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  • 1.
    Al-Rubaei, Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Merriman, Laura S.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Hunt, William F.
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Survey of the operational status of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater management ponds2017Inngår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 143, nr 6, artikkel-id 05017001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past 50 years, wet stormwater ponds have been constructed to reduce negative environmental impacts of urban stormwater discharges on receiving aquatic environments. However, in many jurisdictions there is little information on the current operational status of such ponds and their functioning. This paucity of information prompted a field survey of 25 Swedish municipal stormwater ponds, aged between 3 and 26 years. The pond survey focused on estimating the pond hydraulic loading and efficiency, the state of littoral vegetation, characteristics of bottom sediment in the inlet and outlet zones (sizes and the chemistry), and the overall operational pond status, including the access for maintenance. The hydraulic efficiencies of ponds were estimated for pond footprint shapes and relative locations of the inlets and outlets using literature data. The estimated hydraulic efficiencies correlated well with the pond length-to-width ratios and the ratio of the pond surface area to the impervious area of the runoff contributing catchment (i.e., the hydraulic loading). Littoral vegetation was inspected visually and found to be overgrown at some facilities, which impeded the maintenance access. Benthic sediments in ponds contained silt and clay (&lt;63&#x2009;&#x2009;&#x3BC;m" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;"><63  μm<63  μm), sand and gravel fractions, and when compared with the literature data, such sediments appeared relatively coarse. Chemical characteristics of sediments reflected anthropogenic (traffic) activities, but without excessive contamination warranting special disposal requirements. Of the 25 ponds surveyed, four were fenced off and inaccessible to machinery. In fact, the design of these four ponds was such that it made inspection and maintenance very difficult, which may pose potential risks to ponds operation. Fifty-four percent of the investigated ponds were in need of minor maintenance, primarily because of sediment and litter accumulation in their inflow and outflow sections. The fact that the inspection survey revealed relatively few minor issues that could be corrected easily demonstrates the importance of relatively simple regular inspections serving to detect minor problems at an early stage before they would seriously impact pond functioning. The above survey methodology should be helpful for developing similar low-cost surveys in other jurisdictions.

  • 2.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Continuous simulations of urban stormwater runoff and total suspended solids loads: influence of varying climatic inputs and catchment imperviousness2014Inngår i: Journal of Water and Climate, ISSN 2040-2244, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 593-609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential implications of climate change for future stormwater management were addressed by undertaking continuous simulations of runoff and total suspended solids (TSS) loads for three urban catchments, with imperviousness varying from 23 to 63%, which were exposed to five rainfall regimes during the snow-free part of the year: the current climate and four climate change scenarios projecting higher rainfalls. Simulated runoff volumes increased in all the future scenarios, particularly in the sub-arctic climate and the fixed uplift scenario (plus20) indicating appreciable rainfall increases. Simulated runoff volumes increased depending on the projected increases in rainfall and increasing runoff contributions from pervious areas when more intense future rainfalls exceeded hydrologic abstractions. The increased runoff volumes then contributed higher TSS loads, which were highly variable for the rainfall regimes tested. In cold climate regions, residues of solids from winter road maintenance may contribute to high initial accumulations of TSS on the catchment surface and high washed off loads. In general, the study suggests that intermediate design-life stormwater management facilities require flexible design allowing for future step-wise adaptation by gradually increasing design capacities and modifying treatment trains.

  • 3.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Source-based modeling of stormwater quality response to projected future changes in climatic and socio-economic factors2015Inngår i: Urban Drainage Modelling 2015: Poster presentations : Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Urban Drainage Modelling, Mont-Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada 20-23 Swptember 2015 / [ed] Thomas Maere; Sovanna Tik; Sophie Duchense; Peter A. Vanrolleghem, 2015, s. 73-78Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Source-Based Modeling Of Urban Stormwater Quality Response to the Selected Scenarios Combining Future Changes in Climate and Socio-Economic Factors2016Inngår i: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 223-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of future trends in urban stormwater quality should be most helpful for ensuring the effectiveness of the existing stormwater quality infrastructure in the future and mitigating the associated impacts on receiving waters. Combined effects of expected changes in climate and socio-economic factors on stormwater quality were examined in two urban test catchments by applying a source-based computer model (WinSLAMM) for TSS and three heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc) for various future scenarios. Generally, both catchments showed similar responses to the future scenarios and pollutant loads were generally more sensitive to changes in socio-economic factors (i.e., increasing traffic intensities, growth and intensification of the individual land-uses) than in the climate. Specifically, for the selected Intermediate socio-economic scenario and two climate change scenarios (RSP = 2.6 and 8.5), the TSS loads from both catchments increased by about 10 % on average, but when applying the Intermediate climate change scenario (RCP = 4.5) for two SSPs, the Sustainability and Security scenarios (SSP1 and SSP3), the TSS loads increased on average by 70 %. Furthermore, it was observed that well-designed and maintained stormwater treatment facilities targeting local pollution hotspots exhibited the potential to significantly improve stormwater quality, however, at potentially high costs. In fact, it was possible to reduce pollutant loads from both catchments under the future Sustainability scenario (on average, e.g., TSS were reduced by 20 %), compared to the current conditions. The methodology developed in this study was found useful for planning climate change adaptation strategies in the context of local conditions.

  • 5.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Simulating future trends in urban stormwater quality for changing climate, urban land use and environmental controls2013Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 68, nr 9, s. 2082-2089Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of climatic changes, progressing urbanization and improved environmental controls on the simulated urban stormwater quality in a northern Sweden community were studied. Future scenarios accounting for those changes were developed and their effects simulated with the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). It was observed that the simulated stormwater quality was highly sensitive to the scenarios, mimicking progressing urbanization with varying catchment imperviousness and area. Thus, land use change was identified as one of the most influential factors and in some scenarios, urban growth caused changes in runoff quantity and quality exceeding those caused by a changing climate. Adaptation measures, including the reduction of directly connected impervious surfaces (DCIS) through the integration of more green spaces into the urban landscape, or disconnection of DCIS were effective in reducing runoff volume and pollutant loads. Furthermore, pollutant source control measures, including material substitution, were effective in reducing pollutant loads and significantly improving stormwater quality

  • 6.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Using urban runoff simulations for addressing climate change impacts on urban runoff quality in a Swedish town2012Inngår i: Urban Drainage Modelling: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Urban Drainage Modelling, Belgrade, Serbia, 4-6 September 2012, Belgrade: Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of climate change on urban stormwater quality was studied by means of computer simulations conducted with the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) for common climate change scenarios developed for northern Sweden. The simulation results showed that stormwater quality depended on rainfall characteristics; a climate scenario implying increased rainfall depths and intensities produced higher pollutant loads carried by stormwater, but reduced concentrations, particularly for medium to high intensity storm events. This type of stormwater quality response was explained by pollutant supply limited transport processes and the resulting dilution of such pollutants. Medium intensity events showed the highest sensitivity to climatic changes, since such events strongly affected the contributions of pervious surfaces. This has significant implications for stormwater management, because those relatively frequent events generally carry a high percentage of the annual pollutant load.

  • 7.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    An exploratory study of the effects of stormwater pipeline materials on transported stormwater quality2017Inngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 76, nr 2, s. 247-255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Implications of three sewer pipe materials (concrete, galvanized corrugated steel, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) for stormwater quality were explored in laboratory experiments, in which three types of stormwater, SW1-SW3, were circulated in 0.5 m long sewer pipe sections. SW1 and SW2 represented synthetic rainwater, without and with fine street sediment added (CTSS = 150 mg/L), respectively, and SW3 was actual stormwater with the same sediment addition as SW2. Following 20-min runs, with an equivalent distance of 500 m travelled by water particles, a number of statistically significant changes in the stormwater chemistry were observed: (i) pH of all the simulated stormwaters increased in the concrete pipe (from 7.0-7.3 to 8.1-9.3), (ii) turbidity decreased in two stormwaters with sediments (SW2 and SW3) in concrete and galvanized corrugated steel pipes (by 50 and 85%, respectively), (iii) the type of stormwater affected the observed copper (Cu) concentrations, with Cudiss concentrations as high as 25.3 μg/L noted in SW3 passing through the PVC pipe, and (iv) zinc (Zn) concentrations sharply increased (Zntot = 759-1,406 μg/L, Zndiss = 670-1,400 μg/L) due to Zn elution from the galvanized steel pipe by all three stormwaters. Such levels exceeded the applicable environmental guidelines.

  • 8.
    Borris, Matthias
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Contribution of coarse particles from road surfaces to dissolved and particle-bound heavy metal loads in runoff: A laboratory leaching study with synthetic stormwater2016Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, s. 212-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory leaching experiments were performed to study the potential of coarse street sediments (i.e. > 250 μm) to release dissolved and particulate-bound heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) during rainfall/runoff. Towards this end, street sediments were sampled by vacuuming at seven sites in five Swedish cities and the collected sediments were characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. In the laboratory, the sediments were combined with synthetic rainwater and subject to agitation by a shaker mimicking particle motion during transport by runoff from street surfaces. As a result of such action, coarse street sediments were found to release significant amounts of heavy metals, which were predominantly (up to 99%) in the particulate bound phase. Thus, in dry weather, coarse street sediments functioned as collectors of fine particles with attached heavy metals, but in wet weather, metal burdens were released by rainfall/runoff processes. The magnitude of such releases depended on the site characteristics (i.e. street cleaning and traffic intensity), particle properties (i.e. organic matter content), and runoff characteristics (pH, and the duration of, and energy input into, sediment/water agitation). The study findings suggest that street cleaning, which preferentially removes coarser sediments, may produce additional environmental benefits by also removing fine contaminated particles attached to coarser materials

  • 9.
    Broekhuizen, Ico
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Calibration event selection for green urban drainage modelling2019Inngår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, ISSN 1812-2108, E-ISSN 1812-2116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Calibration of urban drainage models is typically performed based on a limited number of observed rainfall-runoff events, which may be selected from a longer time-series of measurements in different ways. In this study, 14 single- and two-stage strategies for selecting these events were tested for calibration of a SWMM model of a predominantly green urban area. The event selection was considered in relation to other sources of uncertainty such as measurement uncertainties, objective functions, and catchment discretization. Even though all 14 strategies resulted in successful model calibration, the difference between the best and worst strategies reached 0.2 in Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and the calibrated parameter values notably varied. Most, but not all, calibration strategies were robust to changes in objective function, perturbations in calibration data and the use of a low spatial resolution model in the calibration phase. The various calibration strategies satisfactorily predicted 7 to 13 out of 19 validation events. The two-stage strategies performed better than the single-stage strategies when measuring performance using the Root Mean Square Error, flow volume error or peak flow error (but not using NSE); when flow data in the calibration period had been perturbed by ±40 %; and when using a lower model resolution. The two calibration strategies that performed best in the validation period were two-stage strategies. The findings in this paper show that different strategies for selecting calibration events may lead in some cases to different results for the validation period, and that calibrating impermeable and green area parameters in two separate steps may improve model performance in the validation period, while also reducing the computational demand in the calibration phase.

  • 10.
    Broekhuizen, Ico
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Selection of Calibration Events for Modelling Green Urban Drainage2019Inngår i: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 608-613Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban drainage models are often calibrated using a limited number of rainfall-runoff events, which may be selected in different ways from a longer observation series. This paper compares 13 different single- and two-stage strategies for selecting events used to calibrate a SWMM model of a predominantly green urban area. Most led to successful calibration, but performance varied for various validation events. Most selection strategies were insensitive to the choice of Nash-Sutcliffe Model Efficiency or Root Mean Squared Error as the objective function. Calibrating impervious and green area parameters separately in two-stage strategies can help improve prediction of low-flow events in validation.

  • 11.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Vatten Östersund.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Länsstyrelsen i Norrbotten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Indicator bacteria variation in separate sewer systems in Östersund, Sweden: Preliminary results2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faecal bacteria are a major pollution threat of water bodies designated for multipurpose use including drinking water sources or recreational purposes. Even though stormwater discharges may contribute significantly to microbiological pollution, they have not been fully investigated in the European context. We have studied the presence of indicator bacteria and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater discharged from four urban catchments, with areas between 5 and 40 ha, in Östersund, Sweden. The aim was to determine local variation of standard bacteria strains and TSS in Swedish urban catchments with specific land uses. Further, intra event variations were investigated. During dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100 CFU/100 mL. During storm runoff, total coliform and int. enterococci concentrations increased 102 to 103 times, compared to those in baseflow. Compared to these two parameters, considerably lower concentrations were observed for E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and partly, a first flush phenomenon was observed. Partly, significant correlations between TSS and indicator bacteria were observed. These were catchment specific and need a more detailed assessment. Further research will focus on seasonal variations and influential factors.

  • 12.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Haapala, Jenny
    Vatten Östersund, Water Engineering, Water Department Östersund, Östersund Municipality.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Inter-Event and Intra-Event Variations of Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the Storm Sewer System of the City of Östersund, Sweden2016Inngår i: Journal of environmental engineering, ISSN 0733-9372, E-ISSN 1943-7870, Vol. 142, nr 7, artikkel-id 6016003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An episode of microbiological contamination of the drinking water supply of the City of Östersund, Sweden (63°10′45″N; 14°38′09″E) prompted a study of fecal pollution in four storm drainage catchments discharging in the vicinity of the water treatment plant intake, with the overall aim of determining the presence and variation of standard fecal indicator bacteria strains and total suspended solids (TSS) in stormwater from urban catchments with specific land uses and sizes varying from 5 to 40 ha. Four bacteria strains used as indicators of fecal pollution in Sweden were studied: total coliforms, enterococci, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). In dry weather, indicator bacteria concentrations in storm sewers conveying baseflow did not exceed 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL 100  colony forming units (CFU)/100  mL, but during wet weather, total coliform and enterococci concentrations increased 10 2 102 to 10 3 103 times, compared to those in baseflow, and considerably less in the case of E. coli and C. perfringens. Bacteria concentrations differed significantly among the sampling sites and in the majority of events observed in the four catchments; higher bacteria concentrations were observed during the early phases of runoff. Only in one catchment, positive correlations were observed between TSS and total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci, suggesting similar sources; in the remaining catchments, no such correlations were observed. The collected indicator bacteria data represent a useful addition to the available data on indicator bacteria in stormwater in cold-climate regions.

  • 13.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Influence of sampling methods on the measurements of urban stormwater quality constituents: Preliminary results2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice between automatic and manual sampling of urban stormwater quality has been addressed in the past as an issue of economic efficiency, field safety, and practicality. Nevertheless, there is experimental evidence that both types of sampling may yield statistically different stormwater quality data. While the past attention focused on differences in sampled solids, a new issue was addressed in this study, the potential impacts of sampling methods on concentrations of indicator bacteria. Towards this end, four indicator bacteria (coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and C. perfringens) were sampled in storm sewers of two urban catchments in Östersund, Sweden, using both automatic samplers and manual sampling. Such data were further supplemented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity, recognizing that bacteria are mostly transported in the attachment to solids. Preliminary results indicate that there may be large differences between indicator bacteria in automatic and manual samples, with E. coli measurements yielding the least differences, and turbidity readings were correlated well with all the indicator bacteria and particularly E. coli. These findings will be used in the continuation of this study for refining the existing experimental design and developing practical guidance for surveys of municipal storm sewers for faecal pollution.

  • 14.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Sundelin, Monica
    Hjortens Lab, Östersund.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Comparison of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by automated and manual sampling of urban stormwater runoff2014Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 225, nr 9, artikkel-id 2065Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of indicator bacteria concentrations obtained by laboratory analysis of grab samples of storm water, which were collected manually or by automatic samplers, was carried out in two urban catchments. Samples were analyzed for four types of indicator bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens and further documented by measurements of total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity. Analysis of complete data sets (N=198) indicated no statistically significant differences in the geometric means of all the constituent samples collected automatically or manually, but there were some small differences between the results produced by the two sampling methods applied. Total coliform concentrations were positively biased in samples collected by automatic samplers, but for the three remaining indicator bacteria (E. coli, enterococci, and C. perfringens), the opposite was true. Risk of sample cross-contamination in automatic samplers was assessed in the laboratory by sampling consecutively synthetic storm water with high and low concentrations of E. coli and enterococci. The first low-concentration samples preceded by high-concentration samples were cross-contaminated and the measured concentrations were positively biased. This cross-contamination was explained by storm-water residue in the sampling line. Such a residue remained in place even after line purging by compressed air, and its mass depended on the sampling line length (tested up to 5 m), as verified by measurements in the laboratory. The study findings should be helpful for improving field protocols for indicator bacteria sampling.

  • 15.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Indicator bacteria and associated water quality constituents in stormwater and snowmelt from four urban catchments2016Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 539, s. 125-140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SummaryFour indicator bacteria were measured in association with physico-chemical constituents and selected inorganics during rainfall, baseflow and snowmelt periods in storm sewers of four urban catchments in a northern Swedish city. The variation patterns of coliforms, E. coli, enterococci and C. perfringens concentrations were assessed in manually collected grab samples together with those of phosphorus, nitrogen, solids, and readings of pH, turbidity, water conductivity, temperature and flow rates to examine whether these constituents with variation patterns similar to those of indicator bacteria, and to exclude the constituents with less similarity. In the reduced data set, the similarities were quantified by the clustering correlation analysis. Finally, the positive/negative relationships found between indicator bacteria and the identified associated constituent groups were described by multilinear regressions. In the order of decreasing concentrations, coliforms, E. coli and enterococci were found in the highest mean concentrations during both rainfall and snowmelt generated runoff. Compared to dry weather baseflow, concentrations of these three indicators in stormwater were 10 (snowmelt runoff) to 102 (rain runoff) times higher. C. perfringens mean concentrations were practically constant regardless of the season and catchment. The type and number of variables associated with bacteria depended on the degree of catchment development and the inherent complexity of bacteria sources. The list of variables associated with bacteria included the flow rate, solids with associated inorganics (Fe and Al) and phosphorus, indicating similar sources of constituents regardless of the season. On the other hand, bacteria were associated with water temperature only during rain periods, and somewhat important associations of bacteria with nitrogen and pH were found during the periods of snowmelt. Most of the associated constituents were positively correlated with bacteria responses, but conductivity, with two associated inorganics (Si and Sr), was mostly negatively correlated in all the catchments. Although the study findings do not indicate any distinct surrogates to indicator bacteria, the inclusion of the above identified constituents (flow rate, solids and total phosphorus for all seasons, water temperature for rainfall runoff, and total nitrogen and pH for snowmelt only) in sanitary surveys of northern climate urban catchments would provide additional insight into indicator bacteria sources and their modelling.

  • 16.
    Galfi, Helen
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Mineral and Anthropogenic Indicator Inorganics in Urban Stormwater and Snowmelt Runoff: Sources and Mobility Patterns2017Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 228, nr 7, artikkel-id 263Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inorganic chemicals in urban stormwater and snowmelt runoff originate from catchment geology and anthropogenic activities. The occurrence, partitioning and mobility of six minerals and six trace metal (TM) indicators of anthropogenic activities were studied in stormwater, snowmelt and baseflow in four urban catchments, and the sampling of inorganics was supplemented by measurements of electrical conductivity (EC), pH and total suspended solids (TSSs). Minerals occurred at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher (1–102 mg/L) than those of TMs (10−2–102 μg/L) and reflected the composition of local groundwater seeping into sewers. Concentrations of Ca, K, Mg and Na were enhanced by baseflow contributions and followed closely the electrical conductivity. Al and Fe minerals occurred in insoluble forms, and their pollutographs were similar to those of TMs, whose concentrations mimicked, to some extent, the flux of TSS. The TMs with the highest and lowest particulate fractions were Cr&Pb and Cu&Zn, respectively. The concentrations of total TMs in snowmelt were two to four times higher than those in stormwater, and both sources likely exceeded some of the stormwater effluent limits (for Cd, Cu and Zn) proposed in Sweden. Where such concentrations depended on water hardness, the risk of toxicity might be reduced by elevated hardness of the monitored snowmelt and stormwater. Recognizing the good ecological status of the study area receiving water, Lake Storsjön, some protection against polluted runoff and snowmelt may be needed and could be achieved by implementing stormwater management measures controlling TSS and TMs.

  • 17.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Larm, Thomas
    StormTac corporation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Wahlsten, Anna
    StormTac corporation, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measurement and conceptual modelling of retention of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in soils of three grass swales2019Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 574, s. 1053-1061Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grass swales are important elements of the urban green infrastructure that convey and attenuate urban runoff and improve its quality mostly through stormwater infiltration into, and retention of conveyed pollutants by, swale soils. The retention of metals by grass swales was addressed in this study investigating the enrichment of swale soils by three common traffic-related metals: Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales of various characteristics (L1, L2, L3) were selected for study and their soils were sampled by coring the top 30 cm and dividing the cores into 5 cm thick layers. Cumulative metal burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for the given land uses and stormwater treatment. The comparisons of measured (MBm) and simulated (MBs) metal burdens retained by swales showed that the measured values exceed the simulated ones, as described by average ratios MBs/MBm = 0.64, 0.50 and 0.59, for swales L1, L2 and L3, respectively. The measured burdens were calculated after subtracting the native soil metal concentrations, assumed equal to those found in the deepest sampled layer, 25–30 cm below the surface. The results suggest the feasibility of assessing performance of grass swales by modelling metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) retention by swales, however for older facilities considered for rehabilitation, the simulated results should be supplemented by soil chemistry sampling.

  • 18.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Larm, Thomas
    StormTac AB, Stockholm.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Wahlsten, Anna
    StormTac AB, Stockholm.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measurement and Planning–Level Modelling of Retention of Trace Metals (Cu, Pb, Zn) in Soils of Three Urban Drainage Grass Swales2019Inngår i: New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling: UDM 2018 / [ed] Giorgio Mannina, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 85-90Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grass swales are important elements of urban green infrastructure that convey, attenuate and improve the quality of urban runoff mostly through stormwater infiltration into and retention of conveyed pollutants by swale soils. Such processes were addressed in this study, investigating the enrichment of swale soils by ubiquitous urban trace metals, Cu, Pb and Zn. Three swales were selected for study in the City of Lulea (Northern Sweden) and their soils were sampled by coring. Sample cores covered soil depths up to 30 cm, but only the results from the top 5 cm layer characterized by 9–15 samples in each swale are discussed here. After estimating metal mass in this layer in individual swales, such burdens were compared to those modelled by the proprietary StormTac Web model, which estimates annual loads of specific constituents for given land uses and is supported by an extensive database referenced to Swedish environmental conditions. The annual loads modelled for individual swales were multiplied by the swale age to obtain long–term inputs of the trace metals. A good agreement between the measured and modelled loads in soils was obtained and characterized by the ratio Lmod/Lmeas, with an average value of 0.96 and standard deviation of 0.55. Such results suggest the feasibility of assessing the long–term performance of grass swales by modelling trace metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) inputs into swales, estimating the metal loads retained in soils by sampling and analyses, and taking the difference (Lin − Lret) as the exported load.

  • 19.
    Gavric, Snezana
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Processes improving urban stormwater quality in grass swales and filter strips: A review of research findings2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 669, s. 431-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing interest in urban drainage green infrastructure brings attention to grass swales and filter strips (GS&GFS) and their role in stormwater management. While the understanding of the hydrology and hydraulics of these stormwater control measures is adequate for current needs, there are knowledge gaps in understanding the water quality processes in GS&GFS and such a finding motivated preparation of the review paper that follows. The review revealed that most of the empirical studies of GS&GFS flow quality focused on the removal of pollutants associated with road runoff, and particularly solids, with relatively few studies addressing nutrients, traffic associated hydrocarbons, oxygen demanding substances, chloride, and faecal indicator bacteria. The reported results suffer from limitations caused by experimental conditions often representing a steady flow used to irrigate GS&GFS and generate runoff, non-submerged flows, no lateral inflows along swale side slopes, constant dosing of solids, emphasis on larger-than-typical solids, incomplete descriptions of experimental conditions, and limited attention to experimental uncertainties. Besides settling, other treatment processes, like adsorption/desorption, plant uptake, chemical precipitation and microbial degradation are often acknowledged, but without attempting to quantify their effects on flow quality. The modelling of GS&GFS flow quality would be beneficial for an improved understanding of green urban drainage infrastructure, but currently it is infeasible without a better knowledge of stormwater quality processes in GS&GFS facilities.

  • 20.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmelt in urban catchments2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Johansson, Lars
    Tekniska Verken i Kiruna AB.
    Gustafsson, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Modelling the effects of the joint occurrence of rainfall and snowmedlt in urban catchments2015Inngår i: Urban Drainage Modelling 2015: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Urban Drainage Modelling, Mont-Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada 20-23 Swptember 2015 / [ed] Thomas Maere; Sovanna Tik; Sophie Duchense; Peter A. Vanrolleghem, 2015, s. 25-31Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    An exploratory study of snowmelt runoff modelling in an urban catchment using the US EPASWMM model2017Inngår i: 14th IWA/IAHR International Conference On Urban Drainage, 2017, s. 78-81Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Modeling Urban Runoff from Rain-on-Snow Events with the U.S. EPA SWMM Model for Current and Future Climate Scenarios2018Inngår i: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 32, nr 1, artikkel-id 04017021Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodological study of modeling runoff from rain-on-snow events was conducted using the northern Swedish city of Kiruna as a test case, with respect to physiographic, drainage system, and the current and projected future climate data. Runoff simulations were carried out with the PCSWMM, which is a geographic information system (GIS) supported version of the U.S. EPA Storm Water Management Model (U.S. EPA SWMM5) developed by Computational Hydraulics International (CHI). In total, 177 simulations were run covering four scenario categories: eight rain events, three climates (the current and two projected), three soil infiltration rates, and five snow water equivalent (SWE) values. Simulation results were analyzed with respect to influential rainfall/snowmelt/runoff factors and the noted differences were statistically tested for significance. Result analysis revealed new findings concerning the differences between runoff generated by rain-on-snow and summer thunderstorm events. In particular, it was noted that a relatively frequent rain-on-snow event, with a return period of 1.4 year, caused fewer flooded nodes and surcharged pipes in the catchment sewer system, but almost five times greater runoff volume, when compared to the same drainage system performance indicators corresponding to a 10-year event occurring in the summer. Depending on the physical characteristics of the snow cover, among which the depth appears the most important, rainwater and snowmelt may be retained in, or released from, the snowpack, which acts as a dynamic reservoir controlling the generation and release of runoff. Smaller snow depths produce smaller volumes of melt, smaller storage capacity and less effective insulation of soils, which may freeze to greater depths and become practically impervious, until the process of soil thawing has been completed. The impacts of climate change in the study area, described by increases in precipitation and air temperatures, are likely to cause more frequent runoff problems attributed to the future rain-on-snow events. Even though the runoff tendencies reported here reflect the characteristics of the study area and climate, they suggest the need to consider rain-on-snow events in sewer design and storm water management in regions with seasonal snow covers, certainly with respect to runoff volumes.

  • 25.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Paus, Kim, H.
    Muthanna, Tone Merete
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Hydraulic and Environment Engineering, Trondheim, Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Trondheim.
    Herrmann, Inga
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Accumulation of Traffic-Related Trace Metals in Urban Winter_Long Roadside Snowbanks2015Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 226, nr 12, artikkel-id 404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulations of mass loads of selected chemicals in roadside snowbanks were studied at five sites with various traffic densities in the City of Trondheim (Norway) by collecting snow samples throughout the winter period and analysing them for 13 water quality constituents: pH, EC, alkalinity, Cl, Na, TSS, Cd, Cr, Cu. Ni, Pb, W, and Zn. The resulting dataset was then supplemented by similar data collected earlier in the City of Luleå (Sweden). Regression analyses for individual sites indicated linear trends in unit-area constituent accumulations with time (0.65

  • 26.
    Moghadas, Shahab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Perttu, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Peter
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geoteknologi.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Laboratory study of infiltration into two frozen engineered (sandy) soils recommended for bioretention2016Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 1251-1264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Infiltration of water into two frozen engineered soils of different gradation was studied in laboratory soil columns 1.2 m long and 0.1 m in diameter. Prior to testing, the soil moisture was adjusted to two levels, described by the gravimetric water content of 5 or 10%, soils were compacted to about 80-90% of the maximum dry density, and refrigerated to temperatures ranging from −8 to −2 °C. Water with temperatures 8-9 °C was thereafter fed on the top of columns at a constant head and the times of water break through the column and reaching a steady percolation rate, as well as the percolation rate, were recorded. The soil water content was a critical factor affecting the thawing process; during freezing, soil moisture was converted into ice, which blocked pores, and its melting required high amounts of energy supplied by infiltrating water. Hence, the thawing of soils with higher initial water content was much slower than in lower moisture soils, and water breakthrough and the attainment of steady percolation required much longer times in higher moisture soils. Heat transfer between infiltrating water, soil ice and frozen soil particles was well described by the energy budget equations, which constitute a parsimonious model of the observed processes. The finer grained soil and more compacted soil columns exhibited reduced porosity and required longer times for soil thawing. Practical implications of study results for design of bioretention facilities (BFs) in cold climate include the use of coarse engineered soils and fitting BFs with a drain facilitating soil drainage before the onset of freezing weather. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Müller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The pollution conveyed by urban runoff: A review of sourcesInngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Müller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Building surface materials as sources of micropollutants in building runoff: A pilot study2019Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 680, s. 190-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of diffuse pollution is critical for achieving good surface water quality status. In this context, pollutant contributions from building materials have received increased attention in recent decades. This study examined the releases of metals, nonylphenols and phthalates from ten common building surface materials (installed in triplicates) into rainwater runoff from six rain events. The highest releases of metals were from copper and zinc sheets (average concentrations of 3090 μg/L Cu and 7770 μg/L Zn respectively), while other metal materials, e.g., Corten weathering steel, exhibited lower releases. PVC roofing released high concentrations of nonylphenols and phthalates (average concentrations of up to 26 μg/L nonylphenols and 455 μg/L Diisononyl phthalate, DINP) which have not been investigated in the earlier studies. Pollutant releases varied between events, likely because of weather conditions and rainfall characteristics. Study findings should be valuable for environmentally responsible applications of the existing building materials and the development of new ones, as well as the investigations and risk assessment of specific pollutants in stormwater.

  • 29.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Galfi, Helen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measuring solid concentrations in urban stormwater and snowmelt: a new operational procedure2014Inngår i: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 16, nr 9, s. 2172-2183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of five methods measuring suspended sediment or solid concentrations in water–sediment mixtures indicated that, depending on the method used, broadly varying results can be obtained. For water–sediment mixtures containing sand size particles, the standard TSS method produced negatively biased results, accounting for 0 to 90% of the present solids; the negative bias directly depended on the magnitude of the sand fraction in the water–sediment mixture. The main reason for the differences between the TSS and the rest of the methods laid in the handling of samples; in the former methods, whole samples were analysed, whereas the TSS analysis was performed on sub-samples withdrawn from the water sample, the withdrawal process tending to exclude large particles. The methods using whole water–solid samples, rather than aliquots withdrawn from such samples, produced accurate estimates of solid concentrations, with a fairly good precision. Two whole-sample methods were studied in detail, a slightly modified standard SSC-B method and the newly proposed operational procedure referred to as the Multiple Filter Procedure (MFP), using three filters arranged in a series with decreasing pore sizes (25, 1.6 and 0.45 µm). Both methods assessed accurately concentrations of solids in a broad range of concentrations (200–8000 mg L−1) and particle sizes (0.063–4.0 mm). The newly introduced MFP was in good agreement with the SSC procedure, the differences between the two procedures not exceeding the standard bias defined for the SSC-B method. The precision of both SSC and MFP was generally better than ±10%. Consequently, these methods should be used when the total mass of transported solids is of interest.

  • 30.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Measuring solids concentrations in urban runoff: methods of analysis2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Various types of solids conveyed with rainfall and snowmelt runoff into receiving waters cause numerous environmental impacts, including reduced sunlight penetration, blanketing of fish spawning substrates, and transport of pollutants contributing to aquatic pollution. For the assessment of such impacts, it is important to measure solids concentrations in both runoff and snowmelt. In this study, accuracies of three analytical methods used to measure solids were assessed: (a) A TSS (total suspended solids) method, (b) Suspended sediment method (SSC-B), and (c) a multiple filter method (MFM). For rainfall runoff samples containing 90% of particles smaller than 5 μm, the MFM measurements produced concentrations significantly higher than those obtained with SSC-B and TSS methods, at a 95% confidence level. In the case of snowmelt runoff, the SSC-B and MFM methods yielded similar concentrations, which were 10-20% higher than those measured by the TSS method, and the coefficient of variation of repeated TSS readings was up to three times higher than that of the former methods. The results indicate the importance of choosing the “best” analytical method for assessing the operational and environmental impacts of solids conveyed by urban runoff and snowmelt.

  • 31.
    Panasiuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The feasibility of using flap gates as constriction flow meters for estimating sanitary sewer overflows (SSO)2019Inngår i: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 155, s. 113-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased awareness of the negative effects of sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) events on human health and aquatic life led to the development of various control measures, of which implementation is impeded by the lack of information on SSO occurrences, flows and volumes. The collection of such information requires data acquisition systems, which can be costly and are fully utilized just during limited time periods of the year. In search for inexpensive approaches to SSO monitoring, the feasibility of using existing flap gate installations, serving for prevention of back-up flows into sewers, as constriction flow meters was investigated, with promising results. An experimental pilotscale setup was designed to allow steady water flow through a flap gate built into a partition wall between two chambers. The stabilized water heads in the chambers and the flow rate through the flap gate were measured, for both dry and submerged flap gate conditions, and five flap gate sizes (200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mm), with relatively heavy covers (6–102 kg). The measured data were used to develop flow rating curves, by non-linear regression, in the form Q = f (ΔH), where Q is the discharge through the flap gate and ΔH is the pressure differential upstream and downstream of the gate. The regression curves fitted the experimental data with high precision (R2 >0.99). The use of flow rating curves for estimation of the SSO volume was discussed. This study demonstrated that the water head measurements upstream and downstream of the flap gate can provide a reliable, accurate and inexpensive method for quantification of the SSO discharges and volumes.

  • 32.
    Panasiuk, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Hedström, Annelie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Ashley, Richard
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Contamination of stormwater by wastewater: A review of detection methods2015Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 152, s. 241-250Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Even in separate sewer systems, wastewater may find its way into the receiving waters through stormwater sewers. The main reasons for this are cross-connections, illicit connections, overflows and leakages through broken sewers. Such discharges may affect receiving water quality and increase risks to public health and aquatic organisms. Detecting wastewater contamination and locating its points of ingress into storm sewer systems can be a challenging task, which should be addressed using proper methods and indicator parameters. A number of detection methods have already been proposed in this area, yet there is a lack of a general overview of such methods. This literature review summarizes and evaluates the methods used for detecting wastewater in stormwater, including those recently developed. The advantages, weaknesses and limitations of individual methods are discussed. It is concluded that while no single method can as yet produce results in a precise, fast and inexpensive way, the use of human waste specific chemical and microbiological markers, and their innovative sampling, offer the way forward. Guidance for selecting the most effective combinations of detection methods, under specific conditions, is also provided.

  • 33.
    Rujner, Hendrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Perttu, Anna-Maria
    SENS Sustainable Energy Solutions, 12154 Nacka, Sweden.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    The effects of initial soil moisture conditions on swale flow hydrographs2018Inngår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 644-654Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil water content (SWC) on the formation of run‐off in grass swales draining into astorm sewer system were studied in two 30‐m test swales with trapezoidal cross sections. Swale1 was built in a loamy fine‐sand soil, on a slope of 1.5%, and Swale 2 was built in a sandy loam soil,on a slope of 0.7%. In experimental runs, the swales were irrigated with 2 flow rates reproducing run‐off from block rainfalls with intensities approximately corresponding to 2‐month and 3‐year events. Run‐off experiments were conducted for initial SWC (SWCini) ranging from 0.18 to 0.43 m3/m3. For low SWCini, the run‐off volume was greatly reduced by up to 82%, but at highSWCini, the volume reduction was as low as 15%. The relative swale flow volume reductions decreased with increasing SWCini and, for the conditions studied, indicated a transition of the dominating swale functions from run‐off dissipation to conveyance. Run‐off flow peaks were reduced proportionally to the flow volume reductions, in the range from 4% to 55%. The swale outflow hydrograph lag times varied from 5 to 15 min, with the high values corresponding tolow SWCini. Analysis of swale inflow/outflow hydrographs for high SWCini allowed estimations of the saturated hydraulic conductivities as 3.27 and 4.84 cm/hr in Swales 1 and 2, respectively. Such estimates differed from averages (N = 9) of double‐ring infiltrometer measurements (9.41 and 1.78 cm/hr). Irregularities in swale bottom slopes created bottom surface depression storage of 0.35 and 0.61 m3 for Swales 1 and 2, respectively, and functioned similarly as check bermscontributing to run‐off attenuation. The experimental findings offer implications for drainage swale planning and design: (a) SWCini strongly affect swale functioning in run‐off dissipation and conveyance during the early phase of run‐off, which is particularly important for design storms and their antecedent moisture conditions, and (b) concerning the longevity of swale operation, Swale 1 remains fully functional even after almost 60 years of operation, as judged from its attractive appearance, good infiltration rates (3.27 cm/hr), and high flow capacity.

  • 34.
    Rujner, Hendrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    High-resolution modelling of the grass swale response to runoff inflows with Mike SHE2018Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 562, s. 411-422Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of simulating the hydrological response of a grass swale to runoff inflows was examined using the hydrological model Mike SHE and the available input data from 12 irrigation events mimicking runoff from block rainfalls. The test swale channel had a trapezoidal cross-section, bottom slope of 1.5%, length of 30 m, and was built in loamy fine sand. The irrigation events consisted in releasing two equal constant inflows to the swale: a concentrated longitudinal flow at the upstream end and a distributed lateral inflow along the swale side slope adjacent to the contributing drainage area. The total inflows approximated runoff from two events with return periods of 2 months and 3 years, respectively, for durations of 30 min. Irrigation experiments were done for two states of the initial soil moisture, dry or wet antecedent moisture conditions (AMC). Mike SHE has been extensively used on catchments of various sizes, but rarely for small stormwater management facilities and their detailed topography investigated in this study. The latter application required high spatial and temporal resolutions, with computational cells of 0.2 × 0.2 m and time steps as short as 0.6 s to avoid computational instabilities. For dominant hydrological processes, the following computational options in Mike SHE were chosen: Soil infiltration – the van Genuchten equation, unsaturated zone flow – the one-dimensional Richards equation, and overland flow – the diffusive wave approximation of the St. Venant equations. For study purposes, the model was calibrated for single events representing one of four combinations of low and high inflows, and dry and wet AMC, and then applied to the remaining 11 events. This was complemented by calibration for two events, representing high inflow on wet AMC and low inflow in dry AMC. The goodness of fit was statistically assessed for observed and simulated peak flows, hydrograph volumes, Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiencies (NSE), and soil water content (SWC) in swale soil layers. The best fit (NSE > 0.8) was obtained for high inflows and wet AMC (i.e., when the primary swale function is flow conveyance); the least fit was noted for low inflows and dry AMC, when the primary swale function is flow attenuation. Furthermore, this observation indicates the overall importance of correct modelling of the soil infiltration. The effects of spatial variation of SWC on the swale discharge hydrograph could not be confirmed from simulation results, but high topographical accuracy was beneficial for reproducing well the locations of the observed water ponding. No significant increases in simulated SWC at 0.3 m or greater depths were noted, which agreed with field observations. Overall, the results indicated that Mike SHE was effective in process-oriented small-scale modelling of grass swale flow hydrographs.

  • 35.
    Rujner, Hendrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Leonhardt, Günther
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten. Unit of Environmental Engineering, University of Innsbruck.
    Perttu, Anna-Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Advancing green infrastructure design: Field evaluation of grassed urban drainage swales2016Inngår i: Novatech proceedings 2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grassed drainage swales, which represent common elements of urban green infrastructures, are designed for different soils, flow capacities, dimensions, slopes and vegetation. Their design is often based on local experience rather than technical guidelines, and consequently, the design and performance of grassed swales, with respect to flow capacity and stormwater management objectives may significantly vary from one jurisdiction to another. To improve this situation and reduce design uncertainties, a field study of grassed swales was conducted by assessing their hydrologic performance. A 30-m section of an urban grassed swale in sandy soils, located in the City of Luleå (Northern Sweden), was equipped with a mobile water supply system and instrumented for measuring swale flow characteristics. The water supply system comprised five containers (~ 1 m3 each) providing controlled longitudinal and lateral inflows into the tested swale section. These inflows were selected to mimic stormwater runoff from a typical drainage area. At the first test site, 14 rainfall events of 30- minute duration were simulated and the resulting swale flows and soil moisture conditions were measured. The experimental variables addressed included wet and dry antecedent conditions, and three inflow rates. The preliminary results indicate that the degree of swale inflow attenuation depended on the magnitude of runoff inflow, on the initial soil moisture conditions and that significant volumes of water can be stored and transmitted during the stormwater drainage process.

  • 36.
    Song, Keunyea
    et al.
    Department of Biology, Trent University.
    Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.
    Department of Biology, Trent University.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Frost, Paul C.
    Department of Biology, Trent University.
    Phosphorus cycling in urban aquatic ecosystems2017Inngår i: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 132, nr 1, s. 203-212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) dynamics in urban landscapes may differ from that in natural landscapes due to different P sources and unique environmental conditions. However, many aspects of P cycles in urban areas, especially within engineered aquatic ecosystems, remain largely unknown. Through this work, we aim to contribute to better understanding of P cycling in urban aquatic ecosystems by investigating P fractions in sediment and their relationship with ambient chemistry in surface water from six urban stormwater management ponds located in Ontario, Canada. We found that organic P contributed up to 75% of total P in pond sediment, but this percentage decreased significantly between our two sampling events in June and September 2012. This decrease coincided with increased rates of extracellular enzyme (especially phosphatase) activities, which is indicative of fast mineralization processes in these ecosystems. Moreover, the decreased sediment organic P was matched by increased water column P concentration. This inverse relationship suggests that the large organic P pool in pond sediment, and its fast decomposition, contributed to internal release of P from sediment and increased water column P concentrations. The dominance of organic P in sediment and the putative role of relevant biological processes (i.e., decomposition and productivity) in urban ponds found in this study strongly contrast with classic water management expectations of physicochemically controlled P dynamics and long-term P storage in sediment of aquatic ecosystems. This difference suggests that urban stormwater ponds may perform poorly in terms of P retention and thereby contribute to poor water quality in terms of P pollution to downstream urban watersheds. Thus, stormwater pond design and future management strategies should consider these biogeochemical features of urban ponds, including internal P release, to help prevent eutrophication of downstream ecosystems

  • 37.
    Vijayan, Arya
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Laboratory Melting of Late-Winter Urban Snow Samples: The Magnitude and Dynamics of Releases of Heavy Metals and PAHs2019Inngår i: Water, Air and Soil Pollution, ISSN 0049-6979, E-ISSN 1573-2932, Vol. 230, nr 8, artikkel-id 182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory snow melting experiments were conducted with actual late-winter snow samples, collected just before the final snowmelt, in two similar northern Swedish cities, Luleå and Umeå, to investigate releases of the selected heavy metals (HM) (Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd) and 16 USEPA PAHs from melting snow. Metal concentrations were determined in three fractions: total, dissolved, and truly dissolved (defined as the fraction passing through a 3-kMWCO ultrafilter). Total HM concentrations in snowmelt were rather high at both sites and reflected the accumulation of pollutants in the roadside snowbanks over a period of about 5 months: Cd = 0.43, Cu = 303, Pb = 41.9, Zn = 817 (μg/l), and TSS = 2000 (mg/l) in Luleå samples and Cd = 1.87, Cu = 905, Pb = 165, Zn = 3150 (μg/l), and TSS = 4800 (mg/l) in Umeå samples. The difference between metal and TSS concentrations at the two sites of similar characteristics was attributed to a smaller volume snowbank in Umeå. The dissolved HM concentrations represented relatively small fractions of the total concentrations (0.3–6.9% in Luleå and 0.01–3.1% in Umeå). The truly dissolved fraction represented 71–90% of the dissolved fraction in Luleå and 74–98% in Umeå. At both sites, the dissolved fractions exhibited preferential elution from the laboratory snow piles. The PAHs studied (16 US EPA PAHs) were mostly particulate bound, with only 5–12% of the total burden contributed by the meltwater, and most dissolved concentrations below the reporting limits. PAH concentrations in the Luleå samples were about one-third to one-fourth of those in Umeå. In general, the releases of PAHs from the snowbank were delayed, compared with releases of meltwater, and showed similar release patterns as TSS.

  • 38.
    Viklander, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten. Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Geovetenskap och miljöteknik.
    Müller, Alexandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Borris, Matthias
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Kunskapssammanställning: Dagvattenkvalitet2019Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten sammanställer internationella forskningsresultat om källor till dagvattenföroreningar samt föroreningarnas koncentration, mängd och variation mellan platser och årstider. Den beskriver vad man bör tänka på vid utformning av provtagningsprogram och vid val av modellverktyg, och den diskuterar effekter på hälsa, miljö och samhälle samt vilka regelverk och riktlinjer som finns.

  • 39.
    Westerlund, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Galfi, Helen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.
    Particle pathways during urban snowmelt and mass balance of selected pollutants2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathways and mass balance of selected pollutants, released during the snowmelt process, were investigated for urban bulk snow placed in small, intermediate, and large-scale lysimeters. The results showed that low percentages of TSS (total suspended solids) and heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Pb) loads contained in snow were transported with snowmelt, the rest remained in situ with the particulate residue. The TSS loads transported with snowmelt were 3, 3.4, and 4.8% of the initial TSS mass in the small, intermediate and large lysimeters, respectively. Particulate heavy metal loads transported with snowmelt, during the whole melting process, were measured in the intermediate lysimeter for copper and zinc, and for lead in the large lysimeter. The measured mass loads in snowmelt leaving the intermediate lysimeter were 7.5 and 7.2% for copper and zinc, respectively, and 1.7% for lead leaving the large lysimeter. The remainder of the loads stayed in situ with the particulate residue. The loads transported with snowmelt were independent of the initial TSS and metal concentrations in bulk snow. These findings have implications for siting and operating snow disposal facilities; most of the initial TSS and particulate heavy metal loads can be retained on site, rather than released with snowmelt into the receiving environments.

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