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  • 1.
    Couceiro, José
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Wood shrinkage in CT-scanning analysis2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography (CT) can be used to study wood-water interactions in differentways, such as by determining wood moisture content (MC). The determination of MCrequires two CT images: one at the unknown moisture distribution and a second one ata known reference MC level, usually oven-dry MC. The two scans are then compared.If the goal is to determine the MC in local regions, when studying moisture gradients forinstance, wood shrinkage must be taken into account during the data processing of theimages. The anisotropy of wood shrinkage creates an obstacle, however, since theshrinkage is not uniform throughout the wood specimen.

    The objective of this thesis was to determine the shrinkage in wood in each pixel of aCT image. The work explores two different methods that estimate from CT images, thelocal shrinkage of a wood specimen between two different MC levels. The first methoddetermines shrinkage for each pixel using digital image correlation (DIC) and isembedded in a wider method to estimate the MC, which is the parameter verifiedagainst a reference. It involves several steps in different pieces of software, making ittime-consuming and creating many sources of possible experimental errors. The MCdetermined by this method showed a strong correlation with the gravimetricallymeasured MC, showing an R2 of 0.93 and the linear regression model predicted MCwith a RMSE of 1.4 MC percentage points.

    The second method uses the displacement information generated from the spatialalignment of the CT images in order to compute wood shrinkage in the radial andtangential directions. All the required steps are combined into a single computeralgorithm, which reduces the sources of error and facilitates the process. The RMSEbetween this method and the determination of shrinkage measured in the CT imagesusing CAD has shown acceptable small differences.

    Both methods have proved to be useful tools to deal with shrinkage in different ways byusing CT images. In one case MC was successfully estimated, being the shrinkagecalculation a necessary step in the process, and in the other case the radial and tangentialshrinkages were successfully estimated for each pixel. Nevertheless, the difficulty incomparing the shrinkage coefficient calculated for local regions with a reference valuesuggest that more research must be carried out in order to be able to draw reliableconclusions.

  • 2.
    Couceiro, José
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    X-ray computed tomography to study moisture distribution in wood2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been used as an analysing tool for different features in wood research since the beginning of the1980s, but it can also be used to study wood-water interactions in different ways, such as by determining wood moisture content (MC). The determination of wood MC with CT requires two CT images: one at the unknown moisture distribution and a second one at a known reference MC level, usually at oven-dry condition. The two scans are then compared, and the MC is calculated based on the differences between the images. If the goal is to determine the MC in local regions within the wood volume, e.g. when studying moisture gradients in wood drying, wood shrinkage must be taken into account during the data processing of the images. The anisotropy of wood shrinkage creates an obstacle, however, since the shrinkage is not uniform throughout the wood specimen. The technique is thus limited in two ways: it cannot measure MC in local regions and it cannot do it in real time.

    The objective of this thesis was to study methods to overcome these two limitations. The work explores up to three different methods to estimate local MC from CT images in real time. The first method determines shrinkage for each pixel using digital image correlation (DIC) and is embedded in a broader method to estimate the MC, which verified against a reference. It involves several steps in different pieces of software, making it time-consuming and creating many sources of possible experimental errors. The determination of shrinkage within this method is further explored to enable the implementation of all steps in a unique piece of software. It is shown that it is possible to calculate MC through this method with a root mean square error of prediction of 1.4 percentage points for MC between 6 and 25%.

    The second method studied succeeds in determining the MC distribution in research applied to wood drying, but the calculation of shrinkage differs from the previous method: instead of calculating shrinkage in the radial and tangential directions, it does so by using the displacement information generated from the spatial alignment of the CT images. Results show that the algorithm can provide consistent data of internal MC distribution of wood at the pixel level that entail continuing researching wood drying processes with an improvement in the accuracy of the MC determination. It represents an improvement regarding the first method because the calculation is fast and highly automatized in a single piece of software.

    The third method studied is the application of dual energy CT (DECT) to moisture. DECT would provide means for MC calculation at the pixel level and, potentially, in real time, which would mean an important breakthrough in wood drying research. Previous research shows promising results, but its implementation in medical CT, the tool used throughout this work, has shown poor predicting ability. Nevertheless, further research is encouraged.

    The work done in this thesis proves that it is possible to measure local distribution of MC in wood using CT with accuracy and precision. It also shows that further research could potentially provide a means for MC estimation in real time.

  • 3.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Elustondo, Diego
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Implementation of Computer Aided Tool for Non-Destructive X-Ray Measurement of Moisture Content Distribution in Wood2015Inngår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 330-336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports recent attempts for implementing non-destructive measuring of moisture contentin wood based on computed tomography technology. The study focus onan image analysis method that has been already proposed and validated in the literature, but ithas not been tested for measuring low moisture content variations below fibre saturation point.The computed tomography method was tested against the oven-dry method.The results show thatit is possible to apply this technology to measure low levels of moisture content based on a regression model, where therootmean square error of the modelwas 1,4percentage points of moisture content. The method can still be improved because the density differences between samples are relatively small in relation to the experimental error and the computed tomography precision.

  • 4.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Department of Ocean Operations and Civil Engineering. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Ahec, Ambroz
    University of Ljubljana.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    CT-scanning of the drying process of Eucalyptus nitens.2018Inngår i: Proceedings of 21st International Drying Symposium. / [ed] Cárcel JA, Polo GC, García-Pérez JV, Mulet A, Rosselló C.,, Valencia: Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València , 2018, s. 1269-1276Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The drying of Eucalyptus nitens is a troublesome process as the species is extremely prone to drying defects. This paper reports ongoing research toimprove the understanding of surface checking and cell collapse in Chilean grown Eucalyptus nitens during drying. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was used as a powerful tool for studying the internal changes in the wood-material during the drying process. Different levels of temperatures have been tested with the same equilibrium moisture content (EMC) conditions and low air velocity. The results confirm that a low drying temperature and a low air velocity, which results in a slow rate of drying, reduce internal cell collapse and surface checking .

  • 5.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    In situ CT-scanning for detection of internal checking and cell collapse during drying of hardwood species2016Inngår i: The 7th European Conference on Hardwood, Eco-efficient resource wood with special focus on hardwoods / [ed] Teischinger A., Németh R., Rademacher P., Bak M. & Fodor F. (Eds.), Sopron: University of West Hungary , 2016, s. 58-59Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the drying of sawn timber, hydrostatic tension forces within the cell may exceed the compressive strength perpendicular to the grain of the thin cell wall and the cell then collapses. This phenomenon is common in hardwoods such as Sequoia sempervirens, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Juglans nigraand many species of eucalyptus and oak. Usually, this leads to severe surface deformation, and both surface and internal checking(honeycombing) may occur. The quality of the final product is lowered by these cracks and deformations. The aim of this study was to investigate, by CT-scanning samples throughout the drying process, whether it is possible to detect when and how cracking and deformation occurs and develops in specimens of Eucalyptus nitens. Based on this knowledge, better drying schedules can be developed to improve the yield and ensure a higher quality of the sawn timber. Three specimens, one specimen in each drying run, of Eucalyptus nitens were used for the tests. Their cross-sectional dimensions, prior to drying, were 105x23 mm2 and their length was 70 cm. A specially designed laboratory drying kiln that fits within the gantry of a Siemens Somatom Emotion medical CT-scanner was used (Fig. 1). With this equipment, it is possible to scan the inside of the kiln without interrupting the drying process.

  • 6.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    CT-studies during the Conditioning phase of the Wood Drying Process2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography (CT) during drying of sawn timber is an excellent non-destructivetechnique to study the moisture flux as a function of drying time. In this study, a climatechamber combined with a medical CT- scanner has been used for non-destructive studies ofdensity changes in sawn timber during drying and conditioning.Green sawn timber contains large amounts of water and has to be dried before it can befurther processed and used in various building applications. The most common dryingmethod is convective air-circulation drying in large industrial kilns, where the relativehumidity (RH) of the hot circulating air is gradually reduced until the timber reaches thetarget moisture content (MC).Drying of sawn timber is driven by the existence of a difference in MC between the coreand the surface, so that moisture moves from the wet inner region towards the drier outerregion. During the early capillary stages of drying, the drying rate is high while, at the laterstages when all liquid water has evaporated, the drying rate is slow and diffusioncontrolled.At the end of the drying process, the timber surface is always drier than its core.In addition to this moisture gradient, internal stresses develop within the cross section withcompression stresses in the timber surface and tension in the inner regions. To avoidunwanted distortions, both these stresses and the moisture gradient, need to be eliminatedbefore the timber is further processed. This is achieved in a final conditioning stage withinthe drying process by moistening the circulating air through steaming or water spraying.The aim of the present work was to optimize the conditioning stage by developing amethod for studying of moisture gradients, deformations and internal and externaldimensional changes in sawn timber during the conditioning phase by using a CT-scannercombined with a drying unit for in-situ measurements of moisture flow.The results show that it is possible to detect the moisture gradient between the surface andcore of the timber with satisfactory reliability, but not the internal and external dimensionalchanges. However, this method creates a potential for increasing the knowledge andunderstanding of the conditioning phase and makes it possible to optimize and develop thisstep in the drying process to improve the yield and ensure a higher quality of the sawntimber.

  • 7.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    The use of X-ray computed tomography in timber construction research2016Inngår i: New Horizons for the Forest Products Industry: 70th Forest Products Society International Convention, June 26-29, Portland, Oregon, USA, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    powerful tool for the non-destructive measurement of dynamic processes in wood. For more than 20 years, CT has been used in wood research at Luleå University of Technology. The uniqueness of the CT equipment means that processes such as drying, modification, water absorption, internal and external cracking and material deformation can be studied in temperature- and humidity-controlled environments. The data recorded by the CT during the process is converted into two- or three-dimensional images that for instance can show dynamic moisture behavior in wood drying.This paper gives an overview of the possibilities of using CT in timber construction research, and shows examples of applications and results which can be particularly difficult to achieve using other methods. A specific focus is on studies on wood products for construction, and how to deal with different material combinations such as wood and metal.The practical application of the result is that CT-scanning, combined with image processing, can be used for non-destructive and non-contact 3-D studies of exterior constructions elements during water sorption and desorption, to study swelling and shrinking behaviour, delamination phenomena, crack development, etc.

  • 8.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Lindgren, Owe
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Estimation of miosture content in wood using dual x-ray energies in a medical CT-scanner2016Inngår i: Process Technologies for the Forest & Biobased Products Industries: PTF BPI 2016, 2016, s. 22-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Lindgren, Owe
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Ocean Operations and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Söderström, Ove
    c Professor Emeritus of Building Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Real-time wood moisture-content determination using dual-energy X-ray computed tomography scanning2019Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of the pixel-wise distribution of the moisture content (MC) in wood using X-ray computed tomography (CT) requires two scans of the same wood specimen at different MCs, one of which is known. Image-processing algorithms are needed to compensate for the anisotropic distortion that wood undergoes as it dries. An alternative technique based on dual-energy CT (DECT) to determine MC in wood has been suggested by several authors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DECT can be used for the determination of MC in real time. A method based on the use of the quotient between the linear attenuation coefficients (μ) at different acceleration voltages (the so-called quotient method) was used. A statistical model was created to estimate the MC in solid sapwood of Scots pine, Norway spruce and brittle willow. The results show a regression model with R2 > 0.97 that can predict the MC in these species with a RMSE of prediction of 0.07, 0.04 and 0.11 (MC in decimal format) respectively and at MC levels ranging from the green to the totally dry condition. Individual measurements of MC show an uncertainty of up to ±0.4. It is concluded that under the conditions prevailing in this study, and in studies referred to in this paper, it is not possible to measure MC with DECT.

  • 10.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Lindgren, Owe
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Ocean Operations and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Söderström, Ove
    c Professor Emeritus of Building Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Real-time wood moisture-content determination using dual-energy X-ray computed tomography scanning2019Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, nr 6, s. 437-444Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The estimation of the pixel-wise distribution of the moisture content (MC) in wood using X-ray computed tomography (CT) requires two scans of the same wood specimen at different MCs, one of which is known. Image-processing algorithms are needed to compensate for the anisotropic distortion that wood undergoes as it dries. An alternative technique based on dual-energy CT (DECT) to determine MC in wood has been suggested by several authors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DECT can be used for the determination of MC in real time. A method based on the use of the quotient between the linear attenuation coefficients (μ) at different acceleration voltages (the so-called quotient method) was used. A statistical model was created to estimate the MC in solid sapwood of Scots pine, Norway spruce and brittle willow. The results show a regression model with R2 > 0.97 that can predict the MC in these species with a RMSE of prediction of 0.07, 0.04 and 0.11 (MC in decimal format) respectively and at MC levels ranging from the green to the totally dry condition. Individual measurements of MC show an uncertainty of up to ±0.4. It is concluded that under the conditions prevailing in this study, and in studies referred to in this paper, it is not possible to measure MC with DECT.

  • 11.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Neyses, Benedikt
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    In-situ moisture content and density measurements in surface densified wood using dual X-ray absorptiometry in medical CT-scanning2016Inngår i: BIOCOMP 2016: The 13th Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium, Bio-based composites for a sustainable future., Concepción: University of Concepción , 2016, Vol. 2, s. 92-, artikkel-id NA01Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    The use of X-ray computed tomography in bio-composite research2016Inngår i: BIOCOMP 2016: The 13th Pacific Rim Bio-Based Composites Symposium : Bio-based composites for a sustainable future,, Conceptión: University of Concepción , 2016, s. 42-45Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), which was introduced in the medical field in the early 1970s, is also a powerful tool for the non-destructive measurement of dynamic processes in wood. For more than 20 years, medical CT has been used in wood research at Luleå University of Technology. The uniqueness of the CT equipment allowsprocesses such as drying, modification; water absorption; internal and external cracking; and material deformation to be studied in temperature- and humidity-controlled environments. The data recorded by the CT scanner during the process is converted into two or three dimensional images that, for instance, can show dynamic moisture behaviour in wood drying and crack formation. This paper provides an overview of the possibilities of using CT in bio-composite research, and shows examples of applications and results that can be particularly difficult to achieve using other methods. A specific focus is on studies on wood products that use combinations with materials such as metal and especially about how to deal with the difficulties that this entails.The practical application of the result is that CT scanning, combined with image processing, can be used for non-destructive and non-contact three-dimensional s tudies of exterior construction elements during water sorption and desorption, to study parameters such as swelling and shrinking behaviour; delamination phenomena; and crack development.

  • 13.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of ICT and Natural Sciences, Norway.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    CT scanning of capillary phenomena in bio-based materials2017Inngår i: Pro Ligno, ISSN 1841-4737, E-ISSN 2069-7430, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 181-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a powerful tool for the non-destructive study of dynamic moisture processes in wood and other bio-based materials. In the CT facilities at Luleå University of Technology, it is possible to study wood-moisture relations such as water absorption, drying and related material deformation under a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.An increase in the use of bio-based materials in building construction has led to an increased interest in capillary phenomena in these materials, because of an increasing number of moisture-related damage in timber and hybrid-timber buildings. This article shows some examples of how different bio-materials used in construction interact with liquid water over time. The overall purpose has been to develop the CT technique as a powerful tool for the determination and visualization of capillary flow that can be a base for modelling and an increased understanding of moisture flow in new bio-based building materials.Early-stage observation of the behaviour of different traditional and new bio-based building materials shows that CT scanning, combined with image processing, has a high potential to be used in performing non-destructive and non-contact tests that can help to increase the knowledge of water-material interactions and develop building materials with an optimized performance.

  • 14.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden .
    Hansson, Lars
    Natural Sciences and Preliminary Courses, NTNU Ålesund, Norway .
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    In Situ CT-Scanning of Checking and Collapse Behaviour of Eucalyptus nitens During Drying2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 59th International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology March 6-10, 2016 – Curitiba, Brazil, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Eucalyptus nitens has become a commercially important species in Chile and it isrepresenting one of the fastest growing wood-stock in the country. Today, it is widelyused for pulp and paper production, but the interest in using the solid wood has increasedin recent years. Before the sawn timber can be utilized, its moisture content must bereduced. Often during drying, hydrostatic tension forces within the cell exceed thecompressive strength of the thin cell wall of Eucalyptus nitens and the cell collapses. Thisphenomenon usually leads to severe surface deformation and both surface and internalcracks (honeycombing). Yield and quality of the final product, and thereby sawmills’profitability, are decreased by these cracks and deformations. The aim of this study wasto investigate, by CT-scanning samples throughout the drying process, if it is possible todetect when and how cracking and deformation occurs and develops in specimens ofEucalyptus nitens from Chile. Based on this knowledge, better drying schedules canhopefully be developed to improve the yield and provide a higher end-quality of the sawntimber.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Lars
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund.
    Couceiro, José
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Fjellner, Bengt-Arne
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Verksamhetsstöd, IT-Service.
    Estimation of shrinkage coefficients in radial and tangential directions from CT images2017Inngår i: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 251-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work was to use the displacement information generated from the spatial alignment in order to compute wood shrinkage in the radial and tangential directions in computed tomography (CT) images, and to compare the results with those obtained with computer-aided design software on the same images. To estimate the shrinkage coefficients from tomography images, wood specimens in the green state, equilibrium moisture content 15% and 8% state and oven dry condition were scanned. Specimens were taken from Norway spruce and Scots pine logs. The root-mean-square-error calculations showed acceptable small differences between the two measuring methods, which means that the algorithm is a useful tool for estimating the shrinkage coefficients in radial and tangential direction from CT images. This provides an image processing tool to monitor the dimensional changes during the drying and heat treatment process. 

  • 16.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Couceiro, José
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE.
    Konditionering av virke vid olika fuktkvoter: studier i tomograf2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fuktförändringar i virke under pågående konditionering har aldrig tidigare studerats i tomograf.

    Resultat av denna labbstudie av diffusionsbaserad, icke-kondenserande jämviktskonditionering vid olika fuktkvotsnivåer sammanfattas enligt följande: (Notera att torkningsspänningar inte utvärde­rats i denna studie utan enbart fuktförändringar.)

    • Studien styrker industriella erfarenheter att konditionering ”tar bättre” på virke nedtorkat till lägre fuktkvot jämfört än om fuktkvoterna är högre.
    • Försöken ger en god fingervisning om hur länge konditionering bör pågå för en viss önskad medel­fuktkvotshöjning i ett industriellt vanligt förekommande klimat 70 °C och psykrometer­skillnad 2° vilket motsvarar en jämviktsfuktkvot på 16,8%. Vill man ex höja medelfuktkvoten från 10 – 12% visar resultaten att 4 timmars konditionering är tillräckligt för furuvirket. Att i samma klimat höja medel­fuktkvoten 2% vid högre startfuktkvoter (mellan 14–23%) har inte i något fall varit möjligt för vare sig gran eller furu under de 8 timmar som konditionering pågick. Det är också viktigt att påpeka att konditioneringsklimatet i dessa labbförsök har uppnått börvärden mycket snabbt (figur 3) vilket inte är fallet vid stora virkeslaster i industriskala där basningskapacitet och blåsdjup påverkar tid till uppnådda börvärden.
    • Vad gäller fuktkvotsskillnad nära ytorna ses generellt en utplaning av fuktförändringar i samtliga försök efter 3–4 timmar.
    • Fuktkvotsnivån spelar roll för den inledande fuktkvotsförändringen inom tvärsnittet: ju torrare virke desto snabbare förändring.
    • När konditioneringen startar är fuktvandringen i splintved effektivare än i kärnved vilket sannolikt förklaras av splintvedens högre diffusivitet.
    • Vad gäller eventuella skillnad mellan träslag är det inte möjligt att dra några slutsatser.
    • Metodstudien visar att upplösningen i tomografen är tillräcklig för att kunna utvärdera fuktkvotsförändringar nära virkesytorna i ca 3 mm tjocka skal.
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