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  • 1.
    Danjuma, Kwetishe Joro
    et al.
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Oyelere, Elisha Sunday
    Obafemi Awolowo University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mobile application for Ebola virus disease diagnosis (EbolaDiag)2018In: Mobile Technologies and Socio-Economic Development in Emerging Nations / [ed] Fredrick Mtenzi; George S Oreku; Dennis M Lupiana; Jim James Yonazi, Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 2018, p. 64-80Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes how the Ebola virus is considered extremely infectious with a series of physical and psychological traumas on the victims. Common clinical signs associated with the disease include a sudden fever, severe headaches, muscle pain, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, and unexplained hemorrhages. In Africa, with strained medical facilities and remote localities, prompt identification and diagnosis of the symptoms of Ebola in a suspected patient are important to the control of the epidemic and in curtailing further spread. This chapter presents the development of an Android mobile application called EbolaDiag (Ebola Diagnosis), which is capable of supporting the diagnosis, screening, and healthcare experts working on the frontline in contact tracing and monitoring of the spread of Ebola. Furthermore, EbolaDiag is suitable for aiding the strained medical facilities in endemic areas. In addressing this gap, the application provided a model for implementing such solutions in pandemic environments. Such a solution becomes more relevant and useful to combat Ebola and several other diseases in similar environments.

  • 2.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Business Information Technology, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Science, Finland .
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Towards an Adaptive Study Management Platform: Freedom Through Personalization2018In: CSEDU 2018: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Education, SciTePress, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 432-439Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have brought abundant freedom to our lives. In an educational context, however, the technology utilization is still relatively low despite recent developments on various learning platforms such as e-learning, mobile learning, MOOCs, and social networks. The contemporary technological advancement in smart gadgets enables us to bring learning resources with appropriate content format to the learners at the right time in the right learning situation. Yet there remains a need for an adaptive study management solution that would apply data mining algorithms to assist university students both before and during their studies in a personalized manner. This assistance can be of many kinds, such as campus orientation to new students, course curriculum recommendations, and customization of study paths. In this paper, we present the concept and an initial implementation the Adaptive Study Management (ASM) platform that aims at facilitating a university student’s academi c life in different phases by tracing the student’s activities and providing personalized services, such as a course curriculum recommendation, based on their behavior and achievements during a period. The ASM platform creates a profile for the student based on their achievements and competencies. Consequently, the platform aims to grant freedom to students on their study management, eases teachers’ workloads on assessing students’ performance, and assists teachers and administrators to follow up students and dropouts. The goal of this platform to increase graduation rates by personalizing study management and providing analysis services, such as dropout prediction.

  • 3.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Business Information Technology, Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Hels.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    User Experience in Mobile Augmented Reality: Emotions, Challenges, Opportunities and Best Practices2018In: Computers, E-ISSN 2073-431X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is gaining a strong momentum to become a major interactive technology that can be applied across domains and purposes. The rapid proliferation of MAR applications in global mobile application markets has been fueled by a range of freely-available MAR software development kits and content development tools, some of which enable the creation of MAR applications even without programming skills. Despite the recent advances of MAR technology and tools, there are still many challenges associated with MAR from the User Experience (UX) design perspective. In this study, we first define UX as the emotions that the user encounters while using a service, a product or an application and then explore the recent research on the topic. We present two case studies, a commercial MAR experience and our own Virtual Campus Tour MAR application, and evaluate them from the UX perspective, with a focus on emotions. Next, we synthesize the findings from previous research and the results of the case study evaluations to form sets of challenges, opportunities and best practices related to UX design of MAR applications. Based on the identified best practices, we finally present an updated version of the Virtual Campus Tour. The results can be used for improving UX design of future MAR applications, thus making them emotionally engaging.

  • 4.
    Dirin, Amir
    et al.
    Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Alamäki, Ari
    Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Managing Emotional Requirements in a Context-Aware Mobile Application for Tourists2018In: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), ISSN 1865-7923, E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 177-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to unveil the importance of emotions and feelings in developing mobile-based tourism applications. We gathered and analyzed emotional requirements to develop a mobile context-aware application for tourists. Emotional requirements are non-functional requirements affecting users’ emotional experiences around using applications, which are important for sustainable application usage. Many tourism applications exist, but were designed without considering emotional requirements or related UX factors and emotions. We developed a proof-of-concept prototype service-based context-aware tourism application (SCATA), and users participated in the design and evaluation processes. Emotional requirements are key to sustainable usage, especially regarding security. This paper details the application design and evaluation processes, emotional requirements analysis in each design phase, and the emotional effects of content accessibility in the application’s offline mode in unknown environments. The results show that trust, security, adjustability, and reliability are important factors to users, especially in unknown environments.

  • 5.
    Kim, Joochan
    et al.
    Department of Life Media, Ajou University.
    Seo, Jungryul
    Department of Computer Engineering, Ajou University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Detecting boredom from eye gaze and EEG2018In: Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, ISSN 1746-8094, E-ISSN 1746-8108, Vol. 46, p. 302-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent proliferation of affordable physiological sensors has boosted research and development efforts of emotion-aware systems. Boredom has received relatively little attention as a target emotion, and we identified a lack of research on the relationship between eye gaze and electroencephalogram (EEG) when people feel bored. To investigate this matter, we first conducted a background study on boredom and its detection by physiological methods. Then, we designed and executed an experiment that uses a video stimulus – specifically designed for this experiment, yet general enough for other boredom research – with an eye tracker and EEG sensor to elicit and detect boredom. Moreover, a questionnaire was used to confirm the existence of boredom. The experiment was based on a hypothesis that participants may feel bored when their gaze deviates from an expected area of interest, thus indicating loss of attention. The results of the experiment indicated correlations between eye gaze data and EEG data with all participants (N = 13) when they felt bored. This study can be useful for researchers who have interest in developing boredom-aware systems.

  • 6.
    Laato, Samuli
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Seo, Jungryul
    Ajou University.
    Ko, Wooryeon
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Sutinen, Erkki
    University of Turku.
    Designing a Game for Learning Mathematics by Composing: a Case in a Finnish Primary School2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is filled with mathematical relations. When creating music, the composer must keep in mind the rhythm, the notes, and how well they ring with each other. Our aim was to design an application that teaches these relationships and allows users to compose their own songs using numbers. Our work follows the design science research method, and we have co-designed the application together with elementary school students and teachers in Finland. This paper demonstrates the design process and provides an analysis on our design based on data collected from the participants in two separate sessions.

  • 7.
    Laato, Samuli
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Sutinen, Erkki
    University of Turku.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Ajou University, Suwon.
    Seo, Jungryul
    Ajou University, Suwon.
    Ko, Wooryeon
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio.
    Designing a Game for Learning Math by Composing: a Finnish Primary School Case2017In: 2017 IEEE 17th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT) / [ed] Chang, M; Chen, NS; Huang, R; Kinshuk; Sampson, DG; Vasiu, R, New York, 2017, p. 136-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is filled with mathematical relations. When creating music, the composer must keep in mind the rhythm, the notes, and how well they ring with each other. Our aim was to design an application that teaches these relationships and allows users to compose their own songs using numbers. Our work follows the design science research method, and we have co-designed the application together with elementary school students and teachers in Finland. This paper demonstrates the design process and provides an analysis on our design based on data collected from the participants in two separate sessions.

  • 8.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Mobile Educational Augmented Reality Games: A Systematic Literature Review and Two Case Studies2018In: Computers, E-ISSN 2073-431X, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality (AR) has evolved from research projects into mainstream applications that cover diverse fields, such as entertainment, health, business, tourism and education. In particular, AR games, such as Pokémon Go, have contributed to introducing the AR technology to the general public. The proliferation of modern smartphones and tablets with large screens, cameras, and high processing power has ushered in mobile AR applications that can provide context-sensitive content to users whilst freeing them to explore the context. To avoid ambiguity, I define mobile AR as a type of AR where a mobile device (smartphone or tablet) is used to display and interact with virtual content that is overlaid on top of a real-time camera feed of the real world. Beyond being mere entertainment, AR and games have been shown to possess significant affordances for learning. Although previous research has done a decent job of reviewing research on educational AR applications, I identified a need for a comprehensive review on research related to educational mobile AR games (EMARGs). This paper explored the research landscape on EMARGs over the period 2012–2017 through a systematic literature review complemented by two case studies in which the author participated. After a comprehensive literature search and filtering, I analyzed 31 EMARGs from the perspectives of technology, pedagogy, and gaming. Moreover, I presented an analysis of 26 AR platforms that can be used to create mobile AR applications. I then discussed the results in depth and synthesized my interpretations into 13 guidelines for future EMARG developers.

  • 9.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Suk, Haejung
    Ajou University.
    Designing Educational Mobile Augmented Reality Games Using Motivators and Disturbance Factors2019In: Augmented Reality Games II: The Gamification of Education, Medicine and Art / [ed] Vladimir Geroimenko, Springer, 2019, p. 33-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the second of two comprehensive volumes that provide a thorough and multi-faceted research into the emerging field of augmented reality games and consider a wide range of its major issues. These first ever research monographs on augmented reality games have been written by a team of 70 leading researchers, practitioners and artists from 20 countries. 

    Volume II explores the most important and challenging issues that have been raised by the use of the Augmented Reality approach and technology in the gamification of education, healthcare, medicine and art. The volume deals with a systematic analysis of educational augmented reality games, their use for health promotion in old age and for improving people’s well-being, the gamification of augmented reality art and immersive reading experiences, among other topics.

  • 10.
    Lindberg, Renny
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Approaches to Detecting and Utilizing Play and Learning Styles in Adaptive Educational Games2017In: Computers Supported Education: 8th International Conference, CSEDU 2016, Rome, Italy, April 21-23, 2016, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Gennaro Costagliola; James Uhomoibhi; Susan Zvacek; Bruce M. McLaren, Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 336-358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Games have emerged as promising tools to make learning more fun. Pedagogical effectiveness of an educational game can increase if its behavior changes according to learners’ play and learning styles. Several models for categorizing learning and play styles exist, but not many studies simultaneously detect and utilize both style groups. To alleviate this, as the first contribution, we analyzed and compared existing learning and play style models, and chose the most suitable one from each group. Personality style models were also discussed. We then created a questionnaire based on Honey and Mumford’s Learning Style Questionnaire and Bartle’s Player Types, and collected data from 127 South Korean elementary school children. The results indicated that specific play styles were clearly more dominant (Killer 18%, Achiever 24%, Explorer 32%, Socializer 41%), whereas dominant learning styles were distributed more evenly (Activist 33%, Reflector 37%, Theorist 20% and Pragmatist 25%). As the second contribution, we presented the foundations of a generic adaptation model for utilizing learning and play styles for designing adaptive educational games.

  • 11.
    Lindberg, Renny
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Formative evaluation of an adaptive game for engaging learners of programming concepts in K-122018In: International journal of shape modeling, ISSN 0218-6543, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 3-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global demand for programmers is soaring, several countries have integrated programming into their K-12 curricula. Finding effective ways to engage children in programming education is an important objective. One effective method for this can be presenting learning materials via games, which are known to increase engagement and motivation. Current programming education games often focus on a single genre and offer one- size-fits-all experience to heterogeneous learners. In this study, we presented Minerva, a multi-genre (adventure, action, puzzle) game to engage elementary school students in learning programming concepts. The game content is adapted to play and learning styles of the player to personalize the gameplay. We conducted a formative mixed-method evaluation of Minerva with 32 Korean 6th grade students who played the game and compared their learning outcomes with 32 6th grade students who studied the same concepts using handouts. The results indicated that, in terms of retention, learning was equally effective in both groups. Furthermore, the game was shown to facilitate engagement among the students. These results, together with uncovered issues, will guide Minerva’s further development.

  • 12.
    Lindberg, Renny S. N.
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Haaranen, Lassi
    Aalto University.
    Gamifying programming education in K‐12: A review of programming curricula in seven countries and programming games2019In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 1979-1995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of countries have recently included programming education in their curricula. Similarly, utilizing programming concepts in gameplay has become popular in the videogame industry. Although many games have been developed for learning to program, their variety and their correspondence to national curricula remain an uncharted territory. Consequently, this paper has three objectives. Firstly, an investigation on the guidelines on programming education in K‐12 in seven countries was performed by collecting curricula and other relevant data official from governmental and non‐profit educational websites. Secondly, a review of existing acquirable games that utilize programming topics in their gameplay was conducted by searching popular game stores. Lastly, we compared the curricula and made suggestions as to which age group the identified games would be suitable. The results of this study can be useful to educators and curriculum designers who wish to gamify programming education.

  • 13.
    Nygren, Eeva
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sutinen, Erkki
    University of Turku.
    Dynamics between Disturbances and Motivations in Educational Mobile Games2018In: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), ISSN 1865-7923, E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 120-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding engagement in games provides great opportuni- ties for developing motivating educational games. However, even good games may induce disturbances on the learner. Therefore, we go further than present- ing only results and discussion related to the motivation aspects and disturbance factors of the playing experience in UFractions (Ubiquitous fractions) storytell- ing mobile game. Namely, we define the dynamics between these two important game features. Sample of the case study was 305 middle school pupils in South Africa, Finland, and Mozambique.

    Guidelines for game developers, users and educators were derived from the interplay of disturbance factors and motivations. Furthermore, we defined six different learning zones deriving from disturbances the player is facing and the player’s motivation level.

  • 14.
    Oyelere, Solomon Sunday
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Suhonen, Jarkko
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Integrating parson's programming puzzles into a game-based mobile learning application2017In: Koli Calling '17: Proceedings of the 17th Koli Calling Conference on Computing Education Research, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 158-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of elementary programming concepts, logic, and syntax is a vital part of learning to program. Unfortunately, learning programming is found to be difficult and boring, especially for novices. For example, drill type of exercises designed for learning elementary programming can be very tedious, making it hard to motivate learners. This study focused on the development of a mobile application, which integrates puzzle-based Parson's programming exercises into a strategy board game with the aim of facilitating the teaching and learning of programming. With the mobile application, learners play Ayo, a variant of the famous traditional African strategy board game Mancala. In each round of the game, the learners will solve a Parson's puzzle, which consist of small programming tasks where students are required to build programs by drag and drop, selection, indenting and ordering code fragments. The proposed solution of integrating the Parson's puzzles to Ayo game provides a new perspective on how to use mobile devices in programming education. The long-term aim of our work is to create a framework for integrating board games into computing education. The study reported in the article is the first step towards creating the framework.

  • 15.
    Seo, Jungryul
    et al.
    Ajou University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Accurate position and orientation independent step counting algorithm for smartphones2018In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments, ISSN 1876-1364, E-ISSN 1876-1372, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 481-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Step counting (SC) algorithms can be applied to different areas such as well-being applications, games, and indoor navigation. Many existing SC algorithms for smartphones use data from inertial sensors to infer the number of steps taken, but their usefulness in real-life situations is limited since typically only a few positions and orientations are supported. Moreover, the algorithms may suffer from dynamic orientation and position changes during walking. To alleviate these shortcomings, we propose the Position and Orientation Independent Step Counting Algorithm (POISCA), which uses an accelerometer and a gyroscope to count the number of steps while allowing the smartphone’s position and orientation to change dynamically. In a nutshell, the algorithm first determines the orientation of the smartphone, and then detects zero crossings with a predetermined buffer range. 48 young adults (36 males, 12 females) participated in an experiment that simulated a real-life scenario to evaluate the performance of POISCA against three other step counting algorithms. The data from 24 participants were randomly assigned to a training group, which was then used to establish threshold parameters for POISCA. The remaining 24 participants’ data were used for accuracy measurement. The results show that POISCA outperforms the other algorithms with a Symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error of 4.54%, which can be lower if the algorithm is calibrated for each user. The results suggest that POISCA has potential for use in real-life situations where changes in position and orientation of the smartphone are dynamic.

  • 16.
    Seo, Jungryul
    et al.
    Ajou University.
    Laine, Teemu H.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Sohn, Kyung-Ah
    Ajou University.
    Machine learning approaches for boredom classification using EEG2019In: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, commercial physiological sensors and computing devices have become cheaper and more accessible, while computer systems have become increasingly aware of their contexts, including but not limited to users’ emotions. Consequently, many studies on emotion recognition have been conducted. However, boredom has received relatively little attention as a target emotion due to its diverse nature. Moreover, only a few researchers have tried classifying boredom using electroencephalogram (EEG). In this study, to perform this classification, we first reviewed studies that tried classifying emotions using EEG. Further, we designed and executed an experiment, which used a video stimulus to evoke boredom and non-boredom, and collected EEG data from 28 Korean adult participants. After collecting the data, we extracted its absolute band power, normalized absolute band power, differential entropy, differential asymmetry, and rational asymmetry using EEG, and trained these on three machine learning algorithms: support vector machine, random forest, and k-nearest neighbors (k-NN). We validated the performance of each training model with 10-fold cross validation. As a result, we achieved the highest accuracy of 86.73% using k-NN. The findings of this study can be of interest to researchers working on emotion recognition, physiological signal processing, machine learning, and emotion-aware system development.

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