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  • 1.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cheng, Xudong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Full-scale experimental and numerical studies on compartment fire under low ambient temperature2012In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 51, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fire experiment with wood crib was conducted in a concrete building under low ambient temperature of −10 °C to explore fire development and temperature distribution. The concrete building consists of a two-storey compartment with the size of 9.0 m by 5.0 m by 4.8 m high and a four-storey stairwell with the size of 5.0 m by 2.4 m by 10.0 m high. The fuel mass loss rate and temperatures at different positions were measured. Two fire cases, with different assumed ambient temperatures of −10 °C and 20 °C respectively, were then simulated by using FDS software to investigate the effect of ambient temperature and compare with the experimental results. The numerical results show that the calculated heat release rate is in reasonably good agreement with the measured full-scale result before water suppression. The calculated temperatures in the hot combustion gas layer at different positions agree also very well with the measured values. However, the measured fresh air temperature at the floor level near the fire source is higher than the calculated value. This discrepancy may partly depend on measuring errors as analyzed in the paper.

  • 2.
    Byström, Alexandra
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cheng, Xudong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Measurement and calculation of adiabatic surface temperature in a full-scale compartment fire experiment2013In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 35-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adiabatic surface temperature is an efficient way of expressing thermal exposure. It can be used for bridging the gap between fire models and temperature models, as well as between fire testing and temperature models. In this study, a full-scale compartment fire experiment with wood crib fuel was carried out in a concrete building. Temperatures were measured with plate thermometers and ordinary thermocouples. Five plate thermometers and five thermocouples with a diameter of 0.25 mm were installed at different positions. These two different temperature devices recorded different temperatures, especially near the floor surface. The adiabatic surface temperature was derived by a heat balance analysis from the plate thermometer measurements. The thermal inertia of the plate thermometer was taken into account to correct the measured results. In addition, the fire experiment scenario was also simulated with fire dynamics simulator. The fire source was specified as a given heat release rate, which was calculated from the measured mass loss rate of the wood fuel. The adiabatic surface temperatures at these measuring positions were simulated by the fire dynamics simulator model and compared with the experimental adiabatic surface temperatures. The comparative results showed that fire dynamics simulator predicted the adiabatic surface temperature accurately during the steady-state period.

  • 3.
    Cheng, Xudong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Thermal analysis of a pool fire test in a steel container2012In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 170-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pool fire test was conducted in an uninsulated steel container under low ambient temperature condition, at −20°C. The heat balance of the enclosure fire was analyzed. The size of the container was 12 m × 2.4 m and 2.4 m high, and it was made of 3-mm-thick steel. During the fire test, the fuel mass loss rate was recorded and the temperatures at different positions were measured with high-temperature thermocouples and plate thermometers. The fire scenario was simulated by using fire dynamics simulator software, and the simulated and measured results were compared. The coarse high-temperature thermocouple responded slower, and therefore, temperature measured by the high-temperature thermocouple was corrected to eliminate the effect of the thermal inertia. Furthermore, a simple two-zone model was proposed for estimating gas temperature in the enclosure of the highly conductive steel walls assuming a constant combustion rate. The convective and radiative heat transfer resistances at the inside and outside surfaces of the enclosure were analyzed.

  • 4.
    Cheng, Xudong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Iqbal, Naveed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sandström, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Prediction of temperature variation in an experimental building2011In: Proceedings of International Conference Applications of Structural Fire Engineering: Prague, 29 April 2011, 2011, p. 387-392Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Sandström, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cheng, Xudong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Veljkovic, Milan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Heistermann, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Travelling fires for CFD2011In: Fire safety science: proceedings of the 10th international symposium : [held at College Park, MD, 19-24 June 2011], London: International Association for Fire Safety Science, 2011, p. 1479-1488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are numerous methods in structural fire safety engineering to assess a time-temperature input for structural calculations in fire enclosures but there is very little on design fires for CFD calculations. This study is an attempt to explore a simpler form of design fire. The simplified approach consists of two main features, a travelling behaviour and a heat release rate specified by the user

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