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  • 1.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    A Design for Qualification Framework for the Development of Additive Manufacturing Components: A Case Study from the Space Industry2020In: Aerospace, ISSN 2226-4310, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) provides several benefits for aerospace companies in terms of efficient and innovative product development. However, due to the general lack of AM process understanding, engineers face many uncertainties related to product qualification during the design of AM components. The aim of this paper is to further the understanding of how to cope with the need to develop process understanding, while at the same time designing products that can be qualified. A qualitative action research study has been performed, using the development of an AM rocket engine turbine demonstrator as a case study. The results show that the qualification approach should be developed for the specific application, dependent on the AM knowledge within the organization. AM knowledge is not only linked to the AM process but to the complete AM process chain. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the manufacturing chain during design and to develop necessary knowledge concurrently with the product in order to define suitable requirements. The paper proposes a Design for Qualification framework, supported by six design tactics. The framework encourages proactive consideration for qualification and the capabilities of the AM process chain, as well as the continuous development of AM knowledge during product development.

  • 2.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Qualification Aspects in Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Study in the Space Industry2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research is to further the understanding of implications for product development and qualification when introducing additive manufacturing (AM) in the context of the space industry. Increased availability of AM machines and alluring potentials such as design freedom and cost-efficient product development and manufacturing has led to a rapid growth in the use of AM. However, the implementation of AM is hampered by lack of process understanding, implying uncertainties for engineers on how to design products for AM. Furthermore, the AM process chain (including e.g. post-processes) is not sufficiently developed and understood, adding further uncertainties. These uncertainties are a challenge when developing products for space applications, especially if they are critical for mission success and hence not allowed to fail. Such products and their manufacturing processes have to comply with strict requirements on verifying performance, quality, and reliability, i.e. product and process qualification. The purpose of this research is to investigate how qualification is addressed during product development in the space industry in order to find improved ways for engineers to explore the capabilities of AM to better understand its possibilities and limitations.

     

    The research is specifically focused on the use of powder bed fusion processes by companies developing and manufacturing sub-system components for space applications. It is limited to the manufacturing of components on Earth for use in space. The research approach is qualitative. Five studies provide the empirical foundation for the thesis, in which a total of four companies are included. In particular, one of the companies is studied in-depth, including a development project for a critical AM product. Individual interviews, workshops and focus groups are used for data collection. Furthermore, the in-depth study is based on a longitudinal presence at the company, providing the opportunity to gather data from project meetings and discussions. Collaborative action research with three of the companies provides a research setting to study the development of three AM products (of which the in-depth study is one) and how uncertainties related to the AM process can be addressed.

     

    Four aspects of how to address product qualification in Design for AM are deduced: (i) AM knowledge should be built through application-driven development processes, (ii) qualification should be accounted for early and to a larger extent, (iii) suitable and acceptable requirements should be defined through collaboration, and (iv) rapid manufacturing should be utilised to evaluate critical uncertainties. To support engineering teams on how to address these aspects, this thesis presents two contributions to the design field. The first is a design process utilising AM Design Artefacts (AMDAs) to identify, test and evaluate the AM-related uncertainties that are most pressing for a product. Through the iterative use of AMDAs, products designs are successively evolved, enabling a design which meets process capabilities and fulfils product requirements. The AMDA design process is part of the second contribution, a Design for Qualification framework that encourages a qualification-driven development approach for AM products. The framework includes six design tactics that provide guidance for its implementation. The tactics encourage an application-driven development process where qualification is considered early, and where successive steps are taken towards a thorough AM process chain understanding. The framework is designed based on the studied cases, and future research should focus on developing the framework and tactics further to facilitate implementation and wider applicability.

  • 3.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Qualification of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Space Industry: Challenges for Product Development2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is a collection of production processes that has received a good deal of attention in recent years from different industries. Features such as mass production of customised products, design freedom, part consolidation and cost efficient low volume production drive the development of, and the interest in, these technologies. One industry that could potentially benefit from AM with metal materials is the space industry, an industry that has become a more competitive environment with established actors being challenged by new commercial initiatives. To be competitive in these new market conditions, the need for innovation and cost awareness has increased. Efficiency in product development and manufacturing is required, and AM is promising from these perspectives. However, the maturity of the AM processes is still at a level that requires cautious implementation in direct applications. Variation in manufacturing outcome and sensitivity to part geometry impact material properties and part behaviour. Since the space industry is characterised by the use of products in harsh environments with no room for failure, strict requirements govern product development, manufacturing and use of space applications. Parts have to be shown to meet specific quality control requirements, which is done through a qualification process. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate challenges with development and qualification of AM parts for space applications, and their impact on the product development process. Specifically, the challenges with powder bed fusion (PBF) processes have been in focus in this thesis.

    Four studies have been carried out within this research project. The first was a literature review coupled with visits to AM actors in Sweden that set the direction for the research. The second study consisted of a series of interviews at one company in the space industry to understand the expectations for AM and its implications on product development. This was coupled with a third study consisting of a workshop series with three companies in the space industry. The fourth study was an in-depth look at one company to map the qualification of manufacturing processes in the space industry, and the challenges that are seen for AM. The results from these studies show that engineers in the space industry work under conditions that are not always under their control, and which impact how they are able to be innovative and to introduce new manufacturing technologies, such as AM. The importance of product quality also tends to lead engineers into relying on previous designs meaning incremental, rather than radical, development of products is therefore typical. Furthermore, the qualification of manufacturing processes relies on previous experience which means that introducing new processes, such as AM, is difficult due to the lack of knowledge of their behaviour. Two major challenges with the qualification of critical AM parts for space applications have been identified: (i) the requirement to show that critical parts are damage tolerant which is challenging due to the lack of understanding of AM inherent defects, and (ii) the difficulty of testing parts in representative environments. This implies that the whole product development process is impacted in the development and qualification of AM parts; early, as well as later stages. To be able to utilise the design freedom that comes with AM, the capabilities of the chosen AM process has to be considered. Therefore, Design for Manufacturing (DfM) has evolved into Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM). While DfAM is important for the part design, this thesis also discusses its importance in the qualification of AM parts. In addition, the role of systems engineering in the development and qualification of AM parts for space applications is highlighted. 

  • 4.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Borgue, Olivia
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Drivers and Guidelines in Design for Qualification using Additive Manufacturing in Space Applications2019In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED19), The Design Society, 2019, p. 729-738Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, reducing cost and lead time in product development and qualification has become decisive to stay competitive in the space industry. Introducing Additive Manufacturing (AM) could potentially be beneficial from this perspective, but high demands on product reliability and lack of knowledge about AM processes make implementation challenging. Traditional approaches to qualification are too expensive if AM is to be used for critical applications in the near future. One alternative approach is to consider qualification as a design factor in the early phases of product development, potentially reducing cost and lead time for development and qualification as products are designed to be qualified. The presented study has identified factors that drive qualification activities in the space industry and these “qualification drivers” serve as a baseline for a set of proposed strategies for developing “Design for Qualification” guidelines for AM components. The explicit aim of these guidelines is to develop products that can be qualified, as well as appropriate qualification logics. The presented results provide a knowledge-base for the future development of such guidelines.

  • 5.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Brodin, Staffan
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden.
    Andersson, Clas
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems Sweden.
    Using Demonstrator Hardware to Develop a Future Qualification Logic for Additive Manufacturing Parts2019In: Proceedings of the 70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC) 2019, International Astronautical Federation, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualification of components and processes is crucial for implementing additive manufacturing (AM) as part of a company’s manufacturing process portfolio. Currently, extensive research is ongoing in industry and academia to understand the capabilities and limitations of AM in order to enable qualification. For critical structural components, understanding the impact of the AM process and material on mechanical properties is essential. While an overall logic for qualification of AM parts is sought for, the complexity of these multidisciplinary end-to-end manufacturing processes requires comprehensive knowledge to be built in the pursuit of such a logic. As part of this work, GKN Aerospace is using demonstrator hardware to mature the AM process.

    While early expectations on AM often considered it as a universal manufacturing process, the hype has now subdued and it is generally accepted that AM is not suitable for all products. However, in the cases where AM is a good match, it has potential for cost and lead time reduction, while maintaining performance and reliability. GKN has identified liquid rocket engine turbines with highly loaded parts, complex designs, and that are manufactured in low volumes, as a perfect fit for AM. Currently, GKN is designing a new ultra-low-cost turbine demonstrator relying on three objectives; (1) low number of components, suppliers and processes, (2) robust design, and (3) efficient manufacturing. The fully laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) manufactured turbine demonstrator scheduled for engine test in 2020, is an important step in the GKN AM technology demonstration for highly loaded aerospace parts. The verification and demonstration of the AM turbine rests on three pillars; (i) material data, (ii) analysis, and (iii) hardware. Analytical verification using AM material data is the foundation in the verification of the AM turbine. To support this, material testing is an important part of verifying the AM material, as is component testing to check design margins in relation to prediction. Additional testing includes traveler specimens or structures built simultaneously as the full part. Non-destructive inspection of components and travelers verify material quality, and destructive inspections validate the results from non-destructive inspections.

    This paper presents the use of this verification approach on a LPBF turbine, where correlation of material data, component testing and inspection to analyses are discussed. Furthermore, conclusions are drawn on future needs for the development of a qualification logic for serial production AM hardware.

  • 6.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Lindwall, Angelica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Opportunities and Challenges for Additive Manufacturing in Space Applications2016In: Proceedings of Norddesign 2016: Biannual conference on Design and Development, 10-12 August, NTNU – Norwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheim, Norway / [ed] Casper Boks, Johannes Sigurjonsson Martin Steinert, Carlijn Vis, Andreas Wulvik, Glasgow: The Design Society, 2016, Vol. 1, p. 401-410Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a fast developing manufacturing technology that brings many opportunities for the design teams at companies working with product development. One industry that has embraced this is aerospace, and more specifically within space applications (satellites and launchers). Although there are huge possibilities with this technology, there are also several challenges that need to be overcome. This paper is based on interviews, study visits and a state of the art review from the current literature. The focus of this work has been to map the opportunities and challenges with AM in space applications and to highlight the research gaps that have been found. There are few documents available that address AM and/or innovation within space applications. The results show that design for AM, as well as product and process qualification, are areas that need to be further investigated.

  • 7.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Design for Qualification: A Process for Developing Additive Manufacturing Components for Critical Systems2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign: Design in the Era of Digitalization, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM), and more specifically Powder Bed Fusion, offers design freedom, functional integration, and cost efficient manufacturing of customised products. These design and manufacturing capabilities are relevant for the space industry with its characteristic low production volumes, high-performance products, pursuit for low weight, and a recent need for cost reduction due to increased market competition. At the same time, the space industry is characterised by products in harsh environments without room for failure, nor the possibility to repair broken parts in service. Product qualification is therefore an important part of the product development process in the space industry, with the purpose of showing that the product design and its manufacturing process fulfils the technical requirements. Qualification is a challenge for AM that currently exhibits a sensitivity in part mechanical properties based on geometry and build orientation, as well as a variability in process outcome. As with other manufacturing processes, design engineers have to take process capabilities into account during product design to render a manufacturable product (Design for AM), but also to achieve the right quality and function (Design for Excellence). Apart from manufacturability, product qualification has to be considered early in the product development process of AM parts. Given the lack of understanding of AM process characteristics, design engineers are in need of design supports to facilitate the qualification of critical AM parts. This paper presents a Design for Qualification process model for development of AM components in critical space systems. The model is proposed based on research performed in the space industry with several case companies. 

  • 8. Dordlofva, Christo
    et al.
    Törlind, Peter
    Evaluating Design Uncertainties in Additive Manufacturing using Design Artefacts: Examples from Space IndustryIn: Design Science, ISSN 2053-4701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) has increased in recent years with potential benefits for novel design solutions and efficient manufacturing. In order to utilise these potentials, engineers need to address uncertainties related to product design and the AM process. This paper presents a design process utilising product specific AM Design Artefacts (AMDAs) to assess uncertainties identified during design. The process emphasises the importance of concurrently developing the product and AM knowledge. Based on a research collaboration with industry, three case studies describe the use of this process in the development of products for AM. In total, six different types of AMDAs show how AM-related uncertainties are resolved to provide confidence in design solutions and manufacturability. The contributions of this paper are: (i) a design process where AMDAs are used as support in evolving and defining an AM design specification, (ii) an example of how DfAM is practiced in industry and of typical AM uncertainties that are encountered and addressed, and (iii) an example of how collaborative research can facilitate new knowledge for both industry and academia. The practical implication is a DfAM process for engineers to use and adapt according to existing AM knowledge.

  • 9.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Qualification Challenges with Additive Manufacturing in Space Applications2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) has the potential to remove boundaries that traditional manufacturing processes impose on engineering design work. The space industry pushes product development and technology to its edge, and there can be a lot to gain by introducing AM. However, the lack of established qualification procedures for AM parts has been highlighted, especially for critical components. While the space industry sees an advantage in AM due to expensive products in low volumes and long lead-times for traditional manufacturing processes (e.g. casting), it also acknowledges the issue of qualifying mission critical parts within its strict regulations. This paper focuses on the challenges with the qualification of AM in space applications. A qualitative study is presented where conclusions have been drawn from interviews within the aerospace industry. The results highlight important gaps that need to be understood before AM can be introduced in critical components, and gives insight into conventional component qualification.

  • 10.
    Ekman, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Antti, Marta-Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Emami, Reza
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Kuhn, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Minami, Ichiro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Milz, Mathias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Behar, Etienne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Wolf, Veronika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Mendaza de Cal, Maria Teresa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Jamali, Maryam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Roos, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Ottemark, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nieto, Chris
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Soria Salinas, Álvaro Tomás
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Vázquez Martín, Sandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Nyberg, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Neikter, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Lindwall, Angelica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Fakhardji, Wissam
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Projekt: Rymdforskarskolan2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Graduate School of Space Technology

  • 11.
    Lindwall, Angelica
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Dordlofva, Christo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Additive Manufacturing and the Product Development Process: insights from the Space Industry2017In: he 21th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17): 21-25 August 2017, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada : proceedings of ICED17 / [ed] 21th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17), Vancouver, 21-25 August 2017, 2017, Vol. 5, p. 345-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With Additive Manufacturing (AM), manufacturing companies have the potential to develop more geometrically and functionally complex products. Design for AM (DfAM) has become an expression implying the need to design differently for the AM process, compared to for conventional, usually "subtractive" manufacturing methods. There is a need to understand how AM will influence the product development process and the possibilities to create innovative designs, from the perspective of the product development engineer. This paper explores the expected influence of AM on the product development process in a space industry context. Space industry is characterized by small-scale production, and is increasingly cost-oriented. There is a general belief that AM could pave the way for more efficient product development. Three companies have been studied through interviews, observations and workshops. Results show that engineers' expected implications of introducing AM in the space industry are: The involvement and influence of customers and politics on innovativeness; the need for process understanding and usage of new tools for DfAM-thinking; the need for qualification of AM processes.

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