvents

  • 17.
    Kusano, Yukihiro
    et al.
    Department of Wind Energy, Section of Composites and Materials Mechanics, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde.
    Madsen, Bo
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Wind Energy, Risø Campus.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment of cellulose nanofibre surfaces2018In: Surface Engineering, ISSN 0267-0844, E-ISSN 1743-2944, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 825-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment was applied to modify cellulose nanofibre (CNF) surfaces with and without ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment improved the wetting by deionised water and glycerol, and increased the contents of oxygen, carbonyl group, and carboxyl group on the nanofibre surface. Ultrasonic irradiation further enhanced the wetting and oxidation of the nanofibre coating. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed skeleton-like features on the plasma-treated surface, indicating preferential etching of weaker domains, such as low-molecular weight domains and amorphous phases. Ultrasonic irradiation also improved the uniformity of the treatment. Altogether, it is demonstrated that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is a promising technique to modify the CNF surface before composite processing.

  • 18.
    Kusano, Yukihiro
    et al.
    Section of Composite Materials, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Madsen, Bo
    Section of Composite Materials, Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde, Denmark.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Modification of cellulose nanofibre surfaces by He/NH3 plasma at atmospheric pressure2019In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, no 12, p. 7185-7194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibre coatings were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge plasma in a He/NH3 gas mixture at atmospheric pressure. Ultrasound was optionally irradiated during the treatment. The treatment enhanced the wetting of deionized water, glycerol, and uncured epoxy. Irradiation of ultrasound did not significantly change optical emission from the plasma, but increased the oxygen contents and enhanced etching and roughening at the nanofibre coating surfaces. Furthermore, the irradiation of ultrasound enhanced the wetting of deionized water and glycerol drastically, while that of uncured epoxy to some extent.

  • 19.
    Zhou, Xiaojian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sethi, Jatin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Geng, Shiyu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Berglund, Linn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Frisk, Nikolina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sain, Mohini
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Dispersion and reinforcing effect of carrot nanofibers on biopolyurethane foams2016In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 110, p. 526-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, carrot nanofibers (CNF) were used to enhance the performance of biobased castor oil polyol polyurethane nanocomposite foams. A method of dispersing CNF in the polyol was developed and the foam characteristics and CNF reinforcing effect were studied. Co-solvent-assisted mixing resulted in well-dispersed CNF in the polyol, and foams with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 phr CNF content were prepared. The reinforced nanocomposite foams displayed a narrow cell size distribution and the compressive strength and modulus were significantly elevated and the best compressive strength and modulus were reached with 0.5 phr CNF. Similarly, the modulus of the solid material was also significantly increased based on theoretical calculations. When comparing the foam performance, compressive strength and stiffness as a function of the density, the nanocomposite foams performs as commercial rigid PU foam with a closed cell structure. These results are very promising and we believe that these foams are excellent core materials for lightweight sandwich composites.

1 - 19 of 19
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