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  • 1.
    Abid, Fahim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Intermodulation due to interaction of photovoltaic inverter and electric vehicle at supraharmonic range2016In: 2016 17th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, Piscataway. NJ, 2016, p. 685-690, article id 7783471Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advent of power electronic switching is introducing more and more non-linear loads in the low voltage grid. Besides harmonic current generation in the frequency range below 2 kHz, these non-linear loads are also responsible for current emission in the range of 2 kHz to 150 kHz, commonly known as supraharmonic emission. Supraharmonic currents mainly flow between nearby appliances and heavily influence the overall emission of neighboring devices. This paper presents an analysis of supraharmonic interaction between a photovoltaic inverter and an electric vehicle. It has been noticed that intermodulation distortion arises as a result of interaction between different switching frequencies used by the devices. Later, additional household equipment were added to photovoltaic and electric vehicle to observe their effect on intermodulation distortion. All the measurements were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment imitating a domestic customer.

  • 2.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    On the Interaction Between Efficient Light Bulbs and Photovoltaic Systems in Low-Voltage Networks2018Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    On Waveform Distortion in Modern Low-Voltage Installations with Multiple Nonlinear Devices2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuing society quest for more comfort combined with the need to minimize global environmental impacts is constantly introducing new technologies into our daily lives. Among the recent developments, the advances in energy-efficient lighting and renewable energy technologies have enabled a maturity level in cleaner electricity production and efficient use of energy. Aligned with these trends, more recently we are experiencing faster progress towards the electrification of the transport system. All these developments have been largely driven by advancements in power electronic technologies which ultimately introduces a significant number of nonlinear loads in the form of power converters into the low-voltage (LV) installations and networks for electricity distribution.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to investigate how these nonlinear loads (individually and together) impact the current waveform distortion in modern LV installations. The work addresses several issues related to the electrical interactions between the distribution grid and different nonlinear loads, such as LED lamps, power factor correction (PFC) converters, PV inverters, and electric vehicle chargers.

    As a first part, the influence of the network impedance is examined. A method combining analytical impedance network modelling with a probabilistic approach for the customer side equipment was developed to address the uncertainties associated with harmonic resonances in public LV networks. It was found that the main resonance is mainly due to the transformer inductance and the total customer capacitance, while cable capacitances and customer inductances have a small impact. Additionally, it was found that increasing PV penetration shifts the harmonic resonances to lower frequencies, but also decreases the impedance magnitude.

    The second part includes the examination of the so-called nonlinear interaction phenomenon. A methodology has been developed and applied to quantify the extent of nonlinear interaction between devices in the same LV installation. It was observed that the interaction of different power electronic devices creates nonlinearity deviation, changing the current harmonics emission mainly for low order harmonics. The harmonic phase angle is the most affected harmonic characteristic. Additionally, linked to the first part, it was observed that changes in the network impedance and voltage source waveform have a significant impact on the nonlinear interaction.

    As a third part, the current zero-crossing waveform distortion has been analysed with a focus on control instabilities. Prior measurements of multiple devices fitted with power-factor controller were compared with a simulation model and instabilities were evaluated. Results from this work have confirmed that zero-crossing distortion increases proportionally with the number of devices. In addition, it was found that the network impedance plays an important role in defining the stability-criteria of these devices.

    Results shown in this thesis have revealed the harmonic interdependency and its consequences in different frequency ranges: harmonics and supraharmonics. Understanding the details of these new scenarios becomes of fundamental importance to mitigate future power quality issues and ensure the functioning of equipment in modern LV installations. This work presents several findings and a comprehensive discussion serving as a guideline for future work on interaction analysis and its consequences for devices in the LV network.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Abid, Fahim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Singh, Gaurav
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clemson University.
    Interaction between Grid-Connected PV systems and LED Lamps: Directions for Further Research on Harmonics and Supraharmonics2016In: 2016 17th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, Piscataway, NJ, 2016, p. 193-197, article id 7783479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses different approaches to investigate the interaction through harmonics, interharmonics, supraharmonics, and light flicker, between photovoltaic (PV) inverters and LED lamps in low-voltage installations. Single grid-connected power generators and electronic loads like LED lamps can be easily characterized in terms of harmonics in a given range of frequency. This subject is relatively well understood, and specific standards for measuring and restricting emissions are already established to ensure a low probability of interference. However, when connected together, source and load exhibit behavior that requires further study and understanding. This work presents a discussion serving as a guide for future work on analysis of losses and other impacts of the disturbances regarding this specific load and source interaction. The following are taken into account: the nonlinearity of LED loads and PV converters; the technologies and methods used in control; and the changes in power flow caused by load and power production variations

  • 5.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Including Uncertainties from Customer Connections in Calculating Low-Voltage Harmonic Impedance2019In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 606-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed in this paper to determine the harmonic impedances in low-voltage networks in a stochastic way. The consequences of resonances for harmonic propagation and stability of power converters are summarized. By using Monte Carlo simulation, the method includes the uncertainties in customer impedances, specifically due to electronic loads and local generation. The uncertainty in customer impedance is included by considering probability distribution for the resistive, inductive and capacitive parts of the impedance. The concept of transfer impedance is used for phase-to-neutral connections. A method is developed and applied to two existing low-voltage networks in Sweden. Results show that, for these two networks, the resonant frequencies decrease around 28 % once PV panels are installed. The paper includes a discussion of some of the practical aspects of applying the proposed method.

  • 6.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Supraharmonics Emission Assessment of Multi-level Converters Applied for Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverters2017In: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal, ISSN 2172-038X, Vol. 1, no 15, p. 143-148, article id 252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Topologies for different DC-AC converters used on grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters are analysed and compared within this paper. The main focus is to evaluate the supraharmonic emission in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz. For this study three topologies are evaluated: Neutral Point Clamped (NPC), the Cascaded H-bridge (CHB) and the Flying Capacitor (FC). To approximate the operation closer to a real scenario, the converters are analysed under the presence of voltage waveform distortion in the power supply. The simulation is performed using PSpice for the converters and Simulink for the grid. The characterization is made by the quantification of harmonics and supraharmonics, and also by the frequency domain analysis of the output current. Finally, a comparison of the chosen technologies is carried out, given a better understanding on the elements which exert influence on this type of emission.

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    252-17-Busatto
  • 7.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Estimation of the Consumer Electronics Capacitance for Harmonic Resonance Studies by a Non-Invasive Measurement Method2018In: Proceedings of International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ICHQP, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, , p. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmonic resonances in distribution systems are mainly between network inductances and shunt capacitances from capacitor banks and consumer loads. In this paper, particular attention is devoted to the evaluation of capacitances from domestic equipment, serving as a reference for resonance frequency studies. The assessment is performed by simulation and measurements of common low power electronic loads. From the analysis of EMI filters topologies used in AC/DC converters, a non-invasive capacitance measurement estimation method is presented. The method is verified after correlating capacitances with the resonance frequencies obtained from a frequency sweep method. From experimental measurements, the results show that the equivalent shunt capacitances for a set of 24 LED lamps are between 10 and 135 nF.

  • 8.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Measurements on an experimental laboratory setup with PV Inverters and a Large Number of LED Lamps2018Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Experimental Harmonic Analysis of the Impact of LED Lamps on PV Inverters Performance2019In: 2019 Electric Power Quality and Supply Reliability Conference (PQ) & 2019 Symposium on Electrical Engineering and Mechatronics (SEEM), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known for instance that voltage waveform distortion and network impedance have a significant impact on PV inverter current emissions. Because this, much research is still required to better understand their behavior and impact when multiple common household devices are placed to operate together in the same low-voltage installation. In particular, this paper addresses the harmonic impact of LED lamps on PV inverters performance considering different technologies and number of lamps. The analysis has been carried out with different scenarios considering two types of LED lamps, with and without power factor correction feature, and three different PV inverter technologies. The evaluation of the impacts is simply performed by frequency and time domain analysis, establishing the correlation between the devices current harmonics. The results obtained from the experiments have shown that LED lamps are prone to add a significant impact on the PV inverter current harmonics, and this impact is mainly dependent on the devices used technology.

  • 10.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Electric Power Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Deviations between the commonly-used model and measurements of harmonic distortion in low-voltage installations2020In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 180, article id 106166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmonic analysis studies of modern power systems commonly employ Norton and Thévenin equivalents at harmonic frequencies for the nonlinear devices. This approach neglects the so-called nonlinear interaction phenomenon. This paper addresses the difference between the results from the commonly-used model and the actual harmonic distortion measured in a low-voltage installation. A number of indices are introduced to quantify the nonlinear interaction. These indices allow a quantification of the extent to which the commonly-used model is also to predict harmonic voltages and currents in a modern low-voltage installation. The proposed model and the subsequent mathematical analysis are illustrated through measurements from different combinations of PV inverters and LED lamps using different technologies. The results show that deviation is dependent on the used technology, network impedance, and source voltage waveform. Other findings are that nonlinear interaction happens mainly in the low harmonic orders and impacts are more perceived on the harmonics phase angle. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed.

  • 11.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sara K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harmonic Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging on the Distribution System Network with Distributed Solar Generation2020In: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal, ISSN 2172-038X, Vol. 18, p. 103-108, article id 240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicle chargers and solar photovoltaic inverters are two types of household loads that can potentially impact the power quality of the grid. This paper presents a view of the consequences that the connection of these two nonlinear loads into a low-voltage installation can create on voltage harmonic distortion. The analysis considers the combined impact on network impedance and current harmonic distortion. First, the network impedance for phase-to-neutral connections is obtained considering the uncertainty in customer impedance. For this, a Monte Carlo simulation and the concept of transfer impedance are used. Second, based on real measurements, the current harmonic distortion of these two nonlinear loads are used to calculate the resulting voltage distortion at any bus of interest in the network. The analysis is applied to an existing low-voltage network in Sweden. Based on the study case, results show that some harmonics may increase by about 83 % as a function of the penetration of electric vehicles and photovoltaic installations.

  • 12.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Comparison of Models of Single-Phase Diode Bridge Rectifiers for Their Use in Harmonic Studies with Many Devices2022In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harmonic modeling of low-voltage networks with many devices requires simple but accurate models. This paper investigates the advantages and drawbacks of such models to predict the current harmonics created by single-phase full-bridge rectifiers. An overview is given of the methods, limiting the focus to harmonic analysis. The error of each method, compared to an accurate numerical simulation model, is quantified in frequency and time domain considering realistic input scenarios, including background voltage distortion and different system impedances. The results of the comparison are used to discuss the applicability of the models depending on the harmonic studies scale and the required level of detail. It is concluded that all models have their applicability, but also limitations. From the simplest and fastest model, which does not require a numerical solution, to the more accurate one that allows discontinuous conduction mode to be included, the trade-off involves accuracy and computational complexity.

  • 13.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Stability Analysis of PFC Converters Under Different Source Impedances and Its Consequences on Zero-Crossing Distortion2022In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 3235-3244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the presence of multiple power converters in a power system the total current may exhibit zero-crossing distortion in the form of recurrent damped oscillations with high magnitude. These oscillations are synchronized with the power system frequency. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the input current of single-phase ac-dc converters fitted with power factor correction (PFC) controllers. Emphasis is given on the impacts of the source impedance, and on how the number of converters connected to a common coupling point (PCC) impacts the PFC controller’s performance. A system model is developed followed by simulation and measurements in a real installation with electronic ballasts used to drive fluorescent lighting tubes. Results show that the recurrent damped oscillations originating from PFC controllers are close to the harmonic range and with a very low level of cancellation between devices. The magnitude therefore increases proportionally with the number of devices. As the source impedance increases, instability may occur. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed.

  • 14.
    Espin Delgado, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Summation law for supraharmonic currents (2–150 kHz) in low-voltage installations2020In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 184, article id 106325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of methods to study the propagation of supraharmonics in LV and even MV grids is a current research topic among the power quality community, which has been motivated by the efforts to establish limits for non-intentional supraharmonic emissions and planning levels. The assessment of how much distortion a bulk use of power electronics devices can inject into the grid is necessary before stating emission limits and planning levels for supraharmonics. To address this issue, the development of suitable models that can predict the supraharmonic emission from a low-voltage installation as a whole is required. This article presents a comparison of models for the summation of supraharmonics. An improved model for the summation of supraharmonics is proposed, which is validated experimentally. It is shown that by using the proposed model, predictions of supraharmonic propagation can be accomplished. Furthermore, it is demonstrated experimentally that, with the increasing number of supraharmonic emitting devices, the supraharmonic current distortion injected into a grid by an installation increases up to a maximum value and then decreases due to the capacitive nature of power electronics appliances existing in low-voltage networks.

  • 15.
    Espín-Delgado, Angela
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Power Quality Research Group, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany .
    Evaluation of Supraharmonic Propagation in LV Networks Based on the Impedance Changes Created by Household Devices2020In: Proceedings of 2020 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT-Europe) 26-28 October, 2020, IEEE, 2020, p. 754-758Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the characteristics of emission in the frequency range 2-150 kHz (supraharmonics) in time and frequency domain and how it propagates under different scenarios posed by the customer connections and changes in the grid. The analysis is based on measurements performed in a low-voltage installation, considering the simultaneous operation of a set of PV inverters and LED lamps in order to create changes in both impedance and emissions. The results confirm that supraharmonics tend to interact with nearby devices in the customer installation. As the number and constellation of emitting devices change so does the propagation of the supraharmonics. The propagation towards the grid can either increase or decrease with the increasing number of connected devices depending on the ratio between the impedances of the device and the grid impedance. Devices’ technology plays an important role in defining supraharmonic characteristics, emission levels and propagation. Finally, a qualitative analysis of the individual devices’ impedance and discussion of some of the practical aspects is provided.

  • 16.
    Khokhlov, Victor
    et al.
    Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Meyer, Jan
    Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Grevener, Anne
    Institute of Electrical Power Systems and High Voltage Engineering, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Comparison of Measurement Methods for the Frequency Range 2–150 kHz (Supraharmonics) Based on the Present Standards Framework2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 77618-77630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in power electronics, increasing share of renewables in the energy system and e-mobility cause an increase of disturbances in the frequency range 2-150 kHz, also known as supraharmonics. A rigorous, credible and agreed measurement framework is essential to evaluate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in this frequency range. While a normative method exists for measuring equipment emission in the laboratory, no normative method exists yet for the measurement of supraharmonic disturbance levels in the grid. The aim of this research is a detailed comparison of potential measurement methods derived from existing standards IEC 61000-4-7, IEC 61000-4-30, CISPR 16-1-1 and a critical assessment of their suitability for disturbance measurements in grid applications. Based on a comprehensive set of synthetic signals and real measurements from laboratory and field, this article studies the ability of the methods to assess the typical characteristics of supraharmonic emission with relevance to EMC coordination. It presents the benefits and drawbacks of the existing measurement methods and discusses the suitability of possible modifications for grid compliance assessment. The results and recommendations intend to be an input for the present activities of IEC SC 77A WG 9 to define a normative method for the measurement of supraharmonic disturbance levels to be included in the next edition of IEC 61000-4-30.

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    fulltext
  • 17.
    Nakhodchi, Naser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Transfer of Harmonics in Distribution Networks2022In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 1617-1626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the role of the medium-voltage network and low-voltage loads in harmonic voltages with low-voltage customers and harmonic propagation. A general model, as well as a detailed transfer function-based model, are used. By applying them to an existing network, it is shown that remote low-voltage loads have a significant impact on the source and transfer impedance. The main impact occurs for a specific range of frequencies below the resonant frequency of the low-voltage network. The general model is able to estimate this frequency range with an acceptable level of accuracy. Furthermore, by utilizing the concept of overall transfer impedance, it is shown that voltage harmonic levels for harmonic orders around this frequency range are determined mainly by aggregated remote emission rather than local emission.

  • 18.
    Nakhodchi, Naser
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Measurements of Harmonic Voltages at Multiple Locations in LV and MV Networks2020In: 2020 19th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents harmonic voltage measurements for a part of a distribution network including low-voltage (400 V) and medium-voltage (10 kV). Measurements were performed during 2017 and 2018 in the north of Sweden. This paper shows correlations between different harmonic orders in low voltage and the correlation between low and medium-voltage harmonics. This information can be used for harmonic propagation studies in distribution networks. The results showed significant correlation between the 5 th and 7 th harmonics for low-voltage side and very high correlation between 5 th harmonic order in low-voltage and medium-voltage. It is also observed that 5 th harmonic has almost the same values for all transformers connected to the same 40 kV network.

  • 19.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Comparison of a non-parametric and parametric method for interharmonic estimation in PV systems2019In: 2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative analysis of ‘Desynchronized processing technique’ (non-parametric) and ‘Sliding window ESPRIT method’ (parametric) for interharmonic estimation in PV systems is carried out. Both methods were applied to field measurements and semi-measured signals to test their feasibility under different conditions. In Desynchronized processing technique, in the second stage of estimation, a Short-term Fourier transform was used to address the time-varying nature of interharmonics. In Sliding window ESPRIT method, the signal subspace dimension was fixed in all analysed cases. An adaptive algorithm was used to find the best rank of the Hankel matrix and apt order of the filter to ensure stability. A set of critical parameters affecting the performance of these methods in interharmonic estimation are identified. This paper emphasizes the significance of using appropriate methods for accurate interharmonic estimation and also demonstrates through the illustrated results that different inferences can be drawn for the same measurements analysed using different methods.

  • 20.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Characterization of interactions between PV systems and energy efficient lighting (LED)2019In: CIRED 2019 Proceedings, AIM , 2019, Vol. -, article id 237Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possible interactions between grid-tied power-electronic based PV systems and energy efficient LED lighting systems in terms of current and voltage, for different combinations of the inverter and LED lamp types under different grid conditions, are studied in a laboratory environment. In this paper, the interactions are characterized in terms of the power quality disturbances like harmonics, interharmonics, supraharmonics, overvoltage, undervoltage, and rapid voltage changes.

  • 21.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Meyer, Jan
    Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Time-Varying Interharmonics in Different Types of Grid-Tied PV Inverter Systems2020In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 483-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widely existing circuit topologies and inverter control strategies for photovoltaic (PV) systems allow customer flexibility but also introduce different kinds of interharmonics into the grid. A complete understanding of interharmonics from PV systems, with reasons behind their origin, remains needed. In addition, the time-varying nature of interharmonics and the potential impacts on other equipment are yet to be understood. In this paper, laboratory and field measurements of seven different inverter types at multiple locations are presented. A comprehensive analysis is performed to understand the existence, persistence, and propagation of interharmonics in PV systems on the dc side as well as grid side for different power levels. The origins of the interharmonics are established with experimental evidence and through a comparative analysis. A rural low voltage six customer network, with two different impedance profiles caused by the installation of PV, is considered to show the potential impact on customer voltage. To address the time-varying nature of interharmonics, a sliding window ESPRIT method is preferred over fast fourier transform (FFT)-based methods.

  • 22.
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Inspection of Interharmonic emissions from a Grid-tied PV Inverter in North Sweden2018In: Proceedings of International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ICHQP, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the paper is to investigate theexistence of interharmonic emissions from an MPPT drivengrid-connected PV inverter, identify their severity andpersistence. The presence of interharmonics in the measuredcurrent from a PV installation is linked to direct and diffusedsolar irradiation as well as a high ramping rate of theirradiation causing variations in both active and reactive power.The paper sets forth a set of observations and inferences, whichis an appendage to the ongoing research on the power qualityaspects of solar power. Three different case studies areevaluated in detail using signal processing tools like STFT andFFT.

  • 23.
    Schwanz, Daphne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Larsson, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    A stochastic study of harmonic voltage distortion considering single-phase photovoltaic inverters2018In: Proceedings of International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ICHQP, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the hosting capacity considering harmonic distortion is estimated for single-phase-connected photovoltaic inverters (PVIs) in low-voltage distribution networks. A stochastic approach is used to calculate the harmonic voltage distortion with each customer in the network. The method has been applied to a 6-customer network for the connection of 2.5-kW single-phase PVIs with and without harmonic voltage background. From the results, it was observed that the contribution from 2.5 kW single-phase photovoltaic inverters to the individual harmonic distortion will not cause the established limits to be exceeded. Also, that the harmonic voltage background is often dominating and should be continuously observed.

  • 24.
    Sudha Letha, Shimi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Electrical Engineering Department, Punjab Engineering College (Deemed-to-be University), Chandigarh, 160012, India.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Espin Delgado, Angela
    Mulenga, Enock
    Bakhtiari, Hamed
    Sutaria, Jil
    Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Skellefteå, 97187, Sweden.
    Ahmed, Kazi Main Uddin
    Nakhodchi, Naser
    Sakar, Selçuk
    Ravindran, Vineetha
    Power Quality Issues of Electro-Mobility on Distribution Network—An Overview2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 13, article id 4850Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The journey towards sustainable transportation has significantly increased the grid penetration of electric vehicles (EV) around the world. The connection of EVs to the power grid poses a series of new challenges for network operators, such as network loading, voltage profile perturbation, voltage unbalance, and other power quality issues. This paper presents a coalescence of knowledge on the impact that electro-mobility can impose on the grid, and identifies gaps for further research. Further, the study investigates the impact of electric vehicle charging on the medium-voltage network and low-voltage distribution network, keeping in mind the role of network operators, utilities, and customers. From this, the impacts, challenges, and recommendations are summarized. This paper will be a valuable resource to research entities, industry professionals, and network operators, as a ready reference of all possible power quality challenges posed by electro-mobility on the distribution network.

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  • 25.
    Sudha Letha, Shimi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Busatto, Tatiano
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Interaction between charging infrastructure and the electricity grid: The situation and challenges regarding the influence of electromobility on mainly low voltage networks2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the situation with knowledge and challenges regarding the large-scale introduction of electromobility in the Swedish power grid. 

    The content convers a range of systemic perspectives in terms of challenges and impacts that the fast-growing amount of charging associated with electromobility poses to the actual power system. From this, several important questions are addressed in order to predict the future positive and negative impacts of this.

    A description of electromobility in technological terms is given by presenting various configurations of electric vehicles, charging infrastructure and energy supply. 

    The focus is placed on the possible impacts on the low-voltage networks, mainly exploring the power quality issues and grid hosting capacity. The following power quality issues are addressed: rms voltage (slow voltage variation, overvoltage, undervoltage, fast voltage variations), unbalance, waveform distortion (harmonics, interharmonics, and supraharmonics), and power system stability. The hosting capacity is examined to predict whether the charging demand from electromobility can be accommodated in the existing power system considering the involved challenges.

    Furthermore, the aspect related to the charging process and people’s travelling patterns under a stochastic point of view is analyzed. With the advantages that electromobility brings, it is noticeable that people will change the way they move around. Insights from this perspective make it possible to predict how the grid needs to change to accommodate the future needs.

    From the found evidences in this report, it is noticed that the harmonic content of the current injected from electric vehicles charging is not negligible, but it is low in relation to the harmonics produced by other connected loads in the low voltage network. The biggest impact is on the rms voltage, which might drop and exceed the limits set by standards if a charging management is not available. Additionally, interharmonics results have shown to be a potential issue due the charging process. Other evidences from this report provides additional support for future discussions and debates regarding the impacts of electromobility on the electrical system.

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    fulltext
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