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  • 1.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    et al.
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Tool wear and machined surface roughness during wood flour/polyethylene composite peripheral upmilling using cemented tungsten carbide tools2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 3779-3791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of sharpness angle on tool wear and the effect of tool wear on machined surface roughness were investigated in wood flour/polyethylene composite (WFPEC) peripheral up-milling using cemented tungsten carbide (TC) tools. It was shown that nose width and edge recession increased with increasing feeding length. During the milling process, the wear of the nose width was smallest for the tool with a sharpness angle of 45°, followed by tools with sharpness angles of 55° and 65°. The wear of edge recession was highest for the tool with a sharpness angle of 45°, followed by tools with sharpness angles of 55° and 65°. The nose width increased with increasing sharpness angle, the edge recession decreased with increasing sharpness angle, and the machined surface roughness increased with increasing sharpness angle after a feeding length of 40 m. The nose width had a positive effect on the machined surface roughness, and the machined surface roughness increased with increasing nose width. The edge recession had little effect on the machined surface roughness. The clearance face roughness of the worn tool increased with increasing sharpness angle. The analysis of the SEM micrographs and EDS of the clearance face of the worn tool showed that the wear mechanisms of the cemented tungsten carbide tool were oxidation and abrasion in the range tested during cutting. Thus, a slight wear of the edge recession is gained in exchange for a lower machined surface roughness by decreasing the sharpness angle.

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  • 2.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    et al.
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Li, Rongrong
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology during Wood Plastic Composites Orthogonal Cutting2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 2090-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of chip thickness, rake angle, and edge radius on cutting forces and chip morphology in wood plastic composites (WPCs) orthogonal cutting was investigated. Three types of WPCs, Woodflour/polyethylene composite (WFPEC), wood flour/polypropylene composite (WFPPC), and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composite (WFPVCC), that were tested exhibited different behavior with respect to the machinability aspects. The cutting forces of WFPVCC were the highest, followed by WFPPC and WFPEC. The most significant factor on the parallel cutting force of these three types of WPCs was the chip thickness, which explained more than 90%, contribution of total variation, while rake angle, edge radius, and the interactions between these factorshad small contributions. The most significant factor on the normal cutting force of WPCs was also the chip thickness, which accounted for more than 60% of the total variation. The chips produced included long continuous chips, short continuous chips, flake chips, and granule chips when cutting these three types of WPCs.

  • 3.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering Nanjing, China.
    Li, Rongrong
    Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering Nanjing, China.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Nanjing Forestry University, Faculty of Material Science and Engineering Nanjing, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cristóvão, Luís
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Grönlund, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Effect of average chip thickness and cutting speed on cutting forces and surface roughness during peripheral up milling of wood flour/polyvenyl chloride composite2015In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 147-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composite (WFPVCC) is a kind of composite material that, over the years, is becoming more popular in constructions applications. In this work, cutting forces and machined surface roughness were studied during peripheral up milling of WFPVCC under different average chip thickness which was obtained by adjusting rotation speed and feed rate at both high and low speed cutting conditions. The results indicated that cutting forces components, parallel force (F-x) and normal force (F-y) greatly varied during the cutting process. Maximum F-x, maximum F-y and surface roughness increased with the increase of average chip thickness. Maximum F-x and maximum F-y at high speed cutting conditions were lower than that at low speed cutting conditions at a same average chip thickness. The machined surface roughness at high speed cutting conditions was better than that at low speed cutting conditions at a same average chip thickness. When meeting the requirement of certain surface roughness, higher cutting speed can allow higher chip thickness and then decrease the tool wear than lower speed cutting condition. Maximum negative F-y had great impact in machined surface roughness. Machined surface roughness increased with the increase of maximum negative F-y. Thus, high speed cutting conditions not only increase the machining productivity, but also decrease machined surface roughness during the peripheral up milling of WFPVCC.

  • 4.
    Li, Rongrong
    et al.
    Nanjing Forestry University, College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing, 210037, Jiangsu, China.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Nanjing Forestry University, College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing, 210037, Jiangsu, China.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Nanjing Forestry University, College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing, 210037, Jiangsu, China.
    Futang, Ji
    Shangha Ivohringer Wood Product Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wang, Alice (Xiaodong)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    A Novel Sawing Method for Small-Diameter Log2015In: Wood research, ISSN 1336-4561, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 293-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The commercial feasibility of sawmilling mainly depends on the expected productionyield. At the same time, the choice of sawing method is one of primary factors affecting yield.Therefore, choosing a reasonable sawing method is also necessary in small-diameter logs sawingprocess. In this study, a novel sawing method was proposed, and a comparison was made betweenthe volume yield for the most common sawing method in China, and the yield produced by anovel sawing method. This study shows that hexagon sawing give higher yield than the othersawing methods. The mean yield for the whole diameter range is: 82.7 % for hexagon sawing,53.3 % for live sawing, 56.7 % for hexagon sawing, 63.2 % for hexagon sawing.

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  • 5.
    Li, Rongrong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Wang, Jie
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Chen, Qingqing
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Xue, Hong
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Pressure, Feed Rate, and Abrasive Mass Flow Rate Influence on Surface Roughness for Recombinant Bamboo Abrasive Water Jet Cutting2015In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 1998-2008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of pressure, feed rate, and abrasive mass flow rate on surface roughness were investigated during abrasive water cutting of recombinant bamboo. Two different thicknesses (10 mm and 15 mm) of recombinant bamboo were cut in the longitudinal and transversal directions by abrasive water jet. All experiments were arranged using response surface methodology. The parameter Ra was selected to represent the surface roughness. The value of Ra increased with an increase in feed rate and abrasive mass flow rate, but decreased with an increase in pressure. The surface roughness was lower when cutting the fiber longitudinally than when cutting transversally.

  • 6.
    Li, Rongrong
    et al.
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Ding, Jianwen
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Effect of Pressure, Feed Rate, and Abrasive Mass Flow Rate on Water Jet Cutting Efficiency When Cutting Recombinant Bamboo2015In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 499-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recombinant bamboo with a thickness of 15 mm was drilled on a CNC machine. The process parameters considered were spindle speed, feed rate, and diameter of the drill, and the response parameters were thrust force and torque. Mathematical models were developed to establish the relationship between the process parameters and the response parameters. The results showed that the main influence on thrust force came from spindle speed and feed rate. High spindle speed with low feed rate was a combination that minimized the thrust force. The process parameters that have a major effect on torque are the diameter of the drill and the spindle speed.

  • 7.
    Li, Rongrong
    et al.
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wang, Jie
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, China.
    Testing and Modeling of Thrust Force and Torque in Drilling Recombinant Bamboo2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 7326-7335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Li, Rongrong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Marklund, Birger
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    Faculty of Material Science and Engineering. Nanjing Forestry University.
    Investigation of Glueline Shear Strength of Pine Wood Bonded with PVAc by Response Surface Methodology2015In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 3831-3838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of process parameters (adhesive spread, press time, and applied pressure) on the response parameter (shear strength) of pine wood bonded with PVAc were studied. Response surface methodology was applied for design of experiments and for analysis of results. A mathematical model was developed to establish the relationship between the process parameters and response parameters. The results showed that the major factors were adhesive spread and applied pressure. The shear strength increased as the adhesive spread and applied pressure increased within certain ranges.

  • 9.
    Zhu, Zhaolong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Buck, Dietrich
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Guo, Xiaolei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Ekevad, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Cao, Pingxiang
    College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.
    Performance of stone-plastic composites with different mix ratios during orthogonal cutting2019In: Materials Express, ISSN 2158-5849, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to increase understanding of the machinability of stone-plastic materials with different mix ratios subjected to diamond planing. To that end, orthogonal cutting was carried out. Different stone-plastic materials were machined by diamond cutting tools to produce chips. Based on the results, four conclusions are drawn: (1) Among stone-plastic materials with decreasing polyvinyl chloride content ratio, the maximum cutting forces and fluctuation of dynamic forces show decreasing trends, and cutting stability increases. (2) The temperature of chips is slightly higher than that of tool edges; the cutting heat generated during machining is mainly absorbed by the chips of removed material and, to a lesser extent, stored in the tool edge. The type of stone-plastic material has a great effect on the changes in the temperatures of chip and tool edge. (3) With a decrease in polyvinyl chloride content, the chip shapes evolve from crack, to arc, and eventually to elemental chips. (4) The cutting quality of the machined surface improves with a decrease in the polyvinyl chloride content ratio of the stone-plastic materials.

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