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  • 1.
    Blandine, Feneuil
    et al.
    Aalto University, Concrete Technology Laboratory, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cwircen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Erratum to: Contribution of CNTs/CNFs morphology to reduction of autogenous shrinkage of Portland cement paste2017In: Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2095-2430, E-ISSN 2095-2449, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 255-255Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bohling, Daniel
    et al.
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bond Strength between Glass Fiber Fabrics and Low Water-to-Binder Ratio Mortar: Experimental Characterization2018In: Advances in Civil Engineering / Hindawi, ISSN 1687-8086, E-ISSN 1687-8094, Vol. 2018, article id 8197039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full utilization of mechanical properties of glass fiber fabric-reinforced cement composites is very limited due to a low bond strength between fibers and the binder matrix. An experimental setup was developed and evaluated to correlate the mortar penetration depth with several key parameters. The studied parameters included fresh mortar properties, compressive and flexural strengths of mortar, the fabric/mortar bond strength, fabric pullout strength, and a single-lap shear strength. Results showed that an average penetration of mortar did not exceed 100 µm even at a higher water-to-binder ratio. The maximum particle size of the used fillers should be below an average spacing of single glass fibers, which in this case was less than 20 µm to avoid the sieving effect, preventing effective penetration. The pullout strength was strongly affected by the penetration depth, while the single-lap shear strength was also additionally affected by the mechanical properties of the mortar.

  • 3.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    State of the Art on Sensing Capability of Poorly or Nonconductive Matrixes with a Special Focus on Portland Cement–Based Materials2019In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 31, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is a well-established and the most used but also well-characterized building material in the world. However, many old and new-build structures suffer from premature failures due to extensive deterioration and decreased load-bearing capacity. Consequently, structural monitoring systems are essential to ensure safe usage of concrete structures within and beyond the designed life. Traditional monitoring systems are based on metallic sensors installed in crucial locations throughout the structure. Unfortunately, most of them have a relatively low reliability and very short life span when exposed to often very harsh environments. The ideal solution is therefore to develop a smart concrete having itself self-sensing capability. A number of studies show that conductive cementitious matrixes will undergo changes in their electrical resistivity with variations of stresses, strains or, developing microcracking. This can be used as a reliable tool to measure changes. This review provides a comprehensive overview of several non-conductive matrixes, with special focus on Portland cement based materials showing self-sensing capabilities by description of detection mechanisms, sensing capabilities, limitations and potential applications.  

  • 4.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Load Sensing Capability of Cementitious Matrixes—Nanomodified Cement Versus Carbon Nanotube Dispersion2019In: Proceedings: The 1st International Conference on Smart Materials for Sustainable Construction, SMASCO 2019 / [ed] Andrzej Cwirzen, Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen, Carina Hannu, Magdalena Rajczakowska, Ilda Tole, Thanyarat Buasiri, Ankit Kothari and Vasiola Zhaka, MDPI, 2019, Vol. 34, article id 19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cement-based matrix incorporating conductive materials such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers can have self-sensing capability. Both nanomaterials are characterized by excellent physical, mechanical and electrical properties. A disadvantage is that due to their hydrophobic nature it is very difficult to ensure uniform dispersion throughout the cementitious matrix. To overcome this problem a new nanomodified cement containing in-situ attached CNFs was developed leading to a very homogenous and conductive binder matrix. This study aimed to compare the piezoresistive responses of two types of matrixes, one based on the nanomodified cement and the second containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Several mortars were prepared containing either MWCNTs or the nanomodified cement, which partially replaced the untreated cement. The effective amount of the carbon nanomaterials was the same for both types of mixes and ranged from 0 wt.% to 0.271 wt.%, calculated by the all binder weight. Changes in the electrical properties were determined while applying compressive load. The results showed that the binders based on the nanomodified cement have significantly better load sensing capabilities and are suitable for applications in monitoring systems.

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  • 5.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Novel humidity sensors based on nanomodified Portland cement2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, article id 8189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commonly used humidity sensors are based on metal oxides, polymers or carbon. Their sensing accuracy often deteriorates with time, especially when exposed to higher temperatures or very high humidity. An alternative solution based on the utilization of Portland cement-based mortars containing in-situ grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was evaluated in this study. The relationship between the electrical resistivity, CNF content and humidity were determined. The highest sensitivity was observed for samples containing 10 wt.% of the nanomodified cement which corresponded to 0.27 wt.% of CNFs. The highest calculated sensitivity was approximately 0.01024 per 1% change in relative humidity (RH). The measured electrical resistivity is a linear function of the RH in the humidity range between 11% and 97%. The percolation threshold value was estimated to be at around 7 wt.% of the nanomodified cement, corresponding to ~0.19 wt.% of CNFs.

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  • 6.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    Silesian University of Technology, The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Piezoresistive Load Sensing and Percolation Phenomena in Portland Cement Composite Modified with In-Situ Synthesized Carbon Nanofibers2019In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were directly synthesized on Portland cement particles by chemical vapor deposition. The so-produced cements contained between 2.51–2.71 wt% of CNFs; depending on the production batch. Several mortar mixes containing between 0 and 10 wt% of the modified cement were produced and the electrical properties at various ages and the load sensing capabilities determined. The percolation threshold related to the electrical conductivity was detected and corresponded to the amount of the present CNFs, 0.271, 0.189, 0.135 and 0.108 wt%. The observed threshold depended on the degree of hydration of the Portland cement. The studied mortars showed a strong piezoresistive response to the applied compressive load reaching a 17% change of the electrical resistivity at an applied load of 3.5 MPa and 90% at 26 MPa. This initial study showed that the studied material is potentially suitable for future development of novel fully integrated monitoring systems for concrete structures.

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  • 7.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Piezoresistive response of nanomodified Portland cement under bending2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Role of Carbon Nanofiber on the Electrical Resistivity of Mortar under Compressive Load2021In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2675, no 9, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nanomodified cement consisting of particles with in situ synthesized carbon nanofibers was developed to introduce a strong load-sensing capability of the hydrated binder matrix. The material was produced using chemical vapor deposition. The nanomodified cement contained 2.71 wt% of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The electrical properties of the composite were determined. Several mortar samples were prepared by partially substituting ordinary Portland cement with 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt% of the nanomodified cement. Additionally an ordinary Portland cement mortar was used as reference. The results show that the strongest piezoresistive response and therefore the best load-sensing was obtained for the mortar containing the highest amount of CNFs. This mortar contained 10 wt% of nanomodified cement. The fractional change in electrical resistivity of this mortar was 82% and this mortar had a compressive strength of 28 MPa.

  • 9.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Kothari, Ankit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Monitoring temperature and hydration by mortar sensors made of nanomodified Portland cement2024In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 57, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mortar beams incorporating carbon nanofibers (CNFs), which were synthesized in situ on Portland cement particles, were used to produce nanomodified Portland cement sensors (SmartCem sensors). SmartCem sensors exhibited an electrical response comparable to a thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistivity of − 0.0152/ °C. The highest temperature sensing was obtained for the SmartCem sensor, which contained ~ 0.271 wt.% of CNFs. The calculated temperature sensitivity was approximately 11.76% higher in comparison with the mortar beam containing only unmodified Portland cement. SmartCem sensors were used to monitor the cement hydration in large-scale self-compacting concrete beams. The measurements were conducted after casting for 7 days. Additionally, commercially available thermocouple and humidity sensors were used as references. The results showed that changes in electrical resistivity measured by the SmartCem sensor were well aligned with the ongoing hydration processes.

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  • 10.
    Cwirzen, A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulin, A. G.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Kaupinen, E. I.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Mudimela, P. R.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Penttala, V.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    SEM/AFM studies of cementitious binder modified by MWCNT and nano-sized Fe needles2009In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 735-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several compositions of cement paste samples containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes were produced using a small-size vacuum mixer. The mixes had water-to-binder ratios of 0.25 and 0.3. Sulfate resistant cement has been used. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes were introduced as a water suspension with added surfactant admixtures. The used surfactant acted as plasticizing agents for the cement paste and as dispersant for the multiwalled carbon nanotubes. A set of beams was produced to determine the compressive and flexural strengths. The scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope studies of fractured and polished samples showed a good dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in the cement matrix. The studies revealed also sliding of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from the matrix in tension which indicates their weak bond with cement matrix. In addition to multiwalled carbon nanotubes also steel wires covered with ferrite needles were investigated to determine the bond strength between the matrix and the steel wire. These later samples consisted of 15-mm-high cylinders of cement paste with vertically cast-in steel wires. As reference, plain steel wires were cast, too. The bond strength between steel wires covered with nano-sized Fe needles appeared to be lower in comparison with the reference wires. The scanning electron microscope studies of fractured samples indicated on brittle nature of Fe needles resulting in shear-caused breakage of the bond to the matrix. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Cwirzen, A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Penttala, V.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Surface decoration of carbon nanotubes and mechanical properties of cement/carbon nanotube composites2008In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 65-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the effects of the method of surface decoration on the wetability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the mechanical properties of the cement paste incorporating these dispersions. The results showed that stable and homogenous dispersions of MWCNTs in water can be obtained by using surface functionalisation combined with decoration using polyacrylic acid polymers. The cement paste specimens incorporating these dispersions revealed good workability and an increase in the compressive strength of nearly 50% even with only a small addition of the MWCNTs, namely 0-045-0-15% of the cement weight. These results indicate the existence of chemical bonds between the OH groups of the functionalised MWCNTs and probably the C-S-H phase of the cement matrix, which enhanced the transfer of stresses. A second method that was studied included decoration of MWCNTs with polyacrylic acid polymers and gum Arabic. These dispersions appeared to be homogeneous only for approximately 2 h after which a progressive sedimentation occurred. Good workability was found for the cement pastes produced with all of the dispersions; the only significant difference being the slower hydration of the cement incorporating gum Arabic. The mechanical properties of the cement pastes incorporating MWCNTs treated with polyacrylic polymers were unchanged.

  • 12.
    Cwirzen, A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Shandakov, D.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulina, L. I.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulin, A. G.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Mudimela, P. R.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Kauppinen, E. I.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Penttala, V.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Properties of high yield synthesised carbon nano fibres/portland cement composite2009In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 141-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compressive strength and electrical resistivity of hardened pastes produced either from nanomodified Portland sulfate-resistant cement (CHH) or a mixture of nanomodified and pristine sulfate-resistant cements were determined. The nanomodification included grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibres (CNFs) on the cement particles. Pastes having a water-to-binder ratio of 0-5 were produced. The test results revealed that partial replacement of sulfate-resistant cement by CHH cement decreased the electrical resistivity of the 28 day old specimens but worsened the mechanical properties. The lower compressive strength was attributed to a lower degree of hydration of the CHH cement. The addition of a mixture of surfactants enabled the production of specimens consisting entirely of CHH cement. The hardened material obtained was characterised by a nearly doubled compressive strength in comparison with the reference specimens made from pristine sulfate-resistant cement. This was attributed to a high degree of hydration as well as reinforcing action of the CNTs and CNFs. The electrical resistivity was lowered by one order of magnitude classifying this material as a semiconductor.

  • 13.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Engblom, Ronny
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Punkki, Jouni
    Consolis Technology Oy.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Effects of curing: Comparison of optimised alkali-activated PC-FA-BFS and PC concretes2014In: Magazine of Concrete Research, ISSN 0024-9831, E-ISSN 1751-763X, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 315-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of curing on the mechanical properties, chemical composition, microstructure and shrinkage of optimised alkali-activated concretes (AACs) based on ternary mixtures of fly ash (FA), blast-furnace slag (BFS) and Portland cement (PC) were compared. Heat treatment was found to accelerate the early-age strength development of both the PC concrete and the AAC. The long-term strength of AAC was not adversely affected by the heat treatment after 90 d of dry curing. Water curing slightly enhanced the ultimate long-term strength of non-heat-treated AAC specimens but had barely any effect on the heat-treated specimens. Conversely, the dry-cured PC specimens showed a significant decrease in long-term compressive strength. The ultimate drying shrinkage of the PC concrete was lower compared with the AAC, independent of the type of applied curing. In the case of AAC, the drying shrinkage was significantly decreased by the application of heat treatment while water curing did not have any measurable effect. Conversely, the drying shrinkage of AAC cured at ambient temperatures was decreased with the application of water curing. Compared with the PC concrete, the microstructure of the AAC samples was denser and more homogeneous without visible microcracking of the binder matrix. The dominant phases were geopolymer and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gels intermixed with probably sodium and aluminium ions and crystalline inclusions of zeolitic hydroxysodalite. A large amount of unreacted FA and BFS was observed in the hardened binder matrix of the AAC specimens. At the same time, no anhydrous PC was observed, thus indicating its extensive dissolution and contribution to the formation of the modified C-S-H gel.

  • 14.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Effects of reactive magnesia on microstructure and frost durability of portland cement-based binders2013In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 1941-1950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of portland cement (PC) replacement with magnesia (reactive magnesium-oxide) on properties of PC-based pastes, mortars, and concretes were investigated. The research included determination of mechanical properties and frost durability in addition to studies of the microstructure and microchemistry. The mortar and paste mixtures contained from 10-80 weight percent (wt%) replacement of PC by magnesia and had water to cementitious-binder ratios from 0.4-0.7, whereas concretes contained from 5-10 wt% magnesia and had a water to cementitious-binder ratio of 0.53. Replacement of PC by magnesia had adverse effects on the mechanical properties and frost durability. The magnesia reduced microcracking of the binder matrix in comparison with pastes containing only PC. The primary hydration product of magnesia was brucite in addition to regular hydration phases of PC. The amount of formed portlandite was increased. Magnesia caused densification of the microstructure but also increased the capillary porosity, resulting in lower frost-durability. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 15.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Enhancement of Frost Durability by Application of Nanomaterials2010In: Additions improving properties of concrete: AdIPoC / [ed] Wolfgang Brameshuber, Bagneux: Rilem publications, 2010, p. 307-313Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF) and nano-sized silica (NS) on the frost durability of mortars was investigated. The test specimens were produced using Portland cement as binder and water to binder ratios of 0.5 and 0.33. CNT and CNF were added as water dispersion with superplasticizers. The NS was intermixed with micro silica and added as slurry. The frost durability was determined by a modified CIF method. The results showed that in the case of addition of nano-sized fibers a positive effect can be only found if the binder matrix is homogenous and dense. The combination of CNTs and NS resulted in the lack of any frost damage even after 180 freeze-thaw cycles.

  • 16.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    The effect of carbon nano- and microfibers on strength and residual cumulative strain of mortars subjected to freeze-thaw cycles2013In: Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, ISSN 1346-8014, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strength and development of residual strain of normal strength mortars subjected to freeze-thaw cycles incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon microfibers (CMF) were studied. The workability was influenced by the fiber type, the dispersion method, and the amount of fibers. The obtained results showed that the measured flexural strength increased only in the case of mortars incorporating CMFs. The compressive strength remained unchanged in the case of mortars containing CMFs and was slightly lower when CNTs were present. The residual strain due to freeze-thaw cycles was lowered in comparison with reference mortar only when incorporating CMFs. The obtained results confirmed that in order to utilize the outstanding mechanical properties of CNTs the binder matrix must be very homogenous to provide sufficient contact area for stress transfer. The used water to binder ratio was sufficiently low only for long CMFs, which were able to bridge numerous weak inclusions present on the binder matrix. © 2013 Japan Concrete Institute.

  • 17.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulina, Larisa I.
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Laboratory of Physics, NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Shandakov, Sergey D.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Aalto University, Laboratory of Carbon NanoMaterials, Kemerovo State University, Department of Applied Physics, NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulin, Albert G.
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Centre for New Materials, Laboratory of Physics, NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Kauppinen, Esko I.
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, VTT Biotechnology, Laboratory of Physics, NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Mudimela, Prasantha R.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Aalto University, Centre for New Materials, Department of Applied Physics, Laboratory of Physics, NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Penttala, Vesa
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, Department of Structural Engineering, Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Laboratory of Building Materials, NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    CHH Cement Composite2009In: Nanotechnology in Construction 3: Proceedings of the NICOM3 / [ed] Zdeněk Bittnar ; Peter J.M. Bartos; Jiří Němeček; Vit Šmilauer; Jan Zeman, Berlin: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2009, p. 181-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compressive strength and electrical resistivity for hardened pastes produced from nanomodified Portland SR cement (CHH- Carbon Hedge Hog cement) were studied. The nanomodification included growing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the cement particles. Pastes having water to binder ratio of 0.5 were produced. The obtained hardened material was characterized by increased compressive strength in comparison with the reference specimens made from pristine SR cement, which was attributed to reinforcing action of the CNTs and CNFs. The electrical resistivity of CHH composite was lower by one order of magnitude in comparison with reference Portland cement paste

  • 18.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Metsäpelto, Lari
    MSc, YIT Infra Oy, Helsinki, Finland.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Interaction of Magnesia with Limestone-Metakaolin-Calcium Hydroxide Ternary Alkali-Activated Systems2018In: Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1687-8434, E-ISSN 1687-8442, Vol. 2018, article id 1249615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of magnesia on ternary systems composed of limestone, metakaolin and calcium hydroxide, alkali activated with sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulphate was studied by determination of the compressive strength, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pastes activated with sodium silicate and sodium sulphate showed strength regression caused by a formation of an unstable prone to cracking geopolymer gel. The presence of magnesia in sodium hydroxide-activated system hindered this trend by promoting a formation of more stable crystalline phases intermixed with brucide. In general, magnesia densified the binder matrix by promoting a formation of amorphous phases while sodium hydroxide produced the most porous microstructure containing high amount of crystalline phases.

  • 19.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Provis, John L.
    Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne.
    Penttala, Vesa
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    The effect of limestone on sodium hydroxide-activated metakaolin-based geopolymers2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 66, p. 53-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blends of metakaolin and limestone can be alkali-activated with NaOH to form solid binders, which show relatively low strength but offer potential as a model system by which the reaction processes of more complex systems can be better understood. The effects of curing procedure, limestone content and alkalinity of the activator are able to be related to the mineralogy, mechanical properties and microstructure of hardened pastes. The presence of limestone enhances the release of Al and Si ions from metakaolin, with the Al released in the early stages of the reaction being bound into AFm-type phases. Dissolution of LS is slightly higher when a lower alkalinity sodium hydroxide activator is used. The heat treatment of pastes activated with 3 M NaOH solution resulted in a lower extent of reaction of limestone, while with 5 M solution, heat-curing at early age resulted in more reaction. The main alkali-activation product in metakaolin-limestone-NaOH pastes is a geopolymer gel with inclusions of unreacted metakaolin, limestone particles, zeolite A, and AFm phases, with different zeolites such as faujasite-like and hydrosodalite phases also identified at higher reaction temperatures. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Sztermen, P.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Effect of baltic seawater and binder type on frost durability of concrete2014In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 275-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of Baltic seawater on frost durability of PC concretes using sulfate resistant portland cement and combination of rapid hardening portland cement with silica fume were studied. The freeze-thaw cycles were performed on specimens exposed to the Baltic seawater, 3% sodium chloride solution and deionized water. The freeze-thaw cycles appeared to cause the most extensive internal damage in specimens based on sulfate resistant cement (SR) and exposed to seawater. The most extensive surface scaling was observed in the case of concretes containing silica fume and exposed to deicing salts. Based on the thermo gravimetric and X-ray diffraction analyses it was concluded that extensive internal damage of concrete based on SR was caused by changes of the microstructure due to secondary formation of ettringite, carbonation, and formation of calcite. The results showed also that low C3A content of the SR did not fully mitigate formation of secondary ettringite during freeze-thaw cycles. A combination of rapid hardening portland cement and silica fume appeared to form more frost resistant concrete when exposed to seawater. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 21.
    Feneuil, Blandine
    et al.
    Aalto University, Concrete Technology Laboratory, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of Engineering, Aalto University.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Contribution of CNTs/CNFs morphology to reduction of autogenous shrinkage of Portland cement paste2016In: Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering, ISSN 2095-2430, E-ISSN 2095-2449, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 224-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experimental study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were dispersed by intensive sonication in water in the presence of superplasticizer and subsequently mixed with Portland cement with water/ cement ratios varying between 0.3 and 0.4. The autogenous shrinkage in the fresh stage was investigated. The CNTs and CNFs were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the hydrated pastes were studied by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The results showed a reduction of the autogenous shrinkage by 50% for pastes containing small amounts (0.01 wt%) of nanomaterials. Higher additions appeared to be less effective. The highest reduction of shrinkage was observed for carbon nanofibers which were long, rather straight and had diameters of around 200 nm. The result showed that the addition of nanomaterials accelerated the hydration processes especially in the early stages of hydration. The effect was the most pronounced in the case of functionalized nanotubes. The proposed mechanism resulting in the reduction of the autogenous shrinkage was a combination of nano-reinforcing effects, alterations of hydration and microstructure of the hydrated matrix.

  • 22.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Curtain, Roger
    Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute.
    Penttala, Vesa
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Provis, John
    Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, AUS-University of Melbourne.
    Gordon, Laura
    Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, AUS-University of Melbourne.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Aalto University, School of Engineering, Espoo.
    Sustainable straw-based cementitious building materials2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings / [ed] Dirch H. Bager; Johan Silfwerbrand, Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association , 2012, p. 477-480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New classes of sustainable cementitious materials are needed to improve the environmental impact of cement-based building materials. This study describes the recent work carried out on cementitious materials made with various straw-fibre based additions. The straw was used as unprocessed and chemically processed. The chemical processing enabled fibre extraction down to the micro and nano scale. The different fibres, before and after processing, as well as the fibre-hydrated cement paste composites were characterized and the mechanical properties of the different materials were determined.

  • 23.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Katainen, Jukka
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Lahtinen, Jouko
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Physics, Aalto University.
    Hautojärvi, Pekka
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    An experimental study on adsorption of benzene on Co(0001)2002In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 507, p. 57-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of benzene on Co(0 0 0 1) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and work function measurements. The adsorption was found to be molecular at room temperature and to saturate at a fractional coverage of 0.125 ML. With LEED a c(2root3 x 4) overlayer structure was seen. Below 220 K at high exposures a p(root7 x root7)R19degrees LEED pattern was observed corresponding to a coverage of 0.143 ML. Temperature programmed desorption measurements stated that benzene starts to decompose around 340 K to hydrogen and a hydrocarbon fragment, most likely C6H5. While the hydrogen desorbed, the hydrocarbon stayed at the surface. The desorption of molecular benzene was negligible. The activation energy for the dehydrogenation was calculated to be about 102 kJ/mol. The work function of Co(0 0 0 1) decreased by 1.3 eV upon saturation with benzene. The induced dipole moment was calculated to be 1.9 Debye/molecule.

  • 24.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Kauraala, K.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Lahtinen, Jouko
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Hydrogen on cobalt: effects of carbon monoxide and sulphur additives on the D-2/Co(0001) system2004In: Physica scripta. T, ISSN 0281-1847, no T108, p. 28-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen reaction on catalytic surfaces is an important field of research in fuel cell science. The adsorption of hydrogen (deuterium) on Co(0001) and the influence of carbon monoxide and sulphur on the adsorption were studied by XPS, TDS, WF measurements and LEED. The WF increased due to D2 adsorption, revealing the electronegative character of deuterium. It was found that the deuterium saturation coverage is similar to 0.17 ML at 320K and similar to 0.27ML at 180 K. The activation energy for desorption was estimated to be 33 kJ/mol. The coadsorption measurements with CO indicated a decrease in the deuterium yield by 50%. A downward shift of 50K in the deuterium desorption temperature was observed as a consequence of coadsorbed CO, but changes in the CO desorption were minimal. At small CO exposures the (2 X 2) LEED structure of deuterium was seen, while at exposures of above 5 L the (2 root 3 x 2 root 3)R30... structure was detected by LEED as with pure CO adsorption. Coadsorption with sulphur led also to a decrease in the D2 yield leading to a complete inhibition of hydrogen adsorption at sulphur saturation. The sulphur (2 X 2) LEED structure did not underwent changes due to deuterium adsorption. As assumed, sulphur worked as a strong poison to the adsorption on Co(0001).

  • 25.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Lahtinen, Jouko
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Sulfur poisoning of the CO adsorption on Co(0001)2004In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 573, no 2, p. 183-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CO adsorption on a sulfur covered cobalt surface at 185 K has been studied using XPS, TDS, LEED, and WF measurements. As in the case of CO adsorption on the clean Co(0001) surface, CO adsorbs and desorbs molecularly and no dissociation was observed. The saturation coverage of CO decreases linearly from 0.54 ML to 0.27 ML when the S pre-coverage increases to 0.25 ML. The WF increased during CO adsorption, but did not reach the value obtained for CO adsorption on the clean surface. The smaller work function change is explained by the reduced adsorption of CO on the sulfur-precovered surface. A reduction in the activation energy of desorption for CO from 113 kJ/mol to 88 kJ/mol was observed indicating weaker bonding of the CO molecules to the surface. The behavior of the CO/S/Co(0001) system was explained by a combination of steric and electronic effects.

  • 26.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Lahtinen, Jouko
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Physics, Aalto University.
    Hautojärvi, Pekka
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Coadsorption of CO and C6H6 on Co(0 0 0 1)2005In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 584, no 1, p. 70-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the influence of CO on the adsorption of benzene on the Co(0 0 0 1) surface using LEED, XPS, TDS and work function measurements. CO was found to reduce the benzene adsorption, but even at saturation CO exposure no complete blocking was observed. Thermal desorption of the coadsorbed layer featured CO and H2 peaks indicating partial dehydrogenation of benzene and retaining of the CO bond. Ordered LEED structures were found with all coverages: Pre-adsorption of CO led to patterns already seen for pure carbon monoxide adsorption. Pre-adsorption of benzene showed the known (7×7)R19°structure of pure benzene also with small CO exposures, but higher CO exposures yielded a mixture of (7×7)R19°and (3×3)R30°patterns

  • 27.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Lahtinen, Jouko
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Hautojärvi, Pekka
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Methanol on Co(0 0 0 1): XPS, TDS, WF and LEED results2005In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 598, no 1-3, p. 128-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption and decomposition of methanol on clean Co(0 0 0 1) was studied as a function of temperature and exposure by means of TDS (thermal desorption spectroscopy), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), WF (work function measurements) and LEED (low energy electron diffraction). Methanol was adsorbed by OH-bond scission as methoxide on the cobalt surface. TD and XP spectra revealed that beside a small amount of molecularly desorbing methanol, it decomposed during heating to the final products: CO and H2. Desorption of H2 took place around 356 K and desorption of CO around 390 K. These temperatures are characteristic for desorption of these species on clean cobalt. Work function measurements showed that the adsorption of methanol resulted in a lowering of the WF by 1.1 eV. Heating - and therewith decomposition - led to an increase in the WF of +0.4 eV. After all decomposition products had desorbed, the WF returned to the value for the clean Co(0 0 0 1) surface. LEED exhibited a combination of two ordered structures: p(2 × 2) and (7×7)19.1°. The (7×7)19.1° pattern was formed by methoxide or hydrogen and vanished below 340 K. The p(2 × 2) structure was still found above 380 K and was therefore assigned to CO

  • 28.
    Humad, Abeer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Effects of fineness and chemical composition of blast furnace slag on properties of alkali-activated binder2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 3447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The effects of fines and chemical composition of three types of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) on various concrete properties were studied. Those studied were alkali activated by liquid sodium silicate (SS) and sodium carbonate (SC). Flowability, setting times, compressive strength, efflorescence, and carbonation resistance and shrinkage were tested. The chemical composition and microstructure of the solidified matrixes were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDX analyser. The results showed that the particle size distribution of the slags and the activator type had significantly stronger effects on all measured properties than their chemical composition. The highest compressive strength values were obtained for the finest slag, which having also the lowest MgO content. SC-activated mortar produced nearly the same compressive strength values independently of the used slag. The most intensive efflorescence and the lowest carbonation resistance developed on mortars based on slag containing 12% of MgO and the lowest fineness. The slag with the highest specific surface area and the lowest MgO content developed a homogenous microstructure, highest reaction temperature and lowest drying shrinkage. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated the presence of C-(A)-S-H, hydrotalcite HT, and carbonate like-phases in all studied mortars.

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  • 29.
    Humad, Abeer M.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Babylon, P.O. Box No. 4, Hillah, Iraq.
    Provis, John L.
    Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Univ. of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TG, UK.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Creep and Long-Term Properties of Alkali-Activated Swedish-Slag Concrete2021In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 33, no 2, article id 04020475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of the future is moving in the direction of environmentally friendly materials and the use of various types of industrial byproducts and wastes. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) for the production of concrete is one of those alternatives. In this study, pastes and concretes based on high-MgO BFS were alkali activated with 10% by weight sodium carbonate, sodium silicate, and a combination of both. Heat treatment and laboratory curing were applied. The results showed that heat treatment was effective at reducing the drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag concretes and promoting high early strength. However, the sodium carbonate–activated slag concrete specimens showed a reduction in compressive strength at later ages. All concrete specimens tested exhibited high drying shrinkage; the highest values were for sodium silicate–activated concretes and the lowest were for sodium carbonate–activated concretes. All concretes tested showed very large creep, which was partly related to the small maximum aggregate size (8 mm) and the effects of carbonation. The carbonation depth after 12–24 months was significantly smaller for the heat-treated specimens and for concrete activated with sodium silicate. The carbonation process resulted in a more porous binder matrix, leading to long-term strength loss and increased creep, especially for sodium silicate–activated mixes.

  • 30.
    Kothari, Ankit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska Teknik AB, Skanska Sverige AB, 40518 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    A Review of the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Ecological Concretes in a Cold Climate in Comparison to Standard Ordinary Portland Cement-Based Concrete2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 16, article id 3467Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the currently used concretes are based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) which results in a high carbon dioxide footprint and thus has a negative environmental impact. Replacing OPCs, partially or fully by ecological binders, i.e., supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or alternative binders, aims to decrease the carbon dioxide footprint. Both solutions introduced a number of technological problems, including their performance, when exposed to low, subfreezing temperatures during casting operations and the hardening stage. This review indicates that the present knowledge enables the production of OPC-based concretes at temperatures as low as −10 °C, without the need of any additional measures such as, e.g., heating. Conversely, composite cements containing SCMs or alkali-activated binders (AACs) showed mixed performances, ranging from inferior to superior in comparison with OPC. Most concretes based on composite cements require pre/post heat curing or only a short exposure to sub-zero temperatures. At the same time, certain alkali-activated systems performed very well even at −20 °C without the need for additional curing. Chemical admixtures developed for OPC do not always perform well in other binder systems. This review showed that there is only a limited knowledge on how chemical admixtures work in ecological concretes at low temperatures and how to accelerate the hydration rate of composite cements containing high amounts of SCMs or AACs, when these are cured at subfreezing temperatures.

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  • 31.
    Kothari, Ankit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Eco-UHPC as Repair Material-Bond Strength, Interfacial Transition Zone and Effects of Formwork Type2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 5778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reduced carbon footprint and longer service life of structures are major aspects of circular economy with respect to civil engineering. The aim of the research was to evaluate the interfacial bond properties between a deteriorated normal strength concrete structure and a thin overlay made of Eco-UHPC containing 50 wt% of limestone filler. Two types of formwork were used: untreated rough plywood and surface treated shuttering plywood. The normal strength concrete elements were surface scaled using water jets to obtain some degradation prior to casting of the UHPC overlay. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), bond test (pull-off test), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) were used for analysis. Elements repaired with the Eco-UHPC showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to the non-deteriorated NSC sample which was used as a reference. The bond strength varied between 2 and 2.7 MPa regardless of the used formwork. The interfacial transition zone was very narrow with only slightly increased porosity. The untreated plywood, having a rough and water-absorbing surface, created a surface friction-based restraint which limited microcracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Shuttering plywood with a smooth surface enabled the development of higher tensile stress on the UHPC surface, which led to a more intensive autogenous shrinkage cracking. None of the formed microcracks penetrated through the entire thickness of the overlay and some were partly self-healed when a simple water treatment was applied. The project results showed that application of UHPC as repair material for concrete structures could elongate the lifespan and thus enhance the sustainability.

  • 32.
    Lahtinen, J.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Kantola, P.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Jaatinen, S.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Salo, P.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Vuorinen, J.
    Institute of Physics, Tampere University of Technology.
    Lindroos, M.
    Institute of Physics, Tampere University of Technology.
    Pussi, K.
    Laboratory of Electronics Materials Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Seitsonen, A. P.
    Institute of Mineralogy and Condensed Matter Physics, CNRS and University of Pierre and Marie Curie.
    LEED and DFT investigation on the (2 × 2)-S overlayer on Co(0 0 0 1)2005In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 599, no 1-3, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometric surface structure of a (2 × 2)-S layer formed by adsorption of hydrogen sulfide at 185 K on the Co(0 0 0 1) surface has been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) experiments and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The favored atomic configuration consists of sulfur atoms residing at the fcc-hollow sites with S-Co distance of 2.2 ± 0.1 Å. Buckling in the first layer is negligible and the three nearest-neighbor Co atoms below the S atom are symmetrically moved by 0.05 ± 0.09 Å along the surface away from the S atom. The DFT calculations confirm the hollow-site adsorption and give further information on the electronic structure of the system. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 33.
    Mudimela, Prasantha R.
    et al.
    NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulina, Larisa I.
    NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulin, Albert G.
    NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Valkeapää, Markus
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Malm, Jari E M
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Karppinen, Maarit J.
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Penttala, Vesa
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Koltsova, Tatiana S.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Tolochko, Oleg V.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Kauppinen, Esko I.
    NanoMaterials Group, Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers on silica and cement matrix materials2009In: Journal of Nanomaterials, ISSN 1687-4110, E-ISSN 1687-4129, Vol. 2009, article id 526128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to create strong composite materials, a good dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs) in a matrix material must be obtained. We proposed a simple method of growing the desirable carbon nanomaterial directly on the surface of matrix particles. CNTs and CNFs were synthesised on the surface of model object, silica fume particles impregnated by iron salt, and directly on pristine cement particles, naturally containing iron oxide. Acetylene was successfully utilised as a carbon source in the temperature range from 550 to 750 °C. 5-10 walled CNTs with diameters of 10-15nm at 600 °C and 12-20nm at 750 °C were synthesised on silica particles. In case of cement particles, mainly CNFs with a diameter of around 30nm were grown. It was shown that high temperatures caused chemical and physical transformation of cement particles. © 2009 Prasantha R. Mudimela et al.

  • 34.
    Nasibulin, Albert G.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Shandakov, Sergey D.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulina, Larisa I.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Mudimela, Prasantha R.
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Grishin, Dmitrii A.
    Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology.
    Gavrilov, Yuriy V.
    Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology.
    Malm, J. E M
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Tapper, Unto
    VTT Biotechnology.
    Tian, Ying
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Penttala, Vesa
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Karppinen, Maarit J.
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Kauppinen, Esko I.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    A novel cement-based hybrid material2009In: New Journal of Physics, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 11, article id 23013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are known to possess exceptional tensile strength, elastic modulus and electrical and thermal conductivity. They are promising candidates for the next-generation high-performance structural and multi-functional composite materials. However, one of the largest obstacles to creating strong, electrically or thermally conductive CNT/CNF composites is the difficulty of getting a good dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in a matrix. Typically, time-consuming steps of purification and fimctionalization of the carbon nanomaterial are required. We propose a new approach to grow CNTs/CNFs directly on the surface of matrix particles. As the matrix we selected cement, the most important construction material. We synthesized in a simple one-step process a novel cement hybrid material (CHM), wherein CNTs and CNFs are attached to the cement particles. The CHM has been proven to increase 2 times the compressive strength and 40 times the electrical conductivity of the hardened paste, i.e. concrete without sand. © IOP Publishing Ltd and Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.

  • 35.
    Nasibulina, Larisa I.
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Anoshkin, Ilya V.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Shandakov, Sergey D.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Nasibulin, Albert G.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Aalto University.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Mudimela, Prasantha R.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Malm, Jari E M
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Koltsova, Tatiana S.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Tian, Ying
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Vasilieva, Ekaterina S.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Penttala, Vesa
    Laboratory of Building Materials Technology, Aalto University.
    Tolochko, Oleg V.
    Material Science Faculty, State Polytechnical University.
    Karppinen, Maarit J.
    Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Kauppinen, Esko I.
    Department of Applied Physics and Center for New Materials, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo.
    Direct synthesis of carbon nanofibers on cement particles2010In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2142, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanofibers (CNFs) are promising candidates for the next generation of high-performance structural and multifunctional composite materials. One of the largest obstacles to creating strong, electrically or thermally conductive CNT-CNF composites is the difficulty of getting a good dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in a matrix. Typically, time-consuming steps are required in purifying and functionalizing the carbon nanomaterial. A new approach under which CNTs-CNFs are grown directly on the surface of matrix and matrix precursor particles is proposed. Cement was selected as the precursor matrix, since it is the most important construction material. A novel cement hybrid material (CHM) was synthesized in which CNTs and CNFs are attached to the cement particles by two different methods: screw feeder and fluidized bed reactors. CHM has been proved to increase the compressive strength by two times and the electrical conductivity of the hardened paste by 40 times.

  • 36.
    Pussi, Katariina
    et al.
    Laboratory of Electronics Materials Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Tampere University of Technology.
    Lindroos, Matti
    Institute of Physics, Tampere University of Technology.
    Katainen, Jukka
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology.
    Lahtinen, Jouko
    Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Physics, Aalto University.
    Seitsonen, Ari Paavo
    Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Physikalisch Chemisches Institut, Universität Zürich.
    The (√7 × √7)R19.1°-C6H6 adsorption structure on Co{0001}: A combined tensor LEED and DFT study2004In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 572, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometric structure of a Co{0001}-(√7 × √7)R19.1°-C6H6 surface formed by adsorption of benzene to the saturation coverage at 170 K has been determined by low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The favored model consists of a flat laying, nearly undisturbed benzene molecule, with the hydrogen-carbon bonds bent away from the substrate by 0.3 ± 0.2 Å. The carbon ring lies at a hcp-site with the two parallel C-C bonds aligned with [1̄100] direction. Buckling between the inequivalent carbon atoms in the molecular ring is within the experimental uncertainty (0.01 ± 0.11 Å). The experimental results are supported by density functional calculations

  • 37.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Concrete Specialist, Skanska AB, Göteborg.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Autogenous Self-Healing: A Better Solution for Concrete2019In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 31, no 9, article id 3119001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-healing can be defined as the ability of a material to repair inner damage without any external intervention. In the case of concrete, the process can be autogenous, based on optimized mix composition, or autonomous, when using additionally incorporated capsules containing a healing agent and/or bacteria spores. The first process uses unhydrated cement particles as the healing material while the other utilizes a synthetic material or bacteria released into the crack from a broken capsule or activated through access of water and oxygen. The critical reviewing of both methods indicates that the autogenous self-healing is more efficient, more cost effective, safer, and easier to implement in full-scale applications. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the mechanism and factors affecting the effectiveness of the process is needed. The main weaknesses of the autonomous method were identified as loss of workability, worsened mechanical properties, low efficiency and low probability of the healing to occur, low survivability of the capsules and bacteria in harsh concrete environment, very high price, and lack of full-scale evaluation.

  • 38.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska AB.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Self-Healing Potential of Geopolymer Concrete2019In: Proceedings: The 1st International Conference on Smart Materials for Sustainable Construction, SMASCO 2019 / [ed] Andrzej Cwirzen, Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen, Carina Hannu, Magdalena Rajczakowska, Ilda Tole, Thanyarat Buasiri, Ankit Kothari and Vasiola Zhaka, MDPI, 2019, Vol. 34, article id 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management is emerging as one of the most troublesome and critical problems of the upcoming decades. Therefore, the utilization of industrial by-products as building materials components has been widely studied in recent years. Geopolymer concrete, with binder entirely substituted by slag or fly ash, is one of the materials, which combines positive environmental impact with satisfying mechanical parameters. Although various properties of geopolymers have been examined, the autogeneous self-healing potential of this alternative binder has not been thoroughly verified yet. This paper aims to validate whether geopolymer concrete made of alkali activated slag is capable of self-repair. Four different mortar mixes with two types of slag and varying activation parameters were investigated. The polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers were added in order to control the crack width. The 1.2 × 1.2 × 6 cm beams were pre-cracked with the use of three point bending test at 7 days after casting to achieve crack opening of approximately 300 µm. The effects of various exposure conditions on the healing process were examined, i.e., lime water, different sodium silicate solutions and water. The self-healing efficiency as well as the evolution of the crack recovery was assessed by the observation of the crack surface with the use of digital optical microscope. The healed area of the crack was calculated and compared for all the specimens by applying the image processing techniques. The morphology of the healing products as well as their chemical composition were examined with the use of Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy.

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  • 39.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    The effect of exposure on the autogenous self-healing of Ordinary Portland cement mortars2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 23, article id 3926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure conditions are critical for the autogenous self-healing process of Portland cement based binder matrixes. However, there is still a significant lack of fundamental knowledge related to this factor. The aim of this paper was to investigate and understand the effects of various potentially applicable curing solutions on the efficiency of the crack closure occurring both superficially and internally. Four groups of exposures were tested, including exposure with different water immersion regimes, variable temperatures, application of chemical admixtures, and use of solutions containing micro particles. The self-healing process was evaluated externally, at the surface of the crack, and internally, at different crack depths with the use of optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The phase identification was done with an energy dispersive spectrometer combined with the SEM. The results showed very limited self-healing in all pure water-based exposures, despite the application of different cycles, temperatures, and water volumes. The addition of a phosphate-based retarding admixture demonstrated the highest crack closure, both internally and externally. The highest strength recovery and a very good crack closure ratio was achieved in water exposure containing micro silica particles. The main phase observed on the surface was calcium carbonate, and internally, calcium silicate hydrate, calcium carbonate, and calcium phosphate compounds. Phosphate ions were found to contribute to the filling of the crack, most likely by preventing the formation of a dense shell composed of hydration phases on the exposed areas by crack unhydrated cement grains as well as by the additional precipitation of calcium and phosphate-based compounds. The micro sized silica particles presumably served as nucleation sites for the self-healing products growth. Changes in the chemical composition of the self-healing material were observed with a distance from the surface of the specimen.

  • 40.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Law, David
    RMIT University.
    Gunasekara, Chamila
    RMIT University.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska AB, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Improved self-healing of mortars with partial cement replacement2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making the European Union’s economy sustainable is the “European Green Deal” strategy announced by The European Commission. One of the major aims is becoming climate-neutral by 2050. Since global cement production accounts for approximately 8% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions, the development of concrete with waste by-products as alternative binders and efficient self-healing properties would be a significant milestone towards the circular economy. The self-healing efficiency of cementitious composites with alternative binders requires further improvement as there is still insufficient information on this topic. The latest results for cement mortars showed the promotion of crack closure, both internally and externally, when the healing medium is a mixture of phosphate-based retarding admixture and water. The current study verifies whether satisfactory healing may also be achieved for cementitious composites with 20%cw slag and fly ash replacement subjected to phosphate-based exposure. The efficiency of the proposed solution is compared with other types of environmental conditions such as deionized or lime water immersion. The self-healing process is quantitatively assessed after 4 weeks of healing based on the crack closure and flexural strength regain. All exposure conditions applied resulted in efficient external crack closure; however, the phosphate-based retarding admixture showed the most impressive internal filling of the crack (Figure 1). Based on the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, the majority of the self-healing products were identified as calcium carbonate crystals. Calcium phosphate compound and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) were visible inside the crack in case of retarding admixture exposure contributing also to a limited flexural strength recovery.

  • 41.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Does a High Amount of Unhydrated Portland Cement Ensure an Effective Autogenous Self-Healing of Mortar?2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 20, article id 3298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is commonly accepted that the autogenous self-healing of concrete is mainly controlled by the hydration of Portland cement and its extent depends on the availability of anhydrous particles. High-performance (HPCs) and ultra-high performance concretes (UHPCs) incorporating very high amounts of cement and having a low water-to-cement ratio reach the hydration degree of only 70–50%. Consequently, the presence of a large amount of unhydrated cement should result in excellent autogenous self-healing. The main aim of this study was to examine whether this commonly accepted hypothesis was correct. The study included tests performed on UHPC and mortars with a low water-to-cement ratio and high cement content. Additionally, aging effects were verified on 12-month-old UHPC samples. Analysis was conducted on the crack surfaces and inside of the cracks. The results strongly indicated that the formation of a dense microstructure and rapidly hydrating, freshly exposed anhydrous cement particles could significantly limit or even hinder the self-healing process. The availability of anhydrous cement appeared not to guarantee development of a highly effective healing process.

  • 42.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Szelag, Maciej
    Lublin University of Technology, 40 Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska Sverige AB, 40518 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Is Cement Paste Modified with Carbon Nanomaterials Capable of Self-Repair after a Fire?2022In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 79-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This manuscript presents preliminary results on the cement paste potential, with and without carbon nanomaterials, to heal high-temperature cracks. Cement paste beams were subjected to thermal loading of 200 & DEG;C and 400 & DEG;C after 28 days of water curing. High temperature caused the formation of microcrack networks on the specimen's surface. Self-healing was achieved by exposing the cracked samples to cyclic water immersion. The efficiency of the process was evaluated based on the crack closure and mechanical properties recovery after 24 days. The results indicated a distinct dependence of the healing on the loading temperature. Carbon nanotubes had a positive effect on self-repair efficiency.

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  • 43.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Szeląg, Maciej
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, 40 Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618, Lublin, Poland.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska Sverige AB, 40518, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Autogenous self-healing of thermally damaged cement paste with carbon nanomaterials subjected to different environmental stimulators2023In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 72, article id 106619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autogenous self-healing of post-fire damaged concrete enables structure performance auto-recovery leading to reduced repair costs, less generated waste, and lower CO2 emissions. In this paper, to improve the efficiency of this process and understand the underlying mechanism, the self-healing of 0.1 wt% MWCNT-modified and pure cement paste subjected to novel environmental stimulators was tested. High-temperature damage was induced at 200 °C and 400 °C, followed by a self-healing cyclic treatment with water, a mixture of water with phosphate-based retarding admixture, and limewater. The self-healing efficiency of the proposed solutions were compared based on crack closure, strength regains, porosity, and chemical composition changes. The surface crack closure after 200 °C varied between 33% and 60%, whereas for 400 °C, only retarding admixture exposure obtained over 50% crack closure and the most considerable decrease in average crack width of 33% for MWCNT-modified paste. The highest values of compressive strength recovery, equal to 18% and 14%, exceeding the intact specimen's compressive strength, were observed for the MWCNT-modified paste healed in water and limewater. Water exposure with an extended wetting phase enhanced the compressive strength recovery of the MWCNT-modified materials. Strong (r = 0.87) and moderate (r = 0.52) positive correlations were observed between temperature loading and compressive and flexural strength recovery parameters, respectively. Higher porosity and interconnected crack network, caused by high temperature, facilitated the self-healing process. Porosity changes before and after healing were pronounced in contrast to the amount of unhydrated cement, which did not exhibit noticeable changes. The healing mechanism included three processes: calcite formation, further hydration inside the cracks, and rehydration of the bulk cement paste.Previous article in issue

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  • 44.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Szeląg, Maciej
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Lublin University of Technology, 40 Nadbystrzycka Str., 20-618 Lublin, Poland.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska Sverige AB, 405 18 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Interpretable Machine Learning for Prediction of Post-Fire Self-Healing of Concrete2023In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 3, article id 1273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing accurate and interpretable models to forecast concrete’s self-healing behavior is of interest to material engineers, scientists, and civil engineering contractors. Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence are powerful tools that allow constructing high-precision predictions, yet often considered “black box” methods due to their complexity. Those approaches are commonly used for the modeling of mechanical properties of concrete with exceptional accuracy; however, there are few studies dealing with the application of ML for the self-healing of cementitious materials. This paper proposes a pioneering study on the utilization of ML for predicting post-fire self-healing of concrete. A large database is constructed based on the literature studies. Twelve input variables are analyzed: w/c, age of concrete, amount of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, peak loading temperature, duration of peak loading temperature, cooling regime, duration of cooling, curing regime, duration of curing, and specimen volume. The output of the model is the compressive strength recovery, being one of the self-healing efficiency indicators. Four ML methods are optimized and compared based on their performance error: Support Vector Machines (SVM), Regression Trees (RT), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Ensemble of Regression Trees (ET). Monte Carlo analysis is conducted to verify the stability of the selected model. All ML approaches demonstrate satisfying precision, twice as good as linear regression. The ET model is found to be the most optimal with the highest prediction accuracy and sufficient robustness. Model interpretation is performed using Partial Dependence Plots and Individual Conditional Expectation Plots. Temperature, curing regime, and amounts of aggregates are identified as the most significant predictors.

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  • 45.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tole, Ilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Hedlund, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska Sverige AB, 40518 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Autogenous self-healing of low embodied energy cementitious materials: Effect of multi-component binder and crack geometry2023In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 376, article id 130994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete's ability to auto-repair the cracks reduces the need for maintenance and repair. Autogenous self-healing is an intrinsic property of concrete highly dependent on the binder composition. The urgent necessity to decrease CO2 emissions of concrete by replacing cement with “greener” materials provides challenges and opportunities for self-healing cementitious materials. This research aims to verify the self-healing behavior of environmentally friendly multi-component binders. An experimental study is conducted to test the effect of binder composition-related parameters (e.g., phase composition, porosity) and crack geometry on the self-healing efficiency of the “green” mortars. Cementitious materials with 50 wt.%cement replacement with limestone powder blended with fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume are investigated. Sorptivity change, compressive strength regains, and crack closure after self-healing are used to quantify the self-healing efficiency. Quantitative analysis and correlations between chemical composition/microstructural features, geometrical crack characteristics, and self-healing measures are investigated. The results indicate that “green” binder composition affects the self-healing mechanism leading to different levels of performance recovery. Some SCMs-limestone binder formulations enable a better self-healing efficiency than pure OPC or OPC/limestone cementitious materials, presumably due to a synergistic effect between the limestone and the mineral additions. Correlation analysis indicated that geometrical complexity characterized by fractal dimension and tortuosity of the crack does not affect the external crack closure, whereas the fractal dimension and maximum crack width are correlated with the internal crack healing.

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  • 46.
    Teker Ercan, Ece Ezgi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Building Materials, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, 97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Wood Ash as Sustainable Alternative Raw Material for the Production of Concrete—A Review2023In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 7, article id 2557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different ecological binders have been used to minimize the negative effects of cement production and use on the environment. Wood ash is one of these alternative binders, and there has been increasing research related to this topic recently. The wood ash utilized in the literature primarily originates from power plants and local bakeries, and predominantly wood fly ash is used. This review paper examines the use of wood ash as an ecological binder in two different applications: as a cement replacement and as an alkali-activated material. Studies have shown that while increased wood ash content in concrete and mortars can have negative effects on strength and durability, it is still a promising and developable material. Depending on the chemical composition of the wood ash, the strength and durability properties of concrete might be slightly improved by utilizing wood ash as a replacement for cement, with an optimal replacement level of 10–20%. However, there is a need for more research regarding the effects of wood ash on the durability of cement-based materials and its use in alkali-activated materials. Overall, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the properties of wood ash and its potential applications in conventional concrete and mortars, as well as in alkali-activated materials.

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  • 47.
    Teker Ercan, Ece Ezgi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    The Effects of Partial Replacement of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag by Ground Wood Ash on Alkali-Activated Binder Systems2023In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 15, article id 5347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cement production contributes significantly to carbon dioxide emissions. Alkali-activated materials offer an environmentally friendly alternative due to their comparable strength, durability and low-carbon emissions while utilizing wastes and industrial by-products. Wood ash is a waste material that shows promising results as a partial replacement for Portland cement and precursors in alkali-activated systems. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ground wood ash on the mechanical properties of alkali-activated mortars. Wood ash was incorporated as a 0 wt%, 10 wt% and 20 wt% partial replacement for ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The wood ashes were ground in a planetary ball mill for 10 and 20 min. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used as alkali activators. The results demonstrated that ground wood ash improved the mechanical properties of alkali-activated systems compared to untreated wood ash. However, the incorporation of wood ash increased the porosity of the binder matrix.

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  • 48.
    Tole, Ilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Delogu, Francesco
    Revalorization of mine tailings by mechanochemical activationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Tole, Ilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Delogu, Francesco
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Chimica e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari, Italy.
    Qoku, Elsa
    School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Tech,790 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332, Georgia.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Enhancement of the pozzolanic activity of natural clays by mechanochemical activation2022In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 352, article id 128739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacement of cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) is a proven method to reduce clinker in cement and contribute to decreased CO2 emissions. Natural clays are commonly occurring materials that do not possess pozzolanic activity in their original state. Mechanochemical activation (MCA) can be an alternative and sustainable method to enhance their reactivity. In this study, the pozzolanic reactivity of three natural clays, originating from Sweden, was analyzed after the application of MCA in a planetary ball mill. Strength activity index (SAI), Frattini test, and conductivity test were used to evaluate the pozzolanic reactivity. All processed clays by MCA have achieved a SAI greater than 100%, while the Frattini test indicated an improved pozzolanic activity of samples containing a higher amount of clay minerals. The obtained results show that MCA could improve the pozzolanic reactivity, but the effect depends on the mineralogical composition and particle size of the clays.

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  • 50.
    Tole, Ilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mechanochemical activation of natural clay minerals: an alternative to produce sustainable cementitious binders – review2019In: Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0930-0708, E-ISSN 1438-1168, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 449-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanochemical activation can be defined as a process able to induce structural disorder through intensive grinding. In certain conditions, it may increase the chemical reactivity of the processed material. The process is extensively utilized in extractive metallurgy, synthesis of nanocomposites or pharmacology. It is also considered an environmentally friendly alternative to activate kaolinitic clay avoiding high calcination temperature. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of the process, its evolution, process parameters and applications. The paper focuses on the mechanochemical treatment of natural clay minerals, aiming at their transformation into cementitious or pozzolanic materials. It provides a summarized review of the theories related to the mechanochemistry and discusses commonly used models. The paper also analyzes various key factors and parameters controlling the mechanochemical activation process. The optimization and control of the several factors, as the filling ratio, the grinding media, the velocity, the time of grinding, etc., can promote developments and new research opportunities on different fields of application. Examples of applications, with a special focus on mechanochemically activated clay minerals and their use as cementitious binders, are listed as well.

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