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  • 1.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Increasing phase transformation rate in advanced high strength steel applications2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The bainite transformation rate has been shown to increase by starting the heat treatment with partial martensite transformation after austenitization. Based on this fact, a process very similar to “Quenching and Partitioning” (Q&P) is used to produce a fine-grained complex microstructure of martensite, bainite and retained austenite with outstanding mechanical properties in a very short time. During this process, different mechanisms including bainite transformation, carbon partitioning, carbide precipitation, grain growth may occur. All these mechanisms can affect the mechanical properties such as strength, ductility and toughness. Investigation of the different mechanisms influencing the properties and subsequent optimization of these is important. In this work, different mechanisms of the Q&P heat treatment process and its practical industrial applications have been investigated. 

    Firstly, the implementation of a Q&P method directly after laser welding for a few seconds to substitute any post welding treatment has been studied. To investigate the feasibility, limitations, and advantages of this method for a low-carbon low-silicon high strength steel, the microstructure and mechanical properties by both modelling and experimental approach were studied. Promising results show that this method can decrease the ordinary post-welding treatment time from a few minutes to a few seconds, and in addition improve the mechanical properties of the fusion zone and the heat affected zone to the same or even higher values in comparison with the base material.

    In the second part of this work, the effect of quenching and partitioning on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a high carbon steel has been studied. The aim with this part was to optimize the phase transformation rate for production of ultra-high strength steel by controlling its microstructural evolution. The results show that it is possible to get good strength values also for high carbon steels by Q&P treatment. In addition, the approach with process control maps can give a good overview of which properties can be achieved by this method. Hardness value of over 700 HV, and tensile strength of up to 2.5 GPa with a relatively good ductility of 4-6% has been achieved by quenching to room temperature and partitioning for less than one minute at 400 °C resulting in a microstructure consisting of martensite and retained austenite. In a nutshell, the approach to bainite transformation with pre-existing martensite shorten the processing time for development of advanced high strength steels significantly. This method is also possible to be used in industrial processes as in welding.

  • 2.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Borasi, Luciano
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mücklich, F.
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Optimization of Quenching Temperature to Minimize the Micro Segregation Induced Banding Phenomena in Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels2019Ingår i: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 90, nr 1, artikel-id 1800281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mn, Cr, and Si are favorable elements for designing the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels while the microsegregation of them is a common phenomenon in the steels. This segregation makes the bands of enriched and depleted Mn–Cr regions, which affects the Ms temperature of the bands and consequently influence the volume fraction of initial martensite, retained austenite, and secondary fresh martensite in different bands. This issue leads to non-homogeneity in the microstructure and mechanical properties. In this study, the optimization method to minimize the inhomogeneity by selection of the quenching temperature is demonstrated.

  • 3.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Borasi, Luciano
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mücklich, Frank
    University of Saarland .
    Process Control Maps to Design an Ultra-High Strength-Ductile Steel2019Ingår i: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 35, nr 10, s. 1173-1184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Department of Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Guitar, M. Agustina
    Department of Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department of Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Effect of Carbon Partitioning, Carbide Precipitation, and Grain Size on Brittle Fracture of Ultra-High-Strength, Low-Carbon Steel after Welding by a Quenching and Partitioning Process2018Ingår i: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, nr 10, artikel-id 747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the weld zone properties of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS), quenching and partitioning (Q&P) has been used immediately after laser welding of a low-carbon steel. However, the mechanical properties can be affected for several reasons: (i) The carbon content and amount of retained austenite, bainite, and fresh martensite; (ii) Precipitate size and distribution; (iii) Grain size. In this work, carbon movements during the partitioning stage and prediction of Ti (C, N), and MoC precipitation at different partitioning temperatures have been simulated by using Thermocalc, Dictra, and TC-PRISMA. Verification and comparison of the experimental results were performed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscop (SEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron Backscatter Scanning Diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to investigate the effect of martensitic/bainitic packet size. Results show that the increase in the number density of small precipitates in the sample partitioned at 640 °C compensates for the increase in crystallographic packets size. The strength and ductility values are kept at a high level, but the impact toughness will decrease considerably.

  • 5.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Gunasekaran, Suresh
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University.
    Microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of Low alloy High strength Quenched and Partitioned Steel2016Ingår i: MSMF 2016: Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Gunasekaran, Suresh
    Hedayati, Ali
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, D-66041 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of Low alloy High strength Quenched and Partitioned Steel2017Ingår i: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 258, s. 574-578Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Gleeble study of the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process has been performed onDomex 960 steel (Fe, 0.08 %C, 1.79 %Mn, 0.23 %Si, 0.184 %Ti, and 0.038 %Al). The effect ofdifferent Q&P conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The aimof the process is to produce a fine grained microstructure for better ductility and controlled amountsof different micro-constituents to increase the strength and toughness simultaneously. Threedifferent quenching temperatures, three partitioning temperatures and three partitioning times havebeen selected to process the 27 specimens by Gleeble® 1500. The specimens were characterized bymeans of OM, SEM, XRD, hardness and impact tests. It was found that, fine lath martensite withretained austenite is achievable without high amount of Si or Al in the composition although lack ofthese elements may cause the formation of carbides and decrease the available amount of carbon forpartitioning into the austenite. The hardness increases as the quenching temperature is decreased,however, at highest partitioning temperature (640◦C) the hardness increases sharply due to extensiveprecipitate formation.

  • 7.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Processing of Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steel 304L by an Advanced Thermomechanical Process2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Processing of Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steel 304L by an Advanced Thermomechanical Process2012Ingår i: International Journal of Modern Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 2010-1945, Vol. 5, s. 383-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano/Submicron crystalline grains of about 250 nm were obtained in a metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI304L by an advanced thermomechanical process consisting of heavy conventional cold rolling and annealing. Effects of cold thickness reduction and temperature and time of the reversion treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of the steel were investigated. The nano-structured austenitic steel exhibited not only high strength (above 1 GPa) but also good elongation (above 50%).

  • 9.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Artificial neural network models for production of nano-grained structure in AISI 304L stainless steel by predicting thermo-mechanical parameters2009Ingår i: International Journal of Iron & Steel Society, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 6-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for the analysis, simulation, and prediction of the austenite reversion in the thermo-mechanical treatment of 304L austenitic stainless steel. The results of the ANN model are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is used to predict an appropriate annealing condition for austenite reversion through the martensite to austenite transformation. This model can also be used as a guide for further grain refining and to improve mechanical properties of the AISI 304L stainless steel.

  • 10.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Optimization of the Thermomechanical Parameters to AISI 304L Stainless Steel using Neural Network2009Ingår i: International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Vol. 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Simulation of mechanical properties and obtaining nano/submicron AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process by using naural network2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Surkialiabad, Roohallah
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Production of nano/submicron grained AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process2010Ingår i: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 527, nr 27-28, s. 7334-7339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of nano/submicron grained AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel through formation of strain-induced martensite and its reversion to austenite are studied in this paper. The effects of annealing parameters on the microstructural development and mechanical properties are also investigated. Heavily cold rolling at 0 °C is employed to induce the formation of martensite in the metastable austenitic material, followed by reversion treatment at the temperature range of 700-900 °C for 0.5-300. min. Microstructural evolutions are analyzed using Feritscope, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, whereas the mechanical properties are determined by hardness and tensile tests. The smallest grain size (about 135. nm) is obtained in the specimen annealed at 700 °C for 20. min. The resultant nano/submicron grained steel not only exhibits a high strength level (about 1010. MPa) but also a desirable elongation of about 40%. Moreover, an annealing map is developed which indicates the appropriate range of annealing parameters for grain refinement of AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process.

  • 13.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmed
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Simulation of mechanical properties and obtaining nano/submicron AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process by using naural network2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Strandqvist, Nanny
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Navara, Erik
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University.
    Effect of tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welded and post-weld treated AHSS specimens2017Ingår i: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 891, s. 18-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An advanced high strength steel (0.08 wt.%C, 1.79 wt%Mn, 0.23 wt%Si) was subjected to different post-weld heat treatments by quenching & tempering treatments (Q&T) after laser welding to reduce the risk of martensite formation in a few seconds based on an idea of quench and partitioning (Q&P), mechanism. The thermal stability of retained austenite, microstructure development and mechanical properties have been studied at 2 tempering temperatures of 440°C (Ms) and 636°C (Bs), both for 15 minutes, by means of electron microscopy, dilatometry, hardness profile and tensile tests. Dilatometer study unveiled that redistribution of carbon atoms and precipitation of transition carbides occur around 150°C and austenite decomposition occur at 600°C. Tempering at 636°C resulted in notable effect on the mechanical properties, while no significant difference was detected at 440°C, except a slight hardness drop. The strength increased up to 12% for the different specimens without significant loss in ductility for all specimens tempered at 636°C, which may be caused by precipitation hardening and recrystallization of martensite lath boundaries during tempering around 600°C.

  • 15.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University.
    Post weld-treatment of laser welded AHSS by application of quenching and partitioning technique2017Ingår i: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 698, s. 174-182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) treatment was applied on specimens of an advanced high strength steel (AHSS) after laser welding, for post welding treatment. In order to avoid formation of brittle martensite phase, which usually form due to very high cooling rate of laser welding. To simulate the effect of different Q&P parameters after welding in the most critical part of HAZ, several cycles were performed in Gleeble simulator and analyzed in advance. Subsequently some of the cycles were repeated after laser welding by using an induction heater close to the weld. Different techniques including SEM, EBSD and XRD were used to analyze the microconstituents of the structure and mechanical properties were investigated by micro-hardness measurements across the weld, tensile and impact toughness tests. The final structure consists of controlled amount of tempered martensite with precipitates, bainite laths and small amount of fresh martensite depending on the thermal cycles. In addition, samples heated at a temperature between Ms and Bs (in this case 540C) showed the best mechanical properties. Therefore, this technique not only improves the microstructure and mechanical properties of the fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) but gives also a quick industrial processing method for post welding treatments.

  • 16.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Zhang, Hanzhu
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mücklich, Frank
    University of Saarland .
    Study of The Kinetics of Precipitation in an AHSS steel after Laser Welding and Quenching and Partitioning2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17. Forouzan, M. R
    et al.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Jalali, M. R
    Numerical Simulation of Temperature History and Phase Transformations during Submerged Direct Seam Welded Pipes of steel X702009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    An Advanced Thermomechanical Process to Obtain Nano/Submicron Grain Sizes in a Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Surki Aliabadi, Rouhallah
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    The process to produce a new generation of AISI 304L Austenitic Stainless Steelwith High Strength & Good Elongation by the creation of Nano Grain Size Structure2010Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap. Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Surki, R
    Effect of Cold Work Percent on Mechanical Properties of AISI 304L Stainless Steel2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the effect of various degrees of plastic deformation introduced by cold rolling at zero temperature on the mechanical properties of AISI 304L stainless steel. microstructural and ferromagnetic studies were also conducted. The material was evaluated up to 90% reduction in thickness. For this purpose, magnetic measurements, optical metallography, hardness and Tensile test, were used. Results show that by increasing the amount of rolling strain, transformation of austenite to martensite generally increases. The regime of this increase depends on the amount of the plastic deformation and temperature. The tensile strength and hardness were found to increase with the increase of cold rolling percentage (%CR) up to 90%.The results indicate that the formation of strain-induced martensite evidently led to a significant strengthening of the steel.

  • 21.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Submicron Microstructure Achieved by Thermomechanical Process in Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304L2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 22.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    The effect of cold rolling regime on microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 304L stainless steel2010Ingår i: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 210, nr 8, s. 1017-1022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effect of different thickness reductions by cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. The hot rolled steel strips were subjected to cold rolling at 0 °C from 10 to 90% thickness reduction. Microstructures, strain-induced martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of the cold-rolled specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Feritscope measurements, optical metallography, hardness and tensile tests. The resulting transformation curve showed a sigmoidal shape with the saturation value of strain-induced martensite of approximately 100%. A good agreement was found between the experimental results and the Olsen-Cohen model. The results indicated that formation of strain-induced martensite clearly resulted in a significant strengthening of the steel

  • 23. Schodek, Daniel L
    et al.
    Ferreira, Paulo
    Ashby, Michael F
    Hedayati, Ali (Översättare)
    Forouzan, Farnoosh (Översättare)
    Soroor, Ghaziof (Översättare)
    Nanomaterials, nanotechnologies and design: an introduction for engineers and architects2016Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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