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  • 1.
    Hua, Jing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Active friction control by using CO2 and moisture2019Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the demand for intelligent control of tribological interactions is strongly increasing in various applications. We often strive to minimize friction but there are also many situations where high friction is desirable. In some cases, something in between, i.e. optimum friction, is attractive. Driven by the broad application prospects, many controllable friction systems regulated with external stimuli such as solvent, pH, temperature, electric potential, and magnetic field have been designed and fabricated. When external stimuli are imposed on the smart materials, the macroscopic physicochemical properties of the materials are dramatically changed, making controllable friction behavior to become possible. However, most of these exploratory works are in nano/micro size and it’s difficult to use these incredible methods in macroscale directly due to that macroscopic laws of friction do not generally apply to nanoscale contacts. This thesis attempts to find more versatile methods of friction control and try to find the possibility to achieve friction control at macro-size.

    Firstly, since viscosity plays an important role in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) at macro-size, it is instigated if it would be possible to adjust friction by controlling viscosity in a lubricated contact. By exploiting the ability to adjust the viscosity of the switchable ionic liquids, 1,8-Diazabicyclo (5.4.0) undec-7-ene (DBU)/ glycerol mixture via the addition of CO2, the friction could be controlled in the EHL regime (Paper Ⅰ). In order to understand more about the lubricating mechanism of DBU/glycerol/CO2 mixture, the central film thickness of the lubricants as a function of the entrainment speed was investigated.

    Secondly, due to that adhesion could have influence on boundary lubrication (BL) friction at macro-size, it is investigated if it would be possible to adjust friction in a lubricated contact by controlling environmental humidity, which can alter the H-bond types, leading the change of adhesion. By exploiting the ability to adjust the environmental humidity by various saturated salt solutions, friction behavior lubricated by Choline L-Proline ([Cho][Pro]) could be modulated in a wide range of relative humidities (RH) (Paper Ⅱ).

  • 2.
    Hua, Jing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    A smart friction control strategy enabled by CO2 absorption and desorption2019Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikkel-id 13262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent control of friction is an attractive but challenging topic and it has rarely been investigated for full size engineering applications. In this work, it is instigated if it would be possible to adjust friction by controlling viscosity in a lubricated contact. By exploiting the ability to adjust the viscosity of the switchable ionic liquids, 1,8-Diazabicyclo (5.4.0) undec-7-ene (DBU)/ glycerol mixture via the addition of CO2, the friction could be controlled in the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime. The friction decreased with increasing the amount of CO2 to the lubricant and increased after partial releasing CO2. As CO2 was absorbed by the liquid, the viscosity of the liquid increased which resulted in that the film thickness increased. At the same time the pressure-viscosity coefficient decreased with the addition of CO2. When CO2 was released again the friction increased and it was thus possible to control friction by adding or removing CO2.

  • 3.
    Hua, Jing
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Non-corrosive Green Lubricant With Dissolved Lignin in Ionic Liquids Behave as Ideal Lubricants for Steel-DLC Applications2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Chemistry, E-ISSN 2296-2646, E-ISSN 2296-2646, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 857Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC)–steel contacts become more and more popular in the

    industry now. Since the surface chemical properties of DLC are quite different from

    those of iron, traditional formulated lubricants have problems to form tribo-chemical

    films, which are effective to improve the tribological performance for steel-steel contacts,

    on the surface of DLC. Thus, new lubricants formulation strategies are needed to be

    considered for steel-DLC applications. A kind of green lubricant (lignin-[Choline][L-Proline]

    (L-[CH][Pro])) without any traditional tribo-chemical active element, i.e., free of P, S, B,

    etc., was studied in this paper for the steel-DLC contact. To find the difference between

    this new ILs and the traditional lubricants, a commercially available fully formulated

    lubricant was used as a reference. An Optimol SRV-III oscillating friction and wear tester

    was used to evaluate the tribological performance. Three different kinds of commercially

    available DLC coatings (Tribobond 40(Cr + a-C:H:W), Tribobond 43 [(Cr+) a-C:H),

    and Tribobond 44(a-C:Cr)] were investigated. The results show that the ILs exhibit an

    obviously lower friction coefficient than that of the traditional commercially available fully

    formulated lubricant. Among those three DLC coatings, the (Cr+) a-C:H DLC coating

    exhibits the biggest improvement of wear resistance lubricated with the new ILs than

    that of the commercially available fully formulated lubricant. It’s expected that its excellent

    tribological properties are attributed to the affinity of the ILs to the metal surface and

    the strength of the ionic liquids interactions by hydrogen bonding. Thus, forming strong

    physical adsorption strategy, instead of forming chemical tribo-films, is recommended to

    enhance the lubricating performance of lubricants for DLC.

  • 4.
    Mu, Liwen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. The University of Akron, Akron, USA.
    Ma, Xiaofeng
    Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, PR China.
    Guo, Xiaojing
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, PR China.
    Chen, Minjiao
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Ji, Tuo
    The University of Akron, Akron, USA.
    Hua, Jing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    The University of Akron, Akron, USA.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Structural strategies to design bio-ionic liquid: Tuning molecular interaction with lignin for enhanced lubrication2019Inngår i: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 280, s. 49-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin strengthened ionic liquids (ILs) have shown high potential to be used as high performance green lubricants. Strengthened lignin-ILs molecular interaction is an effective approach to improve their lubrication properties. The molecular interactions of ILs’ cation and anion containing different functional groups with lignin and efficiency on the lubricating properties have rarely been studied yet. In this work, a series of novel green lubricants with dissolved lignin in [Choline][Amino Acid] ([CH][AA]), [Tetramethylammonium][Glycine] ([N 1111 ][Gly]) and [Tetrabutylammonium][Glycine] ([N 4444 ][Gly]) ILs have been synthesized and their tribological properties were systematically investigated. The longer alkyl chain in cation without reciprocal H-bond interaction between ILs’ cation and anion has the positive effect on the anti-wear properties. In addition, the less steric effect and more negative natural charges of amino acid anion synergistically contribute to the stronger H-bond interaction between lignin and choline base ILs, which enhances lubrication film strength and thus resulting in the better tribological property of ILs/lignin green lubricants. Specifically, the wear volume loss of the steel disc lubricated by [N 4444 ][Gly] with the addition of 15% lignin is only 12% of the one lubricated by pure [N 4444 ][Gly]. This work presents a method to tune molecular interaction between lignin and ILs via the structural design of ILs’ cation and anion, which are revealed as the key factor that bridges the individual components and improves overall lubricating properties. 

  • 5.
    Mu, Liwen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, China.
    Guo, Xiaojing
    Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Wu, Jian
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Ji, Tuo
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Chen, Long
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Feng, Xin
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing University of Chemical Technology, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Lu, Xiaohua
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Hua, Jing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology.
    Enriching Heteroelements in Lignin as Lubricating Additives for Bioionic Liquids2016Inngår i: A C S Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 3877-3887Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Depolymerization and modification of lignin have been achieved simultaneously in a one-pot chemical reaction. Two heteroelement-rich modifiers, imidazol-1-yl phosphonic dichloride and 1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl phosphonic dichloride, were selected to react with lignin in this work. The modified lignin (m-lignin) is demonstrated as an effective lubricating additive for [choline][amino acid] ([CH][AA]) bioionic liquids. Different characterization techniques have been utilized to study the lignin depolymerization, reaction between lignin and modifiers and m-lignin/[CH][AA] interaction. The effect of the molecular structure of the modifiers on the rheological and tribological properties of m-lignin/[CH][AA] lubricants was systematically investigated. Density function theory is used to calculate the electronic structure of lignin, m-lignin, and [CH][AA]. The atomic natural charge analysis revealed the most negative charge on nitrogen bonded to a phosphorus atom and the strongest capability of forming hydrogen bonding with [CH][AA]. The introduced nitrogen and phosphorus elements not only increase the hydrogen bonding density in m-lignin/[CH][AA] but also enhance the polarity of the m-lignin, both of which facilitate a strong adhesion of lubricant on a metal surface and thus promote lubrication. A larger fraction of heteroatom groups in m-lignin contributes to a better lubrication property of these lubricants

  • 6.
    Mu, Liwen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Guo, Xiaojing
    Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai .
    Zhuang, Wei
    College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing Tech University.
    Chen, Long
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Ji, Tuo
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Hua, Jing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Wang, Huaiyuan
    College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northeast Petroleum University, Daqing.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Grafting Heteroelement-Rich Groups on Graphene Oxide: Tuning Polarity and Molecular Interaction with Bio-Ionic Liquid for Enhanced Lubrication2017Inngår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 498, s. 47-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different heteroelement-rich molecules have been successfully grafted on graphene oxide (GO) sheets which were then used as lubricant additives in bio-ionic liquid. The grafting was processed with reactions between GO sheets and synthesized heteroelement-rich molecules (Imidazol-1-yl phosphonic dichloride and 1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl phosphonic dichloride, respectively). The modified GO (m-GO) was added into [Choline][Proline] ([CH][P]) bio-ionic liquid, and has been demonstrated effective additive in promoting lubrication. Different characterization techniques have been utilized to study the reaction between GO and the two modifiers. The effect of molecular structure of the modifiers on the rheological and tribological properties of m-GO/[CH][P] lubricants was systematically investigated. Both theoretical calculation and experimental results demonstrated that the introduced heteroelement-rich groups are beneficial to increase the robustness of lubrication film by intensified hydrogen bonding and enhance the lubricant/friction surface adhesion by increased polarity of the m-GO. As a result, the interfacial lubrication could be significantly improved by these newly developed m-GO/[CH][P] lubricants.

  • 7.
    Mu, Liwen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement. Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Shi, Yijun
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Hua, Jing
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Zhuang, Wei
    College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing Tech University.
    Zhu, Jiahua
    Intelligent Composites Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron.
    Engineering Hydrogen Bonding Interaction and Charge Separation in Bio-polymers for Green Lubrication2017Inngår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 121, nr 22, s. 5669-5678Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic additives are widely used in lubricants nowadays to upgrade lubrication properties. The potential of integrating sustainable components in modern lubricants has rarely been studied yet. In this work, two sustainable resources lignin and gelatin have been synergistically incorporated into ethylene glycol (EG), and their tribological properties were systematically investigated. The abundant hydrogen bonding sites in lignin and gelatin as well as their interchain interaction via hydrogen bonding play the dominating roles in tuning the physicochemical properties of the mixture and improving lubricating properties. Moreover, the synergistic combination of lignin and gelatin induces charge separation of gelatin that enables its preferable adsorption on the friction surface through electrostatic force and forms a robust lubrication layer. This layer will be strengthened by lignin through the interpolymer chain hydrogen bonding. At an optimized lignin:gelatin mass ratio of 1:1 and 19 wt % loading of each in EG, the friction coefficient can be greatly stabilized and the wear loss was reduced by 89% compared to pure EG. This work presents a unique synergistic phenomenon between gelatin and lignin, where hydrogen bonding and change separation are revealed as the key factor that bridges the individual components and improves overall lubricating properties.

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