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  • 1.
    Baniya, Rupak
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Maksimainen, Mikko
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Smart indoor lighting control: power, illuminance, and colour quality2014Ingår i: Proceedings: 2014 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) : Grand Cevahir Hotel and Convention Center Istambul, Turkey : 01 - 04 June, 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1745-1750, artikel-id 6864878Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the correlation between color quality and energy efficiency of indoor lighting control. The color quality, in terms of visual performance and comfort, is quantified using three measurements: illuminance, Color Rendering Index, and Correlated Color Temperature. Several experiments have been conducted to evaluate the potential energy savings of using different portions of light spectrum to obtain the optimal color quality. In particular, Light-Emitting Diodes are used as the lighting sources of the experimental luminaire. Moreover, the above quantification method and experimental results have been incorporated into a previously developed simulation framework for Building Automation and Control Systems, and smart lighting is used to adjust the tradeoff between comfort and energy consumption based on the presence of occupants. The results can be used to evaluate the viability of advanced lighting automation.

  • 2.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    A hybrid fault detection and diagnosis method in server rooms’ cooling systems2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data centers as all complex systems are prone to faults, and cost of them can be very high. This paper is focused on detecting the faults in the cooling systems, in particular on local fans level. In the paper, a hybrid approach is proposed. In the approach a model is used as substitute of the real system to generate dataset containing records of both normal and fault cases. On the generated data, machine learning algorithm or ensemble of algorithms are selected and trained to detect the faults. To demonstrate the approach, the rack model of real data center is created, and reliability of the model is shown. Using the model, the dataset with normal as well as abnormal records of data is generated. To detect faults of local fans, simple classifiers are built for all pairs: a local fan – a processor unit. Classifiers are trained on one part of generated data (training data), and then their accuracy is estimated on another part of generated data (test data). A real-time fault detection system is built based on the classifiers. The rack model is used as the substitute of the real plant to check operability of the system.

  • 3.
    Drozdov, Dmitrii
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Formal verification of protection functions for power distribution networks2018Ingår i: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Dubinin, Victor
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic Generation of Automation Applications Based on Ontology Transformations2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-4, artikel-id 7005293Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper an ontology driven approach to the design of control systems, in particular, control applications of IEC 61499 standard is proposed. The source ontology is an ontological description of control object (plant) while the target ontology is an ontological description of a control system implemented using an appropriate programming language. For the ontologies transformation an extension of SWRL (called eSWRL) is informally introduced. Interpretation of eSWRL constructs is implemented using Prolog language. An example of transformation of the ontological description of a baggage handling system to the ontological description of a control application based on IEC 61499 function blocks (FB) is in detail considered. The corresponding transformation rules have been developed in the context of this example.

  • 5.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Papakonstantinou, Nikolaos
    Aalto University, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.
    Flikkema, Paul G.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    An auction-based smart district heating grid2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, artikel-id 7301528Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A district heating grid is a hot water pipeline grid used to transmit waste heat from CHP (Combined Heat and Power) production plants to buildings, where it is used for service water and space heating. Currently, broad use of district heating is limited to Northern Europe and some regions in Central Europe, but the European Union Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU and Energy Performance of Buildings Directive 2010/31/EU drive the widespread adoption of this technology in member states. Further, these directives push the introduction of significant renewable local energy production into these grids, creating a need for a smart district heating grid that is in many ways analogous to the smart electric grid. One major difference is that in a hot water pipeline grid, there are significant delays in energy propagation, so algorithms developed for the smart electric grid are not directly applicable. In this paper, an auction based heat trade mechanism is proposed between an auctioneer agent representing the CHP plant operator and prosumer agents representing end users with local solar thermal generation capacity. A predictive simulation is used by an auctioneer to account for the said delays in energy production and to determine the market price that best satisfies the performance indicators defined by the CHP plant operator. The proposed multi-agent system is demonstrated by co-simulating it against a model of a part of a Finnish municipality's district heating grid

  • 6. Jarvis, Dennis
    et al.
    Jarvis, Jaqueline
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sinha, Roopak
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Janus: A Systems Engineering Approach to the Design of Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The benefits that arise from the adoption of a systems engineering approach to the design of engineered systems are well understood and documented. However, with software systems, different approaches are required given the changeability of requirements and the malleability of software. With the design of industrial cyber-physical systems, one is confronted with the challenge of designing engineered systems that have a significant software component. Furthermore, that software component must be able to seamlessly interact with both the enterprise’s business systems and industrial systems. In this paper, we present Janus, which together with the GORITE BDI agent framework, provides a methodology for the design of agent-based industrial cyber-physical systems. Central to the Janus approach is the development of a logical architecture as in traditional systems engineering and then the allocation of the logical requirements to a BDI (Belief Desire Intention) agent architecture which is derived from the physical architecture for the system. Janus has its origins in product manufacturing; in this paper, we apply it to the problem of Fault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR) for power substations. 

  • 7.
    Kashyap, Neelabh
    et al.
    Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University School of Electrical Engineering, Espoo.
    Flikkema, Paul G.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, College of Engineering, Forestry, and Natural Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.
    Automated Fault Location and Isolation in Distribution Grids with Distributed Control and Unreliable Communication2015Ingår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 2612-2619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the analysis and simulation of the performance of fault location and isolation (FLI) in an automated power distribution feeder. This system is composed of two coupled networks: a power system consisting of a distribution feeder with multiple load buses, and an unreliable communication network of the distributed intelligent agents in the system, namely, the substation automation and fault protection units separating segments of the feeder. We provide a complete specification of a distributed algorithm for FLI and an exact characterization of the time from the occurrence of a fault to its location and isolation. Both apply to a distribution feeder with an arbitrary number of buses. These models are then refined into a hybrid simulation that combines three models executing in parallel: a power system model based on dc power flow, a distributed automation system model for the intelligent agents constructed using the IEC 61499 distributed automation standard, and an abstract communication network model that unreliably links the physically distributed agents. The results demonstrate the effect of communication network reliability at two levels of design abstraction, the correspondence of results at the two levels, and the use of a modern cosimulation framework to verify the performance of distributed smart grid automation algorithms

  • 8.
    Mousavi, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Energy Efficient Automation Model for Office Buildings based on Ontology, Agents and IEC 61499 Function Blocks2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, artikel-id 7005081Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Execution of business processes is an important factor that distinguishes residential and office buildings based on their energy usage. Unlike residential buildings, in offices workflows determine how and when energy-consuming devices have to be utilized. Thus, energy efficient building automation systems for office buildings should take into account the dynamic and unpredictable nature of business processes. However, the existing systems lack this important feature. In this paper, a model for combining automation and business processes is proposed. The model is implemented using IEC 61499 Function Block architecture, multi-agent systems and ontology. The proposed method has been examined in a meeting room scheduling scenario, in which meeting scheduling and automated control of the meeting room equipment have been combined and the energy usage has been measured to evaluate the improvement in efficient use of energy using the proposed model.

  • 9.
    Nefedov, Evgeny
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Maksimainen, Mikko
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Flikkema, Paul G.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Kosonen, Iisakki
    Aalto University, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering.
    Luttinen, Tapio
    Energy efficient traffic-based street lighting automation2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE 2014): Istanbul, 1-4 June 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1718-1723Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging LED technology enables intelligent street lighting that is based on sensing individual vehicles and dimming street lights accordingly. The potential energy savings are considerable, exceeding 50% on roads with low traffic. A possible reason why such applications are not yet emerging are financial uncertainties about the size of the savings, which are needed to motivate the investment. Another barrier to adoption are uncertainties about whether proposed approaches meet standards and regulations for traffic safety. In this paper, an energy efficient street lighting design that meets regulations for rural roads is implemented with the IEC 61499 distributed function block architecture. The intelligent lighting is co-simulated against a traffic simulation using cellular automata. Virtual metering in the IEC 61499 application is used to quantify energy savings in simulation scenarios with different traffic volumes. Across a range of traffic volumes representative of rural roads, our simulations indicate that smart dimming can deliver energy savings of 14% to 70%, with savings increasing as traffic density decreases.

  • 10.
    Nikula, Heikki
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vesaoja, Eero
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Aikala, Antti
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Flikkema, Paul
    Northern Arizona University.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Co-Simulation of a Dynamic Process Simulator And an Event-Based Control System: Case district heating system2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1-7Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A smart electric grid incorporating local generation and storage is an area of active research in the industrial automation community. Very little attention has been given to similar possibilities in hot water grids that are used extensively for district heating in several countries, especially in Central and Northern Europe. In this paper, possibilities for heat trade in such a grid are investigated through simulation, considering the thermo-hydraulic properties of such a grid. For the distributed automation of several independent producer-consumers, an event based IEC 61499 solution is presented. The paper proposes a co-simulation environment for a dynamic process simulator and an event based control system, which is applied to the district heating case.

  • 11.
    Pang, Cheng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    A Portability Study of IEC 61499: Semantics and Tools2014Ingår i: 12th IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2014): Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 440-445Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The second edition of the IEC 61499 standard aims to clarify the interpretation ambiguities of function block’s execution semantics. This resolves the pivotal issue of realizing portable and interoperable implementations of the IEC 61499 reference architecture. As the IEC 61499 standard is about entering its technology takeoff phase, these clarifications are timely and important. It is hence expected that more innovators of automation software tools, runtime environments, and control hardware will start adopting this technology. To assist such adoption, this paper presents a study of existing IEC 61499 tools’ portability issues. In particular, the features of currently active IEC 61499 tools, such as FBDK, ISaGRAF, 4DIAC, and nxtStudio are outlined. Their incompatibility issues due to different execution semantics are exemplified. Moreover, it is also illustrated in this paper how these issues can be addressed by complying with the updated norms.

  • 12.
    Sierla, Seppo
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Hurkala, Marcin
    Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Charitoudi, Konstantinia
    University of South Wales.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Security risk analysis for smart grid automation2014Ingår i: 2014 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 1737-1744, artikel-id 6864877Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reliability theory used in the design of complex systems including electric grids assumes random component failures and is thus unsuited to analyzing security risks due to attackers that intentionally damage several components of the system. In this paper, a security risk analysis methodology is proposed consisting of vulnerability analysis and impact analysis. Vulnerability analysis is a method developed by security engineers to identify the attacks that are relevant for the system under study, and in this paper, the analysis is applied on the communications network topology of the electric grid automation system. Impact analysis is then performed through co-simulation of automation and the electric grid to assess the potential damage from the attacks. This paper makes an extensive review of vulnerability and impact analysis methods and relevant system modeling techniques from the fields of security and industrial automation engineering, with a focus on smart grid automation, and then applies and combines approaches to obtain a security risk analysis methodology. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of fault location, isolation and supply restoration smart grid automation.

  • 13.
    Vesaoja, Eero
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Nikula, Heikki
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Karhela, Tommi
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Flikkema, Paul G.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Hybrid modeling and co-simulation of district heating systems with distributed energy resources2014Ingår i: Workshop on modeling and simulation of cyber-physical energy systems, MSCPES 2014: held as part of CPS week, proceedings, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, artikel-id 6842395Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is intense global research activity addressing problems underpinning the re-engineering of the electrical power grid, thermal energy grids are likely to play an increasing role in energy systems. This paper describes an on-going effort in hybrid modeling and co-simulation of the physical and control domains of district heating networks. The focus is on modeling each domain using semantics and tools natural to each; we also describe the challenges of, and a method for, integration and synchronization of the simulation models in each domain. Here, the dataflow model of computation used by Simulink provides a flexible industry-grade environment for modeling the dynamics of heat energy flows, and the IEC 61499 automation architecture facilitates distributed systems modeling and enables rapid deployment to field hardware. At the application level, we show how this framework enables the study of energy flows within a producer/consumer (prosumer) and the analysis of the economic value of integrating distributed solar thermal generation and storage into a prosumer participating in a district heating network

  • 14.
    Voinov, Artem
    et al.
    Department of Computer Technologies, Penza State Unviersity.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Automatic generation of function block systems implementing HMI for energy distribution automation2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 706-713, artikel-id 8104859Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an automatic software generation method for energy distribution automation. The method uses the distribution network structure represented in SCL format of the IEC 61850 standard and generates complete executable applications compliant with the IEC 61499 standard. Each equipment element is based on the componentized MVC design pattern and can be executed on a distributed network of HMI and control devices. The challenges solved in this work include design and automatic generation of a library of substation equipment elements according to the MVC design pattern and secondly, automatic generation of SCADA HMI based on the IEC 61850 specification. The design process is demonstrated in a laboratory case study.

  • 15.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland, University of Auckland.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Adaptable Software Components: Towards Digital Ecosystems and Software Evolution in the Industrial Automation Domain2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 2512-2518Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Cyber-Physical Engineering of Distributed Automation Systems in Energy Domain2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this thesis is in the domain of Energy Systems, specifically in the engi-neering of modern Smart Grid (SG) automation systems. The SG has been categorizedas a Cyber-Physical System (CPS), a complex system which exhibits tight integration between the cyber and the physical processes and their interactions in a networked envi-ronment. The complexity and the computation of the automation system are expectedto increase with the promise of a ”smart” electric grid which is capable of self-healing, self-reconfiguration and become more resilient against cyber-attacks. These automation software systems require control strategies which are distributed in execution and requirevery tight integrations and interactions between various modular software and hardware components. As the automation system becomes more software intensive, we hypothesizethat existing design practices of developing the substation automation software system would struggle to cope with the distributed design challenges of the Smart Grid and they could be substantially enhanced by the application of model-driven design, distributed software architectures and semantic models.

    Model-driven engineering (MDE) is a software design paradigm that leverages the use of abstraction models at different stages of the design process for engineering complex software systems. MDE is widely used in the software engineering domain and it has proven to be effective when designing and maintaining large-scale software applications.One of the core tenants of MDE is model transformation and it is considered the heartand soul of MDE. The standard modelling language that is used for MDE in software engineering is the Unified Modelling Language (UML), which is a visual language with awide array of tool support. Despite its popularity in the software domain, UML models still have its limitations. In particular, the lack of uniformed semantics between its 13different visual diagrams and the lack of formal notations. In this thesis, we proposethe Cyber-Physical Engineering (CPE) framework, an MDE framework which combines semantic models and MDE based automatic model transformation in order to auto-generate both the automation control system and the simulation plant model from thephysical and functional specifications of CPS systems.

    All the scientific papers included in this thesis contributes towards the proposed Cyber-Physical Engineering methodology which includes MDE using semantic models, formal modelling of functional requirements and co-simulation testing of CPS systems.

    The contribution of the thesis is fivefold. Firstly, the thesis proposes the CPE frame-work, which is based on the use of semantic web modelling language where logical rea-soning can be applied to the models. The modelling language that is used is the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which is a declarative language with a strong formal foun-dation based on description logic. Secondly, the extended Semantic Web Rule Language(eSWRL) is introduced which defines the constructors that are necessary for model trans-forming OWL ontology models. The eSWRL transformation language is proposed to bean extension to the widely used ontology reasoning language Semantic Web Rule Lan-guage (SWRL) in order to address the limitations of monotonicity which restricts SWRLfrom transforming ontological models. Thirdly, the implementation of the underlying transformation engine of eSWRL in SWI Prolog. Fourthly, the formal modelling of func-tional requirements in ontology is proposed which investigates the viability of using nat-ural language based functional requirements to add control flow to the auto-generated automation control system. Lastly, an automated script based co-simulation environ-ment is shown to demonstrate how black-box validation can be performed to test theauto-generated automation control system.

    Finally, the thesis presents the resultant CPE framework for the modelling and genera-tion of distributed CPS automation software that leverages the use of semantic web OWL models. It is aimed to provide a top-down design approach of developing distributed con-trol software for CPS systems along with the simulation model of the physical plant. Inthis thesis, we demonstrate the development process of the CPE framework and throughcase study applications, how a semi-complete distributed automation software system in IEC 61499 can be automatically generated from substation specifications in IEC 61850 and natural language based functional requirements which provide the structure and thecontrol flow of the distributed automation software respectively. An eSWRL toolchainhas been developed to facilitate the various model transformation process of the CPE framework.

  • 17.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Department of Computer Science, Penza State University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Ontology Driven Approach to Generate Distributed Automation Control from Substation Automation Design2017Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 668-679, artikel-id 7762918Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method for the automatic generation of smart-grid automation systems software from specifications that includes physical system layout and domain-specific functional “recipes.” The generated software has component organization and implements a decentralized approach to smart grid control, which reduces complexity of automation systems design and modification. The proposed method relies on synergies of two industrial standards IEC 61850 and IEC 61499, which are used to represent a part of the specification and the resulting software model, respectively. Then, the specification model is created in a form of ontology and the generation is based on ontology transformation. The proposed method requires an extension to the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) to support the change of an ontology axioms set for the purpose of ontology transformation. The proposed transformation language, called extended SWRL, is introduced and illustrated in use. The result shows the viability of eSWRL as an ontology transformation language when demonstrated in a power distribution case study system.

  • 18.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Penza, Penza region Russian Federation.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Automatic Generation of Control Flow from Requirements for Distributed Smart Grid Automation Control2019Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid is a Cyber-Physical System with a high level of complexity due to its de-centralized infrastructure. IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 are two industrial standards which can address the challenges introduced by the Smart Grid on the substation automation level. Development of Smart Grid automation software is very time consuming process due to the need to address many requirements and high degree of customisation in every new substation. This limits the adoption of such smart grid technologies as digital substation. This paper aims at addressing this limitation by applying a semi-formal boilerplates model of functional requirements originally presented in informal natural language. The boilerplates are then modelled formally in an ontology for MDE model transformation. The contribution of this paper is the development of the semi-formal and formal boilerplate representation in the form of ontology to formulate Smart Grid requirements and demonstrating how functional requirements can be translated to IEC 61499 control codes using MDE to auto-generate an IEC 61499 PAC control system with structure and control flow. The MDE framework augmented with the requirements models is illustrated on a case study from CIGRE representing different stages of modelling in the proposed framework.

  • 19.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Gulzar, Kashif
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Fuzzy Logic Based Prosumer Agent in a Modular Smart Grid Prosumer Architecture2015Ingår i: IEEE TrustCom-BigDataSE-ISPA 2015: Helsinki, 20-22 Aug. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, Vol. 3, s. 261-268, artikel-id 7345658Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The investment to DERs (Distributed Energy Resources) in the emerging smart energy grids are critical to achieving goals for environmental protection, reducing energy costs and coping with failures. An architecture and market mechanism is needed to support the participation of owners of DERs that aim to maximize the profit from this investment within a system that is also able to achieve grid level objectives. Due to privacy requirements, owners of DERs should not be requested to divulge information such as the state of charge of a local energy store, and yet such information is very relevant for operating the grid in such a way that meets the objectives of the owner of the grid, who may operate a large power plant that is ultimately responsible for satisfying the load that cannot be covered by DERs. This paper builds on previous work to propose a modular multi-agent architecture in which prosumer agents represent DER owners and an auctioneer agent represents the power plant operator. The architecture allows the different agents to use different algorithms aiming at satisfying local and grid level objectives while meeting the privacy requirement. In particular, a fuzzy logic based algorithm is developed for the distributed automation platform that supports the architecture. The capability of the architecture to flexibly evaluate the performance of various algorithms from the DER owner and plant operator perspective is demonstrated with a case study in the district heating domain.

  • 20.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Nefedov, Evgeny
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo.
    Sierla, Seppo
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University.
    Flikkema, Paul G.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, College of Engineering, Forestry, and Natural Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ.
    Vehicle and pedestrian aware street lighting automation2015Ingår i: IEEE 13th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2015: Cambridge, United Kingdom, 22-24 July 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 1269-1274, artikel-id 7281917Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence of LED luminaires that can be dimmed rapidly and frequently enables radical innovations in street lighting automation. It is possible to save considerable amounts of energy by adjusting street lighting according to the movements of individual road users. Since the same lights are often used for illuminating both vehicle lanes and sidewalks, it is necessary to detect both vehicles and pedestrians. A simulation of vehicle and pedestrian traffic is interfaced to a distributed street lighting system based on the IEC 61499 standard, in order to quantify the energy saving potential of a street lighting automation system that exploits real-time sensing information of individual road users while conforming to traffic safety related requirements for road lighting

  • 21.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Modelling of IEC 61850 message passing for automatic generation of distributed control2016Ingår i: Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2015: Yokohama, Japan, 9-12 Nov. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2016, s. 1524-1529, artikel-id 7392317Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The future distribution grid known as the smart grid will become more distributed in both infrastructure and control. IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 are two industrial standards addressing the challenges presented by a decentralized infrastructure. This paper contributes to system engineering of smart grid automation by enabling automatic generation of IEC 61499 control systems from IEC 61850 specifications. The areas which this paper fills is proposing a method to formally capture the logical node to logical node message passing which is lacking in the IEC 61850 standard. The proposed method is to represent an IEC 61850 protection scheme as a graph and then integrate it into the IEC 61850 ontology developed previously. The case study used is a sympathetic tripping protection scenario which demonstrates how the process of developing the graph model from the protection scheme and applying ontology rules to automatically generate the resultant IEC 61499 function blocks with meaningful connections between the logical nodes.

  • 22.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    On automated co-simulation testing of functional requirements for distributed substation automation systems2018Ingår i: IECON 2018: 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    On requirements-driven design of distributed smart grid automation control2017Ingår i: Proceedings: 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2017, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 738-745, artikel-id 8104864Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel method of modelling requirements for smart grid automation systems that fits and complements the leading standards used for software development in smart grid: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. Ontological representation is used to formally model the systems requirements and the integration of the requirement modelling to be used in conjunction with IEC 61850 specifications and IEC 61499 implementation. The proposed model is illustrated on a case study presented by the CIGRE working group where the system requirement in natural language was firstly modelled in ontology, then implemented in IEC 61499. Lastly, the resulting IEC 61499 control system was tested and validated against the system requirement by signal testing of the end control system.

  • 24.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza, Computer Science Department, Penza State University, Penza.
    Automatic generation of cyber-physical software applications based on physical to cyber transformation using ontologies2016Ingår i: Technological innovation for cyber-physical systems: 7th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Advanced Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2016, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 11-13, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Luis M. Camarinha-Matos ; Antonio Falcao; Nazanin Vafaei; Shirin Nadji, New York: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2016, s. 37-45Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the aim of automatically generating a cyber-physical control system (more precisely, an IEC61499 control system) is discussed. The method is enabled by ontology models, specifically the source plant ontology model and the target control model for the CPS system implemented in the preferred programming language. The transforming of ontologies is enabled by an extension of SWRL (called eSWRL) and it is introduced here. There interpreter of eSWRL is developed using the Prolog language. A case study Baggage Handling System is used to demonstrate how the ontology models are transformed and the corresponding transforming rules that are developed

  • 25.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    Penza State University.
    On development of execution model for model transforming distributed substation automation control with ontology2017Ingår i: 2017 IEEE 26th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 1219-1225, artikel-id 8001419Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The so called Smart Grid is said to be enabled with bi-direction communication networks and energy flow. IEC 61850 is a substation communication standard which improves interoperability of the substation design. IEC 61499 is an automation standard which can be used for implementation of control in IEC 61850 models. This work is utilizing Model Driven Engineering techniques for substation automation systems, specifically using ontology models to automatically generate IEC 61499 distributed automation control systems. eSWRL is the proposed ontology transformation and it is necessary to develop an execution model for executing the transformation rules. This paper explores the use of several execution semantic models for eSWRL and illustrates the use of the most suitable execution model for the context of this work. In the case study, eSWRL rules are written using the execution models discussed in this paper to generate a distributed automation control library in IEC 61499.

  • 26.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Mousavi, Arash
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Dubinin, Victor N.
    University of Auckland, Penza State University, Department of Computer Science, University of Penza.
    On Automatic Generation of IEC61850/IEC61499 Substation Automation Systems Enabled by Ontology2015Ingår i: IECON 2014: 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Dallas, TX, USA , Oct. 29 2014 - Nov. 1 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, s. 3577-3583Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an introductory step in theautomatic generation of distributed control software for powerdistribution automation systems based on Ontology DrivenEngineering enabled by industrial standards IEC61850 andIEC61499. The novelty of this approach is the ability ofautomatically generating the logical connections between thelogical nodes. The paper covers the several stages of thetransformation process, such as developing the IEC61850ontology and the ontology transformation rules. The developed IEC61850 ontology includes the logical nodes descriptions and additional contextual relations between the logical nodes which is lacking in the IEC61850 SCL configuration language. Then, the IEC61850 ontology is transformed to an existing IEC61499 ontology, adding classes of IEC61850 logical nodes as IEC61499 function blocks in the IEC61499 ontology. The means of the transformation of the ontologies is based on the eSWRL sematic web rules language, an extension to the rule language SWRL. The end result is the development of an IEC61850 ontology and a set of eSWRL rules which facilitates the ontology transformation.

  • 27.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar
    University of Auckland.
    Chouinard, Julien
    Programmable Logic for IEC 61850 Logical Nodes by means of IEC 614992011Ingår i: IECON 2011: 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society : Melbourne, VIC; 7 November 2011 - 10 November 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011, s. 2717-2723Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC61850 is a recent standard in substation automation system (SAS) aiming mainly at interoperability. Interoperability is achieved by standardizing communications and data between intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). Data inintelligent electronic devices are modelled in IEC61850 using an object orientated approach as logical nodes. Although the IEC61850 standardizes the data and communication in substation design, the implementation of control is intentionally left out of the standard. IEC61499 function blocks has been proposed tofill the logic void of the IEC61850 standard. In this paper, intelligent logical node (iLN) architecture is used, which combines both description and control within IEC61850 logical nodes. An IEC61850 application presented at the IEC TC57WG10 has been modelled using the iLN architecture with the addition of editable logics within the iLN architecture by means of IEC61499 function blocks implemented in the ISaGRAF development platform.

  • 28.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University.
    Pang, Cheng
    Goobotics Research Institute, Zhuxi Wisdom Valley, Jiangmen.
    Service-oriented extension of IEC 61850 for model-driven smart grid automation design2017Ingår i: Proceedings IECON 2017: 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 5489-5496Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a design pattern based on the service-oriented architecture for the design of flexible distributed automation control system for substation automation systems. The design pattern is intended to be applied to control systems based on the leading standards for software development of smart grid: IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. The proposed design pattern models system requirements as orchestrators and IEC 61850 logical node specification is used as the basis for the design of smart grid services. The proposed design pattern is illustrated on a case study of a distribution system which consists of one transformer and five feeder sections. The design pattern is used to design the control system for the feeder section of the case study distribution system which includes the development of the orchestrator from the system requirement to the resultant IEC 61499 control system.

  • 29.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Xu, Jiang
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Towards Implementation of IEC 61850 GOOSE Messaging in Event-Driven IEC 61499 Environment2014Ingår i: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE 19th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2014): Barcelona, Spain, 16-19 Sept. 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 464-470, artikel-id 7005253Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850 is a new standard for substation automation which attempts to standardize communication within substations by introducing a set of new communication services operating over the Ethernet framework. The communication of interest for protection is IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging. GOOSE messaging is a peer to peer service designed for protection applications within substations. There is a growing interest in filling the void of control in the IEC 61850 standard. The Intelligent Logical Nodes (iLN) architecture is one such solution which uses IEC 61499 as the complimentary control system for IEC 61850. The missing component in the iLN architecture is the various communication profiles introduced in the IEC 61850 standard. This paper presents an implementation of IEC 61850 GOOSE messaging for the IEC 61499 IDE that implements event-driven execution semantics by means of the SharpPcap library.

  • 30.
    Yang, Chia-Han
    et al.
    Centre for Autonomous System (CAS), University of Technology Sydney, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Cosimulation environment for event-driven distributed controls of smart grid2013Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 1423-1435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a co-simulation environment for “hardware in the loop” or “software in the loop” validation of distributed controls in Smart Grid. The controls are designed using model-driven engineering with the IEC 61499 Function Block architecture. These are connected with plant models, for example in MATLAB/Simulink, through communication channels such as UDP or TCP sockets. This solution enables multi-closed-loop plant-controller simulation. The communication between plant and controller is event-driven. In order to perform realistic simulation, the proposed solution takes into account computation and communication delays on the controller side in Function Blocks and compensates model time on the plant side in MATLAB model accordingly. Causality and accuracy of the method have been formally addressed. This approach has been tested and demonstrated with several Smart Grid-related examples.

  • 31.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Patil, Sandeep
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Pang, Cheng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yan, Jeffrey
    Department of Electrical and Computer System Engineering, University of Auckland.
    Shalyto, Anatoly
    ITMO University.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Cyber-physical components for heterogeneous modeling, validation and implementation of smart grid intelligence2014Ingår i: 12th IEEE Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2014): Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27 - 30 July 2014, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2014, s. 411-417Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a practical framework to bring the cyber-physical block diagram models, such as Ptolemy, to the practice of industrial automation. Cyber-Physical Component (CPC) architecture is suggested. CPC aims at the improvement of design, verification and validation practices in automation of Smart Grid. IEC 61499 standard is used as a basis for this architecture. This architecture addresses several design software and system engineering challenges: right equilibrium between abstract representation and “executability” and round-trip engineering. An CPC exhibit such properties as portability, interoperability and configurability thanks to the reliance on open standards. The use of time stamp based execution paradigm adds determinism and predictability at the run-time.

  • 32.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    SysGrid: IEC 61850/IEC 61499 based engineering process for Smart Grid automation design2013Ingår i: 11th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2013: Bochum, Germany 29 July - 31 July 2013, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, s. 364-369Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a novel computer-aided model-based system engineering process for Smart Gird applications. The process is supported by the SysGrid tool that plays the roles of system configurator and device configurator. The design process starts with single line diagrams which are automatically transformed to executable function block specifications. The process is based on the Smart Grid control architecture that is a heterogeneous network of controllers communicating in a peer to peer manner. This “artificial nervous system” of the Smart Grid will be capable of self-healing and dynamic adaptation to renewable generation and ever-changing loads. The tool supports system-level design of automation logic in the form of function block networks with compliancy to IEC 61499. The capabilities of SysGrid are demonstrated through the process of designing a distributed protection application.

  • 33.
    Zhabelova, Gulnara
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Datavetenskap.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall AB, Stockholm.
    Christoffersson, Lars
    IETV AB, Gallstad.
    Open Architecture for Cost Effective Protection and Control of Power Distribution Networks2016Ingår i: IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm) 2016, Piscataway, NJ, 2016, s. 729-735, artikel-id 7778848Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims at demonstrating the feasibility of an execution platform that is capable of performing protection and control functions from various vendors in a controlled manner. This will reduce vendor dependency enabling utilities to standardize hardware while implementing complex protection schemes from multiple vendors at reduced cost. The paper develops protection system including earth, differential and overcurrent protection functions from different vendors integrated in one hardware using IEC 61499 open reference architecture. IEC 61499 enables efficient and flexible design and implementation of the distributed automation systems. Selected substation is modelled in Matlab Simulink. Developed protection scheme is performed by programmable automation controller (PAC) and validated by connecting it to the simulation model of the substation. The protection scheme satisfied all functional requirements. At present, authors are working on validating its timing properties.

1 - 33 av 33
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