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  • 1.
    Castro, Raul
    et al.
    Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland.
    Trueman, Robert
    Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Julius Kruttschnitt Mineral Research Centre, University of Queensland.
    A study of isolated draw zones in block caving mines by means of a large 3D physical model2007In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 860-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Block caving methods rely on gravity to break and transport large amounts of ore and waste. Despite the importance of gravity flow, there is debate within the literature about the influence that the height of draw, particle size and particle size distribution has on the geometry of extraction and movement zones. This paper presents the results of an experimental programme conducted in the largest three-dimensional (3D) physical model to investigate the mechanisms of flow of cohesionless materials when drawing from a single drawpoint. Experimental results showed that isolated draw zones are mainly influenced by mass drawn and height of draw. Particle size was found to have a slight effect on extraction zones and no significant effect on movement zone width. Particle size composition (wide or narrow distributions) and drawpoint width were found not to have a major role on drawzone geometry. Those conclusions were based on statistical analysis of experimental data to define the controlling parameters in isolated draw. Model theory principles were used to investigate within the physical modelling framework the possibility of directly scaling the geometry of the extraction zones, which indicated that flow zones could be scaled in cohesionless materials under a set of assumptions. A mechanistic model of isolated draw is also postulated from experimental data from observations of stresses and the IMZ’s geometry.

  • 2.
    Gillies, Argyle Douglas Stewart
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Wu, Hsin Wei
    University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Mayes, Timothy
    University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Halim, Adrianus
    University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Measurement of airflow through regulators and real time integrated monitoring2002In: Mine Ventilation: proceedings of the North American/Ninth US Mine Ventilation Symposium, Kingston/Ontario/Canada/8-12 June 2002 / [ed] Euler De Souza, Lisse: Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2002, p. 301-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mathematical modeling of airflow through operating mine regulators is discussed. Results are used in the development of a computerized monitoring and simulation system to provide immediate or real time data on air behavior within each branch within an underground mine ventilation network through linking of sensors to the ventilation network simulation software. Software has been developed to link real time information generated by mine ventilation monitoring sensors into the network program to undertake network simulations and allow interpretation of key system data and operational changes. The outcome of the project is an online system which can report changes in the mine ventilation system, allow causes of changes to be isolated and rectified, improve balancing of available air throughout the mine and dispense with much of the labor used for underground ventilation measurement. The main work activities involved in the research program have involved examination and modeling of regulators, software modification and considerable mine site testing and optimizing activities.

  • 3.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Barrick Australia Pacific, Kanowna Belle Mine & Western Australian.
    Installation and commissioning of new primary fans at Barrick's Kanowna Belle mine, Kalgoorlie, Australia2009In: Ninth International Mine Ventilation Congress: New Delhi, India, 10-13 November, 2009 : technical papers, poster session / [ed] Durga C. Panigrahi, New Delhi: Oxford and IBH Publishing , 2009, p. 113-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barrick's Kanowna Belle gold mine in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, has reached a depth of 1100 m and further development will take it to 1250 m. A feasibility study undertaken in 2006 identified the mining of E block as both technically and commercially feasible. One of the major requirements of mining this block was upgrading the existing primary ventilation fans. These fans consisted of three 450 kW axial fans that provided approximately 490 m3/s of airflow. The feasibility study concluded that an additional 160 m3/s was required for E block. Subsequent study showed that in order to achieve this, two of the existing fans were to be replaced with 2 x 450 kW axial fans in series, each of them, and the other was to be replaced with a 1400 kW axial fan. The processes of installation and commissioning of these new fans are discussed in this paper.

  • 4.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Refuge chambers in underground coal mines: Do they represent a good strategy to manage emergencies?2017In: Mining Report Glückauf, ISSN 2195-6529, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 334-340Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The 2006 Sago, Darby, and Aracoma mine disasters in the United States (US) forced the US government to implement legislation (MINER Act) that, among other measures, requires all US underground coal mines to install and maintain refuge chambers to manage emergencies in fires or explosions. However, there is still a debate on whether this is a good strategy. Australian coal mines adopt a strategy that focuses on instructing mine workers to self-escape to the surface. They are not required to use refuge chambers by Australian mine safety legislation. This paper discusses these two strategies and analyse their merits and problems.

  • 5. Halim, Adrianus
    Study of the influence of interactive draw upon drawpoint spacing in block and sublevel caving mines2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Western Australian School of Mines, Curtin University.
    Ventilation circuit for large and gassy longwall panels: an Australian perspective2013In: Mining Technology, ISSN 1474-9009, E-ISSN 1743-2863, Vol. 122, no 4, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend in Australian longwall mines is to increase panel dimensions and production rate, and mining in gassy regions. However, this trend poses a challenge to provide adequate ventilation to manage gas emissions. While the traditional two heading gateroad bleederless U ventilation circuit, which is the most commonly used circuit in Australia, is no longer suitable due to its low volumetric capacity, a few mines manage to overcome this problem by employing a three heading gateroad ventilation circuit. However, this circuit requires significant additional development, which makes it not popular in Australian coal mines. The aim of this paper is to review the suitability of two heading and three heading gateroad traditional bleederless U ventilation circuits for a large longwall panel mining in gassy conditions. It was found that significant predrainage of the thickest roof seam is required in order to make the two heading gateroad circuit feasible in large and gassy longwall panels.

  • 7.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Western Australian School of Mines, Curtin University.
    Ventilation Officers or Mine Managers?: Who should Ultimately be Responsible for Mine Ventilation? A Comparison between Western Australia and Queensland2012In: Australian Mine Ventilation Conference 2011: 5-6 September 2011, Sydney, New South Wales / [ed] Basil Beamish; Duncan Chalmers, Carlton, Vic.: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2012, p. 113-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is still debate about who should ultimately be responsible for the ventilation system in an underground mine. The Queensland Coal Mining Safety and Health Regulation 2001, states that a dedicated ventilation officer is the person, while Western Australian Mines Safety and Inspection Regulation 1995 states that it is the mine manager who is responsible; the ventilation officer acts as the manager’s principal ventilation advisor. This paper outlines a comparison between both approaches.

  • 8.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ventilation requirements for diesel equipment in underground mines: Are we using the correct values?2017In: 16th North American Mine Ventilation Symposium / [ed] Jürgen F. Brune, Golden, Colorado, USA: Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation is the primary means of diluting atmospheric contaminants in underground mines. The majority of equipment in underground hard rock mines are diesel powered vehicles, which produce toxic gases such as Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), as well as carcinogenic Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM). The airflow quantity for an underground mine is usually based on the engine power of diesel vehicles used in the mine, multiplied by unit airflow requirement, such as 0.05 to 0.06 cubic metre per second per kilowatt engine power (m3/s per kW) used in Australia or 0.047 to 0.092 m3/s per kW used in Canada. These unit airflow requirements are stated in local mining Occupational Health & Safety (OH&S) regulations.

    However, the origin of these unit requirements is not clear, i.e. whether they are derived from scientific studies or are empirically based. Due to this, it is impossible to ensure that the values stated in the regulations are sufficient to dilute contaminants emitted by diesel equipment. This paper traces the history of these requirements based on literature review and online interviews with fellow underground ventilation practitioners and academics to find the origin of these requirements. A review of the relevance of these requirements in today’s situation is also outlined in this paper.

  • 9.
    Halim, Adrianus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Bolsöy, Tomas
    EOL Vent System AB.
    Klemo, Stina
    LKAB.
    The Nordic Ventilation System: An Overview2019In: Proceedings of the 17th North American Mine Ventilation Symposium / [ed] Ali Madiseh, Agus Sasmito, Ferri Hassani, Jozef Stachulak, Westmount, Quebec, 2019, p. 247-257Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the ventilation system used in underground hard rock mines in Sweden and Finland, which is very different than the system used in other major mining countries such as Australia, Canada, South Africa, and USA. The system utilizes auxiliary fans with Variable Speed Drive (VSD) to distribute primary airflow to working levels instead of regulators that are commonly used in other countries. Descriptions about Ventilation on Demand (VOD) in this system and ventilation regulations in Sweden and Finland are presented in this paper. This paper also quantifies a comparison between the Nordic and the system used in other countries.

  • 10.
    Halim, Adrianus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Brune, Jürgen
    Colorado School of Mines, Golden, USA.
    Do Refuge Chambers Represent a Good Strategy to Manage Emergencies in Underground Coal Mines?2019In: Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, ISSN 2524-3462, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1191-1199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2006 Sago, Darby, and Aracoma mine disasters in the United States (US) forced the US government to implement the 2006MINER Act and additional regulations that require all US underground coal mines to install and maintain refuge chambers tomanage entrapment emergencies, in particular, fires and explosions. However, there is a debate on whether barricading in refugechambers is a good strategy to survive such emergencies. Australian coal mines are not required to use refuge chambers and,instead, have adopted a strategy that focuses on instructing and training miners to self-escape to the surface. This paper analyzesmerits and problems of using refuge chambers and self-escape to the surface to manage emergencies in fires or explosions in anunderground coal mine. The authors found that the use of refuge chambers may not be the best strategy during extensive fires orwhen multiple explosions happen. In these situations, mine rescuers are unlikely able to extract miners who are sheltered inchambers and conversely, self-escape may save more lives than sheltering. Chances for successful self-escape are furtherimproved by regular, externally assessed training such as Level 1 Emergency Exercises required in the Australian State of Queensland. These exercises put pressure on mine operators to ensure and maintain the effectiveness of their emergencymanagement system.

  • 11.
    Halim, Adrianus
    et al.
    Western Australian School of Mines, Curtin University.
    Kerai, Mahesh
    Barrick Australia Pacific, Kanowna Belle Mine & Western Australian.
    Ventilation Requirement for ‘Electric’ Underground Hard Rock Mines: A Conceptual Study2013In: The Australian Mine Ventilation Conference 2013: 1-3 July 2013, Adelaide, South Australia ; [proceedings] / [ed] Duncan Chalmers, Carlton, Vic: The Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy , 2013, p. 215-220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric power price in mining countries such as Australia and South Africa has increased significantly in the past fi ve years and is likely to continue to increase in the foreseeable future. This can make a mine uneconomic to operate. Replacing diesel vehicles with electric ones can reduce ventilation power consumption, which can comprise up to 40 per cent of total mine power consumption. However, no such airflow requirement for electric vehicles is stated in any mining regulations in the world. In this paper, the authors investigate the ventilation requirement of an electric vehicle operating in an underground hard rock mine. Quantification of atmospheric contaminant emitted by an electric vehicle was done at Rio Tinto’s Northparkes mine, followed by thermodynamic and ventilation network simulations using Ventsim Visual software.

  • 12.
    Halim, Adrianus
    et al.
    Barrick Australia Pacific, Kanowna Belle Mine & Western Australian.
    Trueman, Robert
    Strata Engineering (Australia), Newcastle.
    Castro, Raul
    University of Chile, Santiago.
    Quantifying effect of concurrent draw on extraction zones in block caving mines using large scale 3D physical model2008In: Mining Technology, ISSN 1474-9009, E-ISSN 1743-2863, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 128-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There remains a debate within the literature and among practitioners of caving methods as to the effect on draw zone geometry for the concurrent drawing of multiple drawpoints. Concurrent draw refers to an extraction schedule where a limited amount of material is drawn from each drawpoint before moving to the next drawpoint to draw the same amount. One hypothesis concludes that the flow geometries of a single drawpoint increase while another assumes no change from that of isolated draw. The largest 3D physicalmodel constructed using gravel as themodelmedia has been used to further investigate interactive draw of extraction zones as part of an International Caving Study (ICS) and Mass Mining Technology Project supported by major international companies with interest in caving methods. All extraction zones were measured in 3D. To date a maximum of 10 drawpoints have been modelled. Model results so far indicate no growth in the horizontal width of extraction zones using concurrent draw. Experiments conducted with multiple drawpoints that were spaced less than the width of isolated extraction zones showed that the combined horizontal area of draw appears to reduce with the increasing overlap of isolated extraction zones. The horizontal widths of extraction zones continued to increase within the height of the draw tested.

  • 13.
    Lee, Kirstan
    et al.
    Western Australian School of Mines, Kalgoorlie.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Western Australian School of Mines, Kalgoorlie.
    A Comparison of Methods to Create the Initial Void for Longhole Open Stoping Blasting2014In: Mining Education Australia (MEA) Journal of Research Projects Review, ISSN 2203-529X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on confidential case studies collected from a Western Australian gold mine, known from here on in as ‘Mine X’. The primary mining method used at Mine X is longhole retreat open stoping with paste backfill. The main objective of this research project is to investigate which method/s is the most appropriate to develop the initial void for stope blasting at Mine X.Two methods were investigated during this research; conventional longhole rising and slashing against paste. Rising is a very common method, used frequently at Mine X as well as in the broader mining industry as determined through a literature review. Because of the common use of rising, it was expected to be a more reliable option resulting in a higher success rate. Slashing against paste, however, is a new method to the industry and not well documented, but was trialled as a possible cheaper option. These two methods were compared in terms of: success rate; drill and blast costs; limitations for their use; and benefits derived from combining the two methods.The analysis of the case studies revealed several key points. Firstly, the success rate estimated by comparing stope design geometry and final surveyed shape showed that both methods achieved the same success rate of 78 per cent. The cost analysis determined that the average rise required more than double the costs per tonne of rock than slashing against paste. Slashing against paste was found to be a much more restrictive option, requiring new stopes to be situated next to paste filled stopes of specific dimensions. Rising does not have these restrictions; however, more often required slot drives to be developed prior to stoping than slashing against paste. Combining the two methods proved to be a beneficial option having the advantages of both methods. Overall this study recommends, for Mine X, the use of slashing against paste over rising in situations where slashing against paste is permitted. All other situations should consider the use of rising or a combination of rising and slashing against paste.

  • 14.
    Trueman, Robert
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane.
    Castro, Raul
    University of Chile, Santiago.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Anglo Coal Australia.
    Study of multiple draw-zone interaction in block caving mines by means of a large 3D physical model2008In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 1044-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current production level design guidelines in block caving mines are based on the concept of interaction of movement zones and the spacing of draw-points at which mass flow is achieved. The limit of the isolated movement zone (IMZ) interaction has been determined by observations of the flow of sand and finely fragmented caved rock. This paper presents a study of the mechanisms and limit of IMZ interaction in coarse fragmented caved rock using a large 3D physical model. Results showed that when drawing from multiple drawpoints, the unmoved zone between IMZs is characterised by an increase in vertical load and a decrease in horizontal load. However, it was observed that the unmoved zones between the movement zones of adjacent draw-points did not enter the flow zone, despite drawpoints being spaced at less than 1.2 times the width of the IMZ. This result is in marked contrast to previous findings obtained in sand models, where movement zones have been observed to interact at draw-point spacings up to 1.5 times the width of the IMZ. The major reasons for the differences between the two different model results was found to be that significant stress arching and less induced vertical stress during flow was observed in the gravel model, in contrast to limited stress arching and more induced vertical stress in the sand models. It is hypothesised that significant stress arching would occur in block caving mines, and therefore that the results obtained in the gravel model maybe more representative of full-scale conditions. Movement zones in block caving mines may therefore not interact at draw-point spacings greater than the width of the isolated movement zone.

  • 15.
    Yiu, Benjamin
    et al.
    Western Australian School of Mines, Kalgoorlie.
    Halim, Adrianus
    Western Australian School of Mines, Kalgoorlie.
    Selection of Haulage Fleet at Daisy Milano Gold Mine2014In: Mining Education Australia (MEA) Journal of Research Projects Review, ISSN 2203-529X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the underground mining industry, one of the long-term operational issues involves longer haulage routes as the mine gets deeper with the life of mine. This longer travel route has a great impact on the productivity and cost of the operation. Choosing the best haulage fleet will result in improved productivity and lower cost per tonne of material moved. For this reason, it has motivated Daisy Milano Gold Mine, owned by Silver Lake Resources, to analyse their current Toro 50 Plus trucks against the Atlas Copco MT5010 truck. During a three month trial of both haulage options, trucking parameters were collected from a specifically designed trucking plod.This research used a time motion study to perform productivity calculations and cost analysis of the two haulage options.Based on the assumptions made in this research, the conclusion is that the Atlas Copco MT5010 should be utilised as the preferred truck option at Daisy Milano. The Atlas Copco MT5010 has a higher average productivity of 254 tkm/hr tonnes kilometre per hour) compared to the Toro 50 Plus with an average productivity of 160 tkm/hr. In terms of cost ($ per tkm) the MT5010 is the cheaper option by over 35 per cent when compared to the Toro 50 Plus ($0.85 versus $1.31).

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