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  • 1.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Increasing phase transformation rate in advanced high strength steel applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The bainite transformation rate has been shown to increase by starting the heat treatment with partial martensite transformation after austenitization. Based on this fact, a process very similar to “Quenching and Partitioning” (Q&P) is used to produce a fine-grained complex microstructure of martensite, bainite and retained austenite with outstanding mechanical properties in a very short time. During this process, different mechanisms including bainite transformation, carbon partitioning, carbide precipitation, grain growth may occur. All these mechanisms can affect the mechanical properties such as strength, ductility and toughness. Investigation of the different mechanisms influencing the properties and subsequent optimization of these is important. In this work, different mechanisms of the Q&P heat treatment process and its practical industrial applications have been investigated. 

    Firstly, the implementation of a Q&P method directly after laser welding for a few seconds to substitute any post welding treatment has been studied. To investigate the feasibility, limitations, and advantages of this method for a low-carbon low-silicon high strength steel, the microstructure and mechanical properties by both modelling and experimental approach were studied. Promising results show that this method can decrease the ordinary post-welding treatment time from a few minutes to a few seconds, and in addition improve the mechanical properties of the fusion zone and the heat affected zone to the same or even higher values in comparison with the base material.

    In the second part of this work, the effect of quenching and partitioning on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a high carbon steel has been studied. The aim with this part was to optimize the phase transformation rate for production of ultra-high strength steel by controlling its microstructural evolution. The results show that it is possible to get good strength values also for high carbon steels by Q&P treatment. In addition, the approach with process control maps can give a good overview of which properties can be achieved by this method. Hardness value of over 700 HV, and tensile strength of up to 2.5 GPa with a relatively good ductility of 4-6% has been achieved by quenching to room temperature and partitioning for less than one minute at 400 °C resulting in a microstructure consisting of martensite and retained austenite. In a nutshell, the approach to bainite transformation with pre-existing martensite shorten the processing time for development of advanced high strength steels significantly. This method is also possible to be used in industrial processes as in welding.

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  • 2.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Borasi, Luciano
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, F.
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Optimization of Quenching Temperature to Minimize the Micro Segregation Induced Banding Phenomena in Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) Steels2019In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 90, no 1, article id 1800281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mn, Cr, and Si are favorable elements for designing the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) steels while the microsegregation of them is a common phenomenon in the steels. This segregation makes the bands of enriched and depleted Mn–Cr regions, which affects the Ms temperature of the bands and consequently influence the volume fraction of initial martensite, retained austenite, and secondary fresh martensite in different bands. This issue leads to non-homogeneity in the microstructure and mechanical properties. In this study, the optimization method to minimize the inhomogeneity by selection of the quenching temperature is demonstrated.

  • 3.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Borasi, Luciano
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, Frank
    University of Saarland .
    Process Control Maps to Design an Ultra-High Strength-Ductile Steel2019In: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, E-ISSN 1743-2847, Vol. 35, no 10, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department of Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Guitar, M. Agustina
    Department of Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department of Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Effect of Carbon Partitioning, Carbide Precipitation, and Grain Size on Brittle Fracture of Ultra-High-Strength, Low-Carbon Steel after Welding by a Quenching and Partitioning Process2018In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the weld zone properties of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS), quenching and partitioning (Q&P) has been used immediately after laser welding of a low-carbon steel. However, the mechanical properties can be affected for several reasons: (i) The carbon content and amount of retained austenite, bainite, and fresh martensite; (ii) Precipitate size and distribution; (iii) Grain size. In this work, carbon movements during the partitioning stage and prediction of Ti (C, N), and MoC precipitation at different partitioning temperatures have been simulated by using Thermocalc, Dictra, and TC-PRISMA. Verification and comparison of the experimental results were performed by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscop (SEM), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron Backscatter Scanning Diffraction (EBSD) analysis were used to investigate the effect of martensitic/bainitic packet size. Results show that the increase in the number density of small precipitates in the sample partitioned at 640 °C compensates for the increase in crystallographic packets size. The strength and ductility values are kept at a high level, but the impact toughness will decrease considerably.

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  • 5.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gunasekaran, Suresh
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University.
    Microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of Low alloy High strength Quenched and Partitioned Steel2016In: MSMF 2016: Materials Structure & Micromechanics of Fracture, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gunasekaran, Suresh
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, D-66041 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Microstructure analysis and mechanical properties of Low alloy High strength Quenched and Partitioned Steel2017In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 258, p. 574-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gleeble study of the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process has been performed onDomex 960 steel (Fe, 0.08 %C, 1.79 %Mn, 0.23 %Si, 0.184 %Ti, and 0.038 %Al). The effect ofdifferent Q&P conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The aimof the process is to produce a fine grained microstructure for better ductility and controlled amountsof different micro-constituents to increase the strength and toughness simultaneously. Threedifferent quenching temperatures, three partitioning temperatures and three partitioning times havebeen selected to process the 27 specimens by Gleeble® 1500. The specimens were characterized bymeans of OM, SEM, XRD, hardness and impact tests. It was found that, fine lath martensite withretained austenite is achievable without high amount of Si or Al in the composition although lack ofthese elements may cause the formation of carbides and decrease the available amount of carbon forpartitioning into the austenite. The hardness increases as the quenching temperature is decreased,however, at highest partitioning temperature (640◦C) the hardness increases sharply due to extensiveprecipitate formation.

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  • 7.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Processing of Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steel 304L by an Advanced Thermomechanical Process2012In: International Journal of Modern Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 2010-1945, Vol. 5, p. 383-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nano/Submicron crystalline grains of about 250 nm were obtained in a metastable austenitic stainless steel AISI304L by an advanced thermomechanical process consisting of heavy conventional cold rolling and annealing. Effects of cold thickness reduction and temperature and time of the reversion treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of the steel were investigated. The nano-structured austenitic steel exhibited not only high strength (above 1 GPa) but also good elongation (above 50%).

  • 8.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Processing of Nano/Submicron Grained Stainless Steel 304L by an Advanced Thermomechanical Process2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Artificial neural network models for production of nano-grained structure in AISI 304L stainless steel by predicting thermo-mechanical parameters2009In: International Journal of Iron & Steel Society, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for the analysis, simulation, and prediction of the austenite reversion in the thermo-mechanical treatment of 304L austenitic stainless steel. The results of the ANN model are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model is used to predict an appropriate annealing condition for austenite reversion through the martensite to austenite transformation. This model can also be used as a guide for further grain refining and to improve mechanical properties of the AISI 304L stainless steel.

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  • 10.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Optimization of the Thermomechanical Parameters to AISI 304L Stainless Steel using Neural Network2009In: International Journal of Iron & Steel Society of Iran, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Simulation of mechanical properties and obtaining nano/submicron AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process by using naural network2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Surkialiabad, Roohallah
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Production of nano/submicron grained AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process2010In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 527, no 27-28, p. 7334-7339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of nano/submicron grained AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel through formation of strain-induced martensite and its reversion to austenite are studied in this paper. The effects of annealing parameters on the microstructural development and mechanical properties are also investigated. Heavily cold rolling at 0 °C is employed to induce the formation of martensite in the metastable austenitic material, followed by reversion treatment at the temperature range of 700-900 °C for 0.5-300. min. Microstructural evolutions are analyzed using Feritscope, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, whereas the mechanical properties are determined by hardness and tensile tests. The smallest grain size (about 135. nm) is obtained in the specimen annealed at 700 °C for 20. min. The resultant nano/submicron grained steel not only exhibits a high strength level (about 1010. MPa) but also a desirable elongation of about 40%. Moreover, an annealing map is developed which indicates the appropriate range of annealing parameters for grain refinement of AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process.

  • 13.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmed
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Simulation of mechanical properties and obtaining nano/submicron AISI 304L stainless steel through the martensite reversion process by using naural network2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Strandqvist, Nanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Navara, Erik
    Jihlava, Czech Republic.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, D-66041 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Effect of tempering on microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welded and post-weld treated AHSS specimens2017In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 891, p. 18-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An advanced high strength steel (0.08 wt.%C, 1.79 wt%Mn, 0.23 wt%Si) was subjected to different post-weld heat treatments by quenching & tempering treatments (Q&T) after laser welding to reduce the risk of martensite formation in a few seconds based on an idea of quench and partitioning (Q&P), mechanism. The thermal stability of retained austenite, microstructure development and mechanical properties have been studied at 2 tempering temperatures of 440°C (Ms) and 636°C (Bs), both for 15 minutes, by means of electron microscopy, dilatometry, hardness profile and tensile tests. Dilatometer study unveiled that redistribution of carbon atoms and precipitation of transition carbides occur around 150°C and austenite decomposition occur at 600°C. Tempering at 636°C resulted in notable effect on the mechanical properties, while no significant difference was detected at 440°C, except a slight hardness drop. The strength increased up to 12% for the different specimens without significant loss in ductility for all specimens tempered at 636°C, which may be caused by precipitation hardening and recrystallization of martensite lath boundaries during tempering around 600°C.

  • 15.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Surki Aliabad, Roohallah
    Materials and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, 90014, Finland.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hosseini, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Maawad, Emad
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Institute of Materials Physics, Max-Planck-Straße 1, Geesthacht, 21502, Germany.
    Blasco, Nuria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Kinetics of Carbon Enrichment in Austenite during Partitioning Stage Studied via In-Situ Synchrotron XRD2023In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 1557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reveals the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanisms occurring during different stages of quenching and partitioning (Q&P) conducted on 0.6C-1.5Si steel using in-situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction (HEXRD) and high-resolution dilatometry methods. The results support that the symmetry of ferrite is not cubic when first formed since it is fully supersaturated with carbon at the early stages of partitioning. Moreover, by increasing partitioning temperature, the dominant carbon source for austenite enrichment changes from ongoing bainitic ferrite transformation during the partitioning stage to initial martensite formed in the quenching stage. At low partitioning temperatures, a bimodal distribution of low- and high-carbon austenite, 0.6 and 1.9 wt.% carbon, is detected. At higher temperatures, a better distribution of carbon occurs, approaching full homogenization. An initial martensite content of around 11.5 wt.% after partitioning at 280 °C via bainitic ferrite transformation results in higher carbon enrichment of austenite and increased retained austenite amount by approximately 4% in comparison with partitioning at 500 °C. In comparison with austempering heat treatment with no prior martensite, the presence of initial martensite in the Q&P microstructure accelerates the subsequent low-temperature bainitic transformation.

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  • 16.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, D-66041 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, Frank
    Department for Materials Science, Functional Materials, Saarland University, D-66041 Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Post weld-treatment of laser welded AHSS by application of quenching and partitioning technique2017In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 698, p. 174-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) treatment was applied on specimens of an advanced high strength steel (AHSS) after laser welding, for post welding treatment. In order to avoid formation of brittle martensite phase, which usually form due to very high cooling rate of laser welding. To simulate the effect of different Q&P parameters after welding in the most critical part of HAZ, several cycles were performed in Gleeble simulator and analyzed in advance. Subsequently some of the cycles were repeated after laser welding by using an induction heater close to the weld. Different techniques including SEM, EBSD and XRD were used to analyze the microconstituents of the structure and mechanical properties were investigated by micro-hardness measurements across the weld, tensile and impact toughness tests. The final structure consists of controlled amount of tempered martensite with precipitates, bainite laths and small amount of fresh martensite depending on the thermal cycles. In addition, samples heated at a temperature between Ms and Bs (in this case 540C) showed the best mechanical properties. Therefore, this technique not only improves the microstructure and mechanical properties of the fusion zone (FZ) and heat affected zone (HAZ) but gives also a quick industrial processing method for post welding treatments.

  • 17.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Oldenburg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    Application of Quenching and Partitioning Processes to Welding and Press Hardening2019In: Hot sheet metal forming of high-performance steel: Proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Jens Hardell, Daniel Casellas, Wissenschaftliche Scripten , 2019, p. 727-735Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most critical characteristics of welding and press hardening of advanced high strength steels is a low ductility related to a martensitic transformation due to high cooling rate and/or plastic deformation. The present work proposes the application of quenching and partitioning (Q&P) processing to welding and press hardening in a single production step. Using this methodology will not only improve the ductility without losing the ultra-high strength but also accelerate the whole process rate significantly in comparison with austempering treatment in connection to hot pressing and decrease the cost. In this regard, Gleeble simulation of different Q&P cycles beside simulation of deformation at different rates at different temperatures were applied to a medium carbon, Si- alloyed Q&P steel. Samples were characterized using OM, SEM, XRD, hardness, compression and tensile tests. The aim of the project is to establish manufacturing strategies for obtaining components with extreme properties.

  • 18.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Zhang, Hanzhu
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Mücklich, Frank
    University of Saarland .
    Study of The Kinetics of Precipitation in an AHSS steel after Laser Welding and Quenching and Partitioning2017Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 19. Forouzan, M. R
    et al.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Hedayati, Ali
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Jalali, M. R
    Numerical Simulation of Temperature History and Phase Transformations during Submerged Direct Seam Welded Pipes of steel X702009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    He, Hanbing
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Volpp, Joerg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Robertson, Stephanie M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser-Welded DP Steels Used in the Automotive Industry2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 2, article id 456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to investigate the microstructure and the mechanical properties of laser-welded joints combined of Dual Phase DP800 and DP1000 high strength thin steel sheets. Microstructural and hardness measurements as well as tensile and fatigue tests have been carried out. The welded joints (WJ) comprised of similar/dissimilar steels with similar/dissimilar thickness were consisted of different zones and exhibited similar microstructural characteristics. The trend of microhardness for all WJs was consistent, characterized by the highest value at hardening zone (HZ) and lowest at softening zone (SZ). The degree of softening was 20 and 8% for the DP1000 and DP800 WJ, respectively, and the size of SZ was wider in the WJ combinations of DP1000 than DP800. The tensile test fractures were located at the base material (BM) for all DP800 weldments, while the fractures occurred at the fusion zone (FZ) for the weldments with DP1000 and those with dissimilar sheet thicknesses. The DP800-DP1000 weldment presented similar yield strength (YS, 747 MPa) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS, 858 MPa) values but lower elongation (EI, 5.1%) in comparison with the DP800-DP800 weldment (YS 701 MPa, UTS 868 MPa, EI 7.9%), which showed similar strength properties as the BM of DP800. However, the EI of DP1000-DP1000 weldment was 1.9%, much lower in comparison with the BM of DP1000. The DP800-DP1000 weldment with dissimilar thicknesses showed the highest YS (955 MPa) and UTS (1075 MPa) values compared with the other weldments, but with the lowest EI (1.2%). The fatigue fractures occurred at the WJ for all types of weldments. The DP800-DP800 weldment had the highest fatigue limit (348 MPa) and DP800-DP1000 with dissimilar thicknesses had the lowest fatigue limit (<200 MPa). The fatigue crack initiated from the weld surface.

  • 21.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Surki Aliabadi, Rouhallah
    The process to produce a new generation of AISI 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel with High Strength & Good Elongation by the creation of Nano Grain Size Structure2010Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    An Advanced Thermomechanical Process to Obtain Nano/Submicron Grain Sizes in a Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Surki Aliabadi, Rouhallah
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    The process to produce a new generation of AISI 304L Austenitic Stainless Steelwith High Strength & Good Elongation by the creation of Nano Grain Size Structure2010Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Surki, R
    Effect of Cold Work Percent on Mechanical Properties of AISI 304L Stainless Steel2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the effect of various degrees of plastic deformation introduced by cold rolling at zero temperature on the mechanical properties of AISI 304L stainless steel. microstructural and ferromagnetic studies were also conducted. The material was evaluated up to 90% reduction in thickness. For this purpose, magnetic measurements, optical metallography, hardness and Tensile test, were used. Results show that by increasing the amount of rolling strain, transformation of austenite to martensite generally increases. The regime of this increase depends on the amount of the plastic deformation and temperature. The tensile strength and hardness were found to increase with the increase of cold rolling percentage (%CR) up to 90%.The results indicate that the formation of strain-induced martensite evidently led to a significant strengthening of the steel.

  • 25.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Submicron Microstructure Achieved by Thermomechanical Process in Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304L2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Najafizadeh, Abbas
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Kermanpur, Ahmad
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology.
    The effect of cold rolling regime on microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 304L stainless steel2010In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 210, no 8, p. 1017-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the effect of different thickness reductions by cold rolling on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. The hot rolled steel strips were subjected to cold rolling at 0 °C from 10 to 90% thickness reduction. Microstructures, strain-induced martensitic transformation and mechanical properties of the cold-rolled specimens were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Feritscope measurements, optical metallography, hardness and tensile tests. The resulting transformation curve showed a sigmoidal shape with the saturation value of strain-induced martensite of approximately 100%. A good agreement was found between the experimental results and the Olsen-Cohen model. The results indicated that formation of strain-induced martensite clearly resulted in a significant strengthening of the steel

  • 27.
    Heidarzadeh, Akbar
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, 46153 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Enikeev, Nariman
    Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9 Universitetskaya Nab., St. Petersburg, 199034, Russia. Ufa State Aviation Technical University, K. Marx 12, Ufa, 450008, Russia.
    Cui, Luqing
    Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping SE-58183, Sweden.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Taherzadeh Mousavian, Reza
    I-Form, Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland.
    Post-treatment of additively manufactured Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels by high pressure torsion: TRIP effect2021In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 811, article id 141086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High pressure torsion (HPT) at room temperature was used for post-treatment of additively manufactured Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel with 12.9 wt. % Ni as a very strong austenite stabilizer. The results showed that HPT caused a considerable increase in nanohardness of the additively manufactured samples. In contrast with thermodynamic equilibrium-state modeling, a phase transformation from FCC to HCP structure occurred, leading to the formation of ε-martensite during HPT on high angle boundaries, low angle boundaries, and dislocation cells with no detection of deformation twins. It was demonstrated that the combination of additive manufacturing thanks to the high density of dislocations after solidification and HPT process expands the opportunities of both methods to control deformation mechanisms in stainless steels leading to different phase and microstructural features. Thus, the outcome of this study provides a fundamental basis to design advanced structural materials.

  • 28.
    Hosseini, Nazanin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    In-situ microstructural evolution during quenching and partitioning of a high-carbon steel by high-temperature X-Ray diffraction2022In: Materials Today Communications, ISSN 2352-4928, Vol. 31, article id 103503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon partitioning from martensite to austenite is essential for austenite stabilization during quenching and partitioning (Q&P), while a few competitive phenomena, such as bainitic transformation and carbide precipitation, alter the microstructural evolution. So, there is a need of using in-situ in combination with ex-situ characterisation techniques to understand the C partitioning at high temperature in relation to simultaneous competitive phenomena that might occur during the partitioning stage.

    In this study, microstructural evolutions of a medium carbon steel ( 0.6C–1.6Si–1.25Mn–1.75Cr wt%) during Q&P treatment were investigated by using an in-situ High-Temperature X-Ray Diffraction (HTXRD) equipment at three partitioning temperatures. Results confirmed that carbon enrichment of austenite at 280 and 400 ℃ originates from partial carbon depletion from martensite and bainitic transformation, while partitioning at 500 ℃ results in the complete depletion of carbon from initial martensite and ferrite formation. Short diffusion distance (~0.13 µm) of carbon at 280 ℃ caused a poor carbon homogenization of austenite and formation of 8 vol% fresh martensite after final quenching. High Si content of the steel stabilized transitional carbides and, concurrently, suppressed Fe3C formation during Q&P. The outcome of this study could contribute to the design of suitable chemistry and process parameters for producing quenched and partitioned steels.

  • 29.
    Lundholm, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Solid Mechanics.
    Akerström, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Solid Mechanics.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Solid Mechanics.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Sala, R.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Numerical Modelling of the Mechanical Properties of Press Hardened Boron Steels2022In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2022 / [ed] Pär Jonsén; Lars-Göran Westerberg; Simon Larsson; Erik Olsson, Luleå tekniska universitet, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Mishra, Pragya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Åkerfeldt, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Svahn, Fredrik
    GKN Aerospace, 46130 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Zhong, Yuan
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shen, Zhijian
    Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructural Characterization and Mechanical Properties of L-PBF Processed 316 L at Cryogenic Temperature2021In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, no 19, article id 5856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) has attracted great interest in the aerospace and medical sectors because it can produce complex and lightweight parts with high accuracy. Austenitic stainless steel alloy 316 L is widely used in many applications due to its good mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance over a wide temperature range. In this study, L-PBF-processed 316 L was investigated for its suitability in aerospace applications at cryogenic service temperatures and the behavior at cryogenic temperature was compared with room temperature to understand the properties and microstructural changes within this temperature range. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature and at −196 °C to study the mechanical performance and phase changes. The microstructure and fracture surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, and the phases were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed a significant increase in the strength of 316 L at −196 °C, while its ductility remained at an acceptable level. The results indicated the formation of ε and α martensite during cryogenic testing, which explained the increase in strength. Nanoindentation revealed different hardness values, indicating the different mechanical properties of austenite (γ), strained austenite, body-centered cubic martensite (α), and hexagonal close-packed martensite (ε) formed during the tensile tests due to mechanical deformation.

  • 31.
    Mishra, Pragya
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Åkerfeldt, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Svahn, Fredrik
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, 46130 Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Höganäs AB, 263 39 Höganäs, Sweden.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of additively manufactured 21-6-9 stainless steel for aerospace applications2023In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 25, p. 1483-1494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The alloy 21-6-9 is a nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steel often used in aerospace applications due to its high strength, good fabrication properties, and toughness at cryogenic temperatures. However, minimal research has been conducted on alloy 21-6-9 using the additive manufacturing process laser powder-bed fusion (L-PBF). The L-PBF technique has been seen as a key to reducing production time and avoiding costly machining. Therefore, there is an interest in investigating L-PBF-processed 21-6-9 to determine the effects of L-PBF on properties at elevated and cryogenic temperatures. In this study, prior to tensile testing the alloy 21-6-9 underwent heat treatments that simulated aerospace applications and the alloy was analyzed and characterized to evaluate phase stability. The effects of elevated and cryogenic temperatures (77K) on the tensile behavior and microstructure were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The tensile tests showed that the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength improved, while ductility varied depending on the conditions and test environment. The ultimate tensile strength was approximately 80% higher at 77K than at room temperature, although the elongation decreased by around 90%, possibly due to the formation of strain-induced martensite.

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  • 32. Schodek, Daniel L
    et al.
    Ferreira, Paulo
    Ashby, Michael F
    Hedayati, Ali (Translator)
    Forouzan, Farnoosh (Translator)
    Soroor, Ghaziof (Translator)
    Nanomaterials, nanotechnologies and design: an introduction for engineers and architects2016Book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Zohrevand, Milad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Materials Processing Lab, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Aghaie-Khafri, Mehrdad
    Materials Processing Lab, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    An investigation on microstructure and mechanical properties of 316 stainless steel: a comparison between ultrasonic treatment and thermal annealing2022In: Philosophical Magazine, ISSN 1478-6435, E-ISSN 1478-6443, Vol. 102, no 14, p. 1321-1343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ultrasonic treatment (UST) and thermal annealing (THA) post-processes on the mechanical properties and the related microstructural mechanisms of the tensile pre-strained 316 stainless steel was investigated. It was shown that both processes reduce the microhardness and the yield point as well as increasing the elongation of the pre-deformed alloy. A 10% reduction of the yield point and 28% increase in the elongation was observed after the higher power UST (500 W), while an enhanced ductility of 56% and 41% reduction of the yield point was measured for the high-temperature THA (800°C) treated steel. The increased ductility was related to de-twinning and dislocation annihilation mechanisms, which increase the mean free path distance of dislocations. The de-twinning mechanism was proposed as the boundary migration mechanism and reverse gliding of the partial dislocations by cyclic shear stress for the THA and UST processes, respectively. Unlike the UST process, the high-temperature thermal annealing was associated with the formation of M23C6 precipitates, which causes depletion of alloying elements from the vicinity of grain boundaries and makes the alloy more prone to intergranular corrosion. Compared with THA, the advantages of the UST process are as follows: a rapid and straightforward process, low energy consumption, enhanced ductility without significant reduction in strength, and inhibition of grain boundary precipitation.

  • 34.
    Zohrevand, Milad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, 1999143344, Tehran, Iran.
    Aghaie-Khafri, Mehrdad
    Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, 1999143344, Tehran, Iran.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Internal stress relief and microstructural evolution by ultrasonic treatment of austeno-ferritic 2205 duplex stainless steel2021In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 815, article id 141290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 2205 dual-phase pre-strained stainless steel following the high-power ultrasonic treatment (UST) were investigated. Mitigation of the deformation fiber texture, decrease in dislocation density, XRD peak shifting, and hardness reduction corroborated that the ultrasonic treatment can effectively reduce the internal stress of the duplex structure. The EDS and XRD results showed no brittle intermetallic phases were formed after the UST process, unlike conventional thermal treatment methods. Around 18% reduction in microhardness value and a significant ductility improvement of 54% can be achieved using an intermediate amplitude (power) vibration. The microstructure and mechanical properties variation caused by the UST process and the related mechanisms have been discussed in detail. New microstructural mechanisms have been proposed for the interpretation of the observed acoustic stress relief in both α and γ-phases.

  • 35.
    Zohrevand, Milad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, 1999143344 Iran.
    Aghaie-Khafri, Mehrdad
    Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, 1999143344 Iran.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microstructural Evolutions under Ultrasonic Treatment in 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels: Impact of Stacking Fault Energy2021In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 92, no 9, article id 2100041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of ultrasonic treatment (UST) on the microstructure of AISI‐304 and AISI‐316 stainless steels as two common commercial grades with similar properties but different levels of stacking fault energy (SFE) are compared in this study. The softening effect of the ultrasonic wave on the pre‐deformed structure is demonstrated by microhardness measurements, while the relaxation of tensile residual stresses is affirmed through the X‐ray diffraction (XRD) peak shifting. Electron and optical microscopy revealed a significant impact of ultrasound on the reduction of deformation twins’ fraction. A new mechanism for de‐twinning under the action of ultrasonic vibration is proposed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. The reduction of 25% and 34% are detected in dislocation density of 10% pre‐deformed tensile sample after 300 W UST for 304SS and 316SS alloys, respectively. The effect of SFE is discussed, and it turned out that cross‐slip is the main mechanism of dislocation annihilation as a result of UST. Observation of the low‐deformation regions close to the grain boundaries indicated the occurrence of the recrystallization phenomenon during UST. Dislocation annihilation, de‐twinning, dislocation absorption to grain boundaries, and recrystallization are regarded as the softening and relaxation mechanisms of UST for austenitic stainless steels.

  • 36.
    Zohrevand, Milad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, 1999143344 Tehran, Iran.
    Aghaie-Khafri, Mehrdad
    Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, K N Toosi University of Technology, 1999143344 Tehran, Iran.
    Forouzan, Farnoosh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Vuorinen, Esa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Softening mechanisms in ultrasonic treatment of deformed austenitic stainless steel2021In: Ultrasonics, ISSN 0041-624X, E-ISSN 1874-9968, Vol. 116, article id 106519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ultrasonic treatment on the microstructural evolution and the related softening process in tensile pre-deformed 316 stainless steel was studied by means of electron backscatter diffraction method, optical microscopy, and microhardness measurement. It was observed that different levels of ultrasonic energy induced complex microstructural changes in the treated samples. A large decrease in twin boundaries was observed, which is an indication of the de-twinning process under ultrasonic treatment. A new mechanism for the de-twinning process under oscillatory stress of ultrasonic vibration was proposed. It was shown that de-twinning under ultrasonic treatment led to dislocation production from twin boundaries. Inverse pole figures investigation revealed strong grain rotation following ultrasonic treatment in tensile pre-deformed samples. Subgrain formation in the ultrasonic treated austenitic stainless steel samples indicated that considerable ultrasonic energy was induced by the ultrasonic vibration, which provided the activation energy needed for dislocation climb and cross-slip. The ultrasonic induced subgrain formation, dislocation annihilation, and de-twinning, which resulted in a decrease of the microhardness in the samples, can be considered as possible mechanisms for the acoustic softening in the austenitic stainless steels.

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