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  • 1.
    Nygren Zotterman, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Aktivitet: Bemötandets betydelse för att främja en god vårdrelation mellan patient, närstående och distriktssköterska inom primärvården2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Nygren Zotterman, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Encounters in primary healthcare from the perspectives of people with long-term illness, their close relatives and district nurses2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    People with a long-term illness and their close relatives regard encounters as the foundation of their relationshipwith the district nurses within the primary healthcare setting. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was todescribe and elucidate the experiences of encounters for people with long-term illness, their close relatives anddistrict nurses within a primary healthcare setting. From the overall aim, specific aims were formulated asfollows: to describe district nurses’ views on quality of healthcare encounters in primary healthcare (I), toelucidate meanings of encounters for patients with long-term illness within the primary healthcare setting (II), toelucidate meanings of encounters for close relatives of people with a long-term illness within a primaryhealthcare setting (III) and to describe the experiences of dignity encounters from the perspective of people withlong-term illness and their close relatives within a primary healthcare setting (IV). Data were collected fromfocus group interviews (I), narrative interviews (II, III), and semi-structured interviews (IV). The interviewswere analysed using thematic content analysis (I, IV) and phenomenological hermeneutics (II, III). The findingsshow that encounters are given great importance among people who have a long-term illness, their closerelatives, and district nurses in the setting of primary healthcare. The manner in which the encounter wasexperienced in the relationship with healthcare personnel was, at many times, crucial for the whole careexperience to be viewed as beneficial or not. The findings show that district nurses described that the encountersformed the basis of their work as an important aspect and that many times they were difficult because of stressand lack of time. The first meeting with the patient was important since it was unique and unrepeatable. Districtnurses considered themselves as being the patients ‘advocate’ who helped them and protected their interests.They indicated the importance of confirming the patient as a person deserving of respect, and if a meeting turnedout poorly, it was their duty to give the patient an apology (I). The findings also show that patients with a longtermillness experienced that good encounters had health-promoting effects on their health and recovery. Patientsfelt well when they were welcomed as a person with respect, interest, and attention by the healthcare personnel.They wanted to participate in their own care by receiving regular information and follow-up dialogues abouttheir status with the healthcare personnel. Continuity with the healthcare personnel laid the foundation for apersonal and a trustful relationship (II). Close relatives of people with a long-term illness wanted to beencountered as part of the ill person’s family as they accompanied him or her to the healthcare centre. To beconfirmed as a family was important, as it gave meaning to their lives and strengthened their well-being. A goodencounter was characterised by aspects of being involved in the care of the ill person and being respected as avaluable person (III). The findings show that people with a long-term illness and their close relatives experienceddignity in the encounter when they had access to care. They experienced that it was important to be encounteredwith dignity, as it meant receiving help with their needs from the healthcare personnel. To be confirmed by beingseen and listened to was important. When the couples experienced dignity in the encounter, they felt satisfiedwith the care they received. To be encountered with dignity made they feel valuable; this facilitated their healthand well-being, and it contributed to a good impression of the healthcare personnel within primary healthcare(IV). In conclusion, the findings of this thesis show that healthcare encounters are more than just meetings; theyalso mean being confirmed as a human being by being treated with respect, engagement and dignity. Healthcarepersonnel should promote encounters for people with long-term illness and their close relatives in order tosupport their feelings of being regarded as persons and to feel that they are welcomed to primary healthcare withtheir needs, which can empower their health and well-being.

  • 3.
    Zotterman, Anna Nygren
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Skär, Lisa
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Department of Health, Karlskrona.
    Olsson, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Department of Nursing and Health Sciences.
    Being in Togetherness: Meanings of encounters within primary healthcare setting for patients living with long-term illness2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 19-20, p. 2854-2862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectivesThe aim of this study was to elucidate meanings of encounters for patients with long-term illness within the primary healthcare setting.BackgroundGood encounters can be crucial for patients in terms of how they view their quality of care. Therefore, it is important to understand meanings of interactions between patients and healthcare personnel.DesignA phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to analyse the interviews.MethodsNarrative interviews with ten patients with long-term illness were performed, with a focus on their encounters with healthcare personnel within the primary healthcare setting. A phenomenological hermeneutical approach was used to interpret the interview texts.ResultsThe results demonstrated that patients felt well when they were seen as an important person and felt welcomed by healthcare personnel. Information and follow-ups regarding the need for care were essential. Continuity with the healthcare personnel was one way to establish a relationship, which contributed to patients' feelings of being seen and understood. Good encounters were important for patients' feelings of health and well-being. Being met with mistrust, ignorance and nonchalance had negative effects on patients' perceived health and well-being and led to feelings of lower confidence regarding the care received.ConclusionsPatients described a great need to be confirmed and met with respect by healthcare personnel, which contributed to their sense of togetherness. Having a sense of togetherness strengthened patient well-being.Relevance to clinical practiceBy listening and responding to patients' needs and engaging in meetings with patients in a respectful manner, healthcare personnel can empower patients' feelings of health and well-being. Healthcare personnel need to be aware of the significance of these actions because they can make patients experience feelings of togetherness, even if patients meet with different care personnel at each visit.

  • 4.
    Zotterman, Anna Nygren
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Skär, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Olsson, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    District nurses' views on quality of primary healthcare encounters2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 418-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Good encounters are fundamental for good and professional nursing care, and can be described as treating patients with respect and protecting their integrity and autonomy. This study describes district nurses' views on quality of healthcare encounters in primary healthcare. A purposive sample of 27 district nurses participated in five focus group interviews. The focus groups interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The interview texts were analysed using a thematic content analysis. The analysis resulted in four themes, including being aware of the importance and difficulties during encounters, being the patient's advocate, being attentive to the unique person and being informed when a meeting turned out poorly. The results show that district nurses believed that encounters formed the basis of their work and it was vital for them to be aware of any difficulties. District nurses found that acting in a professional manner during encounters is the most significant factor, but this type of interaction was sometimes difficult because of stress and lack of time. The district nurses considered themselves to be the patients' advocate in the healthcare system; in addition, the acts of seeing, listening, believing and treating the patient seriously were important for providing good quality care. If a poor encounter occurred between the district nurse and the patient, the district nurses found that it was necessary to arrange a meeting to properly communicate what problems arose during the interaction. The district nurses highlighted that providing an apology and explanation could improve future encounters and establish a better nurse–patient relationship. In conclusion, this study shows the importance of confirming and respecting patients' dignity as the fundamental basis for a good quality encounter in primary healthcare

  • 5.
    Zotterman, Anna Nygren
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Skär, Lisa
    Department of Health, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona.
    Söderberg, Siv
    Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid Sweden University,Östersund.
    Meanings of encounters for close relatives of people with a long-term illness within a primary healthcare setting2018In: Primary Health Care Research and Development, ISSN 1463-4236, E-ISSN 1477-1128, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 392-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Encounters play an important role in the relationship between healthcare personnel and the close relatives of people with a long-term illness.

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the meanings of encounters for close relatives of people with a long-term illness within a primary healthcare setting.

    Methods

    Interviews using a narrative approach were conducted with seven women and three men, and the phenomenological hermeneutic method was used to interpret the interview texts.

    Results

    The structural analysis revealed three major themes: being confirmed as a family, being informed of the care, and being respected as a valuable person. Close relatives stated that they wanted to be confirmed as a family and have a familiar and trusting relationship with healthcare personnel. They valued being informed concerning the care of the ill person so that they could give support at home. It was also important to be compassionately viewed as an important person in a welcoming atmosphere based on respect and dignity.

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