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  • 1.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Fibre reinforced polyimide composites and structures manufactured with resin transfer moulding: Overview of procedures and properties2016In: ECCM 2016: Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials, European Conference on Composite Materials , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the major outcomes from a recently completed research program with ambition to develop polyimide carbon fibre composites with temperature ability above 360°C are reported. Data from characterisation of the processing properties such as viscosity and cure behaviour are presented alongside with data on the mechanical properties at room temperature of quasi-isotropic composites based on the developed resin and 8-harness satin weave carbon fibre fabrics. The paper also contains a demonstration of the use the material system in a demonstrator component.

  • 2.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Gong, Guan
    Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Mannberg, Peter
    Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Processing and properties of new polyimide composites with high temperature ability2014In: 16th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM 2014: Seville, Spain, 22 - 26 June 2014, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication present results from work on development and evaluation of new polymeric carbon fiber composites with extreme temperature performance: Tg up to 360°C is targeted. The anticipated use of such composites is found in aeroengine-applications. In the work we are exploring a new and tailored phenyl ethynyl terminated imide (PETI) formulation, specially developed for the program. The formulation utilizes crosslinkers of the Nexamide" type (from Nexam Chemical AB, Sweden). The resins are initially evaluated from a processing and property perspective. Both DSC-measurements and rheology characterization are utilized in the development. Suitable RTM-processing schemes are investigated from a viscosity point of view. The schemes are used in the composite sample manufacturing. Besides a processing perspective the study also present the first results on physical behavior of the polymers and their composites.

  • 3.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Gong, Guan
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Piteå.
    Mannberg, Peter
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Piteå.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Mölndal.
    Development of novel high Tg polyimide-based composites: Part I: RTM processing properties2018In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an assessment of the composite processing-related properties of a newly developed 6-FDA-based phenylethynyl-terminated polyimide (available under the tradename NEXIMID®MHT-R) is presented. Processing schemes, used for preparing high quality carbon fibre-reinforced composites by the use of conventional resin transfer moulding are developed and presented. The influences of manufacturing parameters on glass transition temperature of the composites are presented. The results confirm that composites with exceptionally high Tg, in the range between 350 and 460℃ can be achieved. A manufacturing scheme that yields in composites with Tg of 370℃ is presented and proposed as a good candidate to serve as baseline for further studies.

  • 4.
    Fernberg, S. Patrik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Swerea SICOMP AB, Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, 941 26, Piteå.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Mannberg, Peter
    Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Influence of post-cure on carbon fibre polyimide composites with glass transition temperatures above 400ºC2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current communication present results from work on polymeric composites with extreme temperature performance. We are studying carbon fibre composites based on a new phenyl ethynyl terminated polyimide formulation NEXIMID® MHT-R (Nexam Chemicals AB, Sweden) based on hexafluoroisopropylidene bisphthalic dianhydride (6-FDA), 4-(Phenylethynyl)Phthalic Anhydride (4-PEPA) and ethynyl bis-phthalic anhydride (EBPA). This study in particular investigates how post-cure conditions such as time, temperature and atmosphere influence Tg of the composites. In addition to this we also trace and analyse the consequences of post-cure on weight loss and occurrence of micro-cracks. We are considering three different post-curing temperatures: 400°C, 420°C and 440°C in the study. Two different atmospheres, air and inert by nitrogen, were also investigated. In summary the results reveal that remarkably high Tg, up to around 460°C, is achieved with only very limited weight loss. It was also observed that some, but limited amounts of, micro-cracks are developed within the laminates due to the inevitable high thermal stresses generated upon cooling from cure temperature.

  • 5.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Jönsson, Christina
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nordenberg, Eva
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Brodin, Håkan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Strondl, Annika
    KTH XPRES – Initiative for Excellence in Production Research.
    Nano-sized by-products from metal 3D printing, composite manufacturing and fabric production2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1224-1233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the health and environmental perspective of nano-materials has gained attention. Most previous work focused on Engineered Nanoparticles (ENP). This paper examines some recently introduced production routes in terms of generated nano-sized by-products. A discussion on the hazards of emitting such particles and fibers is included.

    Fine by-products were found in recycled metal powder after 3D printing by Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The process somehow generated small round metal particles (∼1–2 μm) that are possibly carcinogenic and respirable, but not small enough to enter by skin-absorption. With preventive measures like closed handling and masks, any health related effects can be prevented.

    The composite manufacturing in particular generated ceramic and carbonaceous particles that are very small and respirable but do not appear to be intrinsically toxic. The smallest features in agglomerates were about 30 nm. Small particles and fibers that were not attached in agglomerates were found in a wide range of sizes, from 1 μm and upwards. Preventive measures like closed handling and masks are strongly recommended.

    In contrast, the more traditional production route of fabric production is investigated. Here, brushing residue and recycled wool from fabric production contained few nano-sized by-products.

  • 6.
    Monti, M.
    et al.
    Proplast Consortium, Strada Comunale Savonesa 9, Rivalta Scrivia (AL).
    Tsampas, S.A.
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Mölndal.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Blomqvist, P.
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås.
    Cuttica, F.
    Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, sede di Alessandria.
    Fina, A.
    Dipartimento di Scienza Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino, sede di Alessandria.
    Camino, G.
    Proplast Consortium, Strada Comunale Savonesa 9, Rivalta Scrivia (AL).
    Fire reaction of nanoclay-doped PA6 composites reinforced with continuous glass fibers and produced by commingling technique2015In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 121, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the development of a glass fiber commingled composite (GFCC) based on a nanoclay-doped polyamide 6 (PA6) and the evaluation of its fire reaction. The preparation of the composite comprised several steps. Firstly, the nanoclay was dispersed in the PA6 matrix. Then, the produced compound was spun in filaments and commingled with continuous glass fibers. Finally, the laminate preform was consolidated. Reference samples based on the neat PA6 were produced as well. As a results, although it is well known that, in the presence of a relevant amount of continuous fibers, the behavior of the material is mainly driven by the fibers themselves (e.g. mechanical, thermal, conductive, and so on), the effect of the clay was interesting, especially in flammability test (UL94 vertical burning test), where the total burning time passes from 227 s to 146 s.

  • 7.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    et al.
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Mölndal.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Development of novel high Tg polyimide-based composites: Part II: Mechanical characterisation2018In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 261-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the mechanical performance assessment of a newly developed carbon fibre-reinforced polyimide composite system T650/NEXIMID® MHT-R is presented. This system was subjected to a series of mechanical tests at ambient and elevated temperature (320℃) to determine basic material properties. Moreover, an additional test was conducted, using a T650/NEXIMID® MHT-R laminate in which the fibre sizing was thermally removed prior to laminate manufacturing, to investigate the effect of fibre treatment on mechanical performance. The experimental results indicated that the T650/NEXIMID® MHT-R composites along with exceptionally high Tg (360–420℃) exhibited competitive mechanical properties to other commercially available polyimide and epoxy-based systems. At elevated temperature, the fibre-dominated properties were not affected whilst the properties defined by matrix and fibre/matrix interface were degraded by approximately 20–30%. Finally, the fibre sizing removal did not affect the tensile and compressive strength, however, the shear strength obtained from short-beam shear test was deteriorated by approximately 15%. to serve as baseline for further studies.

  • 8.
    Tsampas, Spyros
    et al.
    Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    The effect of high temperature on the mechanical performance of novel high Tg polymide-based carbon fibre-reinforced laminates2016In: ECCM 2016: Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials, European Conference on Composite Materials , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the outcomes from the mechanical testing of the carbon fibre-reinforced polyimide composite system T650/NEXIMID® MHT-R at ambient and elevated temperatures are presented. These results are compared to assess the effect of mechanical loading at 320°C on the performance of the system in tension, compression and Short-Beam Shear. The experimental campaign indicated that the mechanical loading at 320°C had a trivial effect on the tensile properties (fibre-dominated) whilst a more pronounced effect was noted on the compression and Short-Beam Shear (matrix and fibre/matrix interface-dominated properties).

  • 9.
    Varna, Janis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Zrida, Hana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microdamage analysis in thermally aged CF/polyimide laminates2016In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 139, article id 012050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microdamage in layers of CF Thornel® T650 8-harness satin woven composite with thermosetting polyimide NEXIMID® MHT-R resin was analysed. After cooling to room temperature multiple intra-bundle cracking due to tensile transverse thermal stresses was observed in the studied [(+45/-45)/(90/0)]2s composite. The composite was subjected to thermal cycling quantifying the increase of crack density in layers. Comparison of two ramps with the same lowest temperature shows that the highest temperature in the cycle has a significant detrimental effect. Exposure for 40 days to 288°C caused many new cracks after cooling down to room temperature. Both aged and not aged specimens were tested in uniaxial quasi-static tension. Cracking was analysed using fracture mechanics and probabilistic approaches. Cracking in off-axis layers was predicted based on Weibull analysis of the 90- layer. The thermal treatment degraded the cracking resistance of the surface layer and of the next layer.

  • 10.
    Zrida, Hana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Ayadi, Zoubir
    Institut Jean Lamour, Ecole Européenne d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Université de Lorraine.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Microcracking in thermally cycled and aged Carbon fibre/polyimide laminates2017In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 121-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon fibre T650 8-harness satin weave fabric composites with thermosetting polyimide resin designed for high service temperatures are solidified at 340 °C. High thermal stresses develop after cooling down to room temperature, which lead to multiple cracking in bundles of the studied quasi-isotropic composite. The composites are subjected to two thermal cycling ramps and the increase of crack density in each bundle is quantified. Comparison of two ramps with the same lowest temperature shows that the highest temperature in the cycle has a significant effect on thermal fatigue resistance. During thermal aging tests at 288 °C the mechanical properties are degrading with time and the crack density after certain aging time is measured. Aging and fatigue effects are separately analysed showing that part of the cracking in thermal cycling tests is related to material aging during the high temperature part of the cycle. Numerical edge stress analysis and fracture mechanics are used to explain observations. The 3-D finite element edge stress analysis reveals that there is large edge effect that induces a large difference in the damage state between the different layers on the edge. The linear elastic fracture mechanics explains the higher initiated and propagated crack density in the surface layers comparing to the inner layers.

  • 11.
    Zrida, Hana
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. Swerea SICOMP AB, Piteå.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Effect of extreme temperatures on micro-damage development in CF/polyimide laminates2015In: 20th International Conference on Composite Materials: Copenhagen, 19-24th July 2015, ICCM , 2015, article id 2204-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CF Thornel® T650 8-harness satin weave fabric composite with thermosetting polyimide NEXIMID® MHT-R resin designed for high service temperatures is produced at around 390°C and therefore high thermal stresses develop after cooling down to room temperature. Thermal transverse stresses in bundles/layers are tensile and lead to multiple intra-bundle /intra-laminar cracking. When the composite plate is subjected to large and repeated temperature variations, new cracks can appear due to thermally induced fatigue stress. Experimental results show that the highest temperature inthe cycle, where thermal stresses are low, has a significant detrimental effect on thermal fatigue resistance. Another observed phenomenon is thermal aging: at high temperature the mechanical properties are degrading with time. Aging and fatigue effects were separately analyzed for quasi-isotropic laminates with lay-up [(+45/-45)/(90/0)]2s.

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