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  • 1.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, Research Institute of Sweden, Division of Built Environment, Department of System Transition and Service Innovation, Unit of Energy and Environmental Systems Analysis, 41258 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schade, Jutta
    RISE, Research Institute of Sweden, Division of Built Environment, Department of Building and Real Estate, Unit of Building Envelope and Building Physics, 50115 Borås, Sweden.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    The use of green roofs to improve wooden buildings for a future bioeconomy2022In: Proceedings of LCM 2021: 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Management / [ed] S. Albrecht; M. Fischer; C. Scagnetti; M. Barkmeyer; A. Braune, EDP Sciences , 2022, article id 04014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioeconomy helps to move towards a renewable, fossil-free future. The environmental impact is significantly reduced when replacing fossil-based products with bio-based alternatives. In a bioeconomy, all products are made from renewable and biogenic resources. In the building sector examples for biogenic sources are traditionally wooden building structures, while green roofs are becoming more popular. The goal of the present project was to assess the amount of biogenic carbon stored in green roofs and wooden buildings overall. The question is whether green roofs are improving the biogenic carbon usage of buildings and find out how that can be improved. The methods used are based on construction modelling, life cycle assessment and standardised environmental product declaration (EPD). The results indicate that wooden building structures are not enough for a complete biogenic building to move to a renewable, fossil-free future. Furthermore, the green roofs do add more biogenic carbon to the building than conventional roofs, while seen over the whole building these benefits are negligible. The results are presented as renewable and nonrenewable energy as well as biogenic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions. These are compared with conventional roofing based on non-renewable standard roofs in Sweden.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building – A Case Study2019In: Proceedings of the 36th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2019), The International Association for Automation and Robotics in Construction (I.A.A.R.C.) , 2019, p. 340-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing digital information in construction is commonly described through Building Information Modelling (BIM), which advocates seamless chains of information, increased coordination between different actors and a life-cycle perspective on information management. However, low adoption outside the design phase entails that handling information in production is in many cases manual and paper-based, which increases vulnerability for upstream errors materialising downstream in production. Furthermore, issues with interoperability surround many areas when managing digital information. For industrialised house-builders, the transmitter and receiver of information are in many cases integrated within the same company or based on long-term collaboration. This affects their ability to manage information and utilise design information, which implies that their strategy for digital information management (DIM) might benefit from being addressed differently compared to more traditional BIM-based approaches. In this paper, we describe and discuss an implemented DIM-solution at an industrialised house-builder in order to address the benefits and challenges with DIM when managing information from design to production. The results imply that in order for several different functions within the company to reap benefits, a customised DIM-solution adapted after the company's specific needs is a well-suited approach forward to avoid sacrificing functionality when utilising design information.

  • 3.
    Hussamadin, Raafat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Digital Quality Control System—A Tool for Reliable On-Site Inspection and Documentation2023In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has seen an increase in its complexity. This has meant an increased need for time-consuming and costly quality control. Moreover, the construction industry continues to perform detection-based quality controls with little to no focus on prevention. Quality control documentation is a source of information and data that can support the development of construction processes toward prevention. However, current documentations are ambiguous and subjective, so they remain ineffectual. A case study was performed to explore the causes of the ambiguity and subjectivity of traditional quality control documentation, and to analyze the identified project-variable procedure’s transformation into standardized or even automated documentation. Evaluating the traditional quality control’s preparation, inspection, and documentation phases highlighted unique challenges requiring tailored solutions. This study identifies the challenges of inaccurate data creation and data entry, unusable documentation, and inefficient documentation. Therefore, the usefulness of data structuring and process standardization became apparent. Hence, the study explores two solutions: a digitalized quality control system (DQCS) that ensures one accurate structured data entry method, and a centralized unit that prepares the necessary data for quality control inspections, instead of the unique preparation for each project. The results show the benefits of increased accuracy, usability, and efficiency for reliable on-site inspection and documentation.

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  • 4.
    Hussamadin, Raafat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    A Method to Produce & Visualize Interactive Work Instructions for Modular Products within Onsite Construction2020In: Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2020): From Demonstration to Practical Use - To New Stage of Construction Robot - / [ed] Kazuyoshi Tateyama, Kazuo Ishii, Fumihiro Inoue, International Association on Automation and Robotics in Construction , 2020, p. 48-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Well detailed, informative and accurate work instructions are a necessity to mitigate delays in construction. Today, this is done through a combination of shop drawings, documents, sheets, work pre-planning meetings and onsite verbal work instructions to transfer knowledge and information between all actors. Due to the subjectivity of these methods, many incorrect assumptions and man-made errors originated from miscommunication and misinterpretation can occur. Such issues are tough to identify prior to their occurrence on construction sites, leading to construction delays. Virtual Reality (VR) technology can simulate and visualize assembly processes using Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). The visualization aims to ensure a quality communication with skilled workers and to aid their interpretation of SOPs by reducing assumptions. As a result of a more effective education, it can support the collaboration between actors. Utilization of SOPs for visualization of Work Instructions (WI) and assembly processes are important, because many process WIs on construction sites are repetitive. Modularity can increase the efficiency by supporting instancing and variation creation of construction tasks and products. Interactivity can support the continuously changing status and demands of construction sites. A method has been iteratively developed to support visualization of modular and interactive SOPs within the context of industrialized house-building (IHB), to increase the quality and consistency of communication at construction sites. Concurrently to development of the method, a prototype using VR technology was developed. Interactive functionalities along with VR technology make it possible to adjust SOP and WI modules to suit the demands and conditions of the construction site, including real-time. As a result, the developed method is responsive and adjustable to conditions such as weather, man-made errors, assembly re-sequencing and re-scheduling. Combining product design, SOPs, WIs and assembly process in early stages of construction has shown to help identify potential issues and aid in planning for cautious measurements. Results show that by using the developed method, skilled workers were able to identify occurring miscommunications, and misinterpretations between them, site managers and foremen as well as ensuring their understanding.

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  • 5.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Dept. of Industrial Product Development, Production, and Design, Jönköping Univ., Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Martin
    Construction Engineering and Lighting Science, Jönköping Univ., Jönköping, Sweden.
    Breakdown Structure in the Digitalization of Design Work for Industrialized House-Building: A Case Study of Systems Building Using Predefinition Levels of Product Platforms2019In: ICCREM 2019: Innovative Construction Project Management and Construction Industrialization: Proceedings Of The International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2019 / [ed] Yaowu Wang; Mohamed Al-Hussein; Geoffrey Q. P. Shen, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2019, p. 49-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized house-building companies predefine parameters in platforms. In the strive to identify efficient information flow with automation and configuration, the design process requires a breakdown of the product structure of a building to digitally communicate between information systems. The level of predefinitions varies between industrialized house-builders according to market position, type of building processes, and maturity in business. The client decoupling point according to the predefinitions of house-building as a product is central for how and when production information is created. Bill of materials is a breakdown structure that visualize relations and the transformation between engineering, preparation, and production processes from a life cycle perspective. A case study at eight house-building companies was chosen with the aim to identify relations between the level of predefinitions and breakdown structures. House-building platforms with a high level of predefinition on layouts, components, and interfaces show a tendency to use less time in BIM-tools for engineering work and a high level of parameters in manufacturing configuration systems to prepare for production. Meanwhile, the opposite with low levels of predefinitions on components and interfaces focus on BIM-tools for engineering work with longer lead times. An interesting outcome is those with a high level of predefinitions in interfaces but lower levels on component dimensions. These companies have the ability to position their offer to a wide market with flexibility in the engineering work and need to communicate the high levels of interface parameters for the manufacturing sequence with a breakdown of the product together with architects.  

  • 6.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Interactive visualization for information flow in production chains: Case study industrialised house-building2018In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, p. 382-388Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predefinitions in house-building platforms is developed as routines to manage project building information models over to production data by documents and digital drawings. Visualisation of the information flow in the industrialised house-building process is hard to track and information are often presented as islands, seldom described in the flow for the entire process. Interactive visualisation, using game technology, has open up for new applications of data -transformation, -visualization and -simulation of project information which is less studied in the context of industrialised house-building. This paper tries to address this issue via a combination of game engine technology and the predefined industrialised house-building process. The game engine technology allow development for end -user demands and functionality to express and visualise values for the daily planning and execution of processes. In a case study approach the development and analysis of four building projects were studied and chosen to the range of product platform predefinitions. Based on object structure for different views, models and the related metadata were visualised with an immersive virtual environment prototype. The prototype, based on game engine technology, was developed to manage incoming building projects variations that followed house-building platform predefinitions. As a visualising tool of engineering, on-site planning and production process the game engine technology simulates and visualize views on product structures, production information, assembling and operation instructions by interactive functions in the game environment.

  • 7.
    Kubicki, Sebastian
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology, TH Köln, Germany.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    A master model approach for design and analysis of roof trusses2018In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, 2018, Vol. 35, p. 325-331Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apartment housebuilding takes too long time and optimal solutions are seldom found. In housebuilding projects, there is an increased popularity of using virtual models for analyses of structural integrity and floor layout. However, these analyses are seldom coordinated since the models rarely are linked and the designers are not working close enough. As such, optimal designs are hard to find and time flies since even small changes turn into many iterations between design and structural analysis. General building information modeling and virtual design and construction methodologies suggest the use of interoperability and automation to bridge these gaps. There are examples of design tools that link different models using off-the-shelf tools or programming. However, most of the housebuilding companies seldom have these advanced tools or have the competence to do advanced programming. In this paper, we suggest an approach of using visual programming in a common BIM-software to explore the linking of different models. As an example, we study design of roof trusses since for many different roof shapes the same rules usually apply to the design of the truss. This project connects a BIM-software and a FEM-program with a master model. The model automatically generates a roof with the designed truss, draws the representation in a BIM-software and analyze it in a FEM-program. The early evaluations of this visual programming based approach are promising as there are possibilities to connect other domain models and create an even richer evaluation bases for early apartment housebuilding design.

  • 8.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Exploration and Optimization of Building Design Solutions using Computational Design2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of building design is increasingly moving towards considering performance as a driver, which can especially be seen in the realm of sustainable or green building design due to the advent of ambitious goals regarding energy consumption and emissions. Accounting for these concerns is an important target of the building design process, where there is a potential to make valuable contributions. To realize this, command of interconnected and sometimes contradictory requirements is needed, and it necessitates an ability to create novel solutions that fulfill demanding requirements. This entails an iterative process to find design solutions that meet the requirements and needs imposed by clients and regulations on space, costs, energy, etc. To account for the multitude of criteria in building design and aid practitioners in making well-informed design decisions, potential design solutions need to be explored to find feasible solutions and optimized to find solutions that perform as best we can. Even though the potential of further supporting both exploration and optimization can provide significant benefits to improving buildings’ performance, a common challenge is that the act of generating and evaluating larger sets of solutions can be restricted by time and resources. The use of computer-based methods has been suggested to facilitate this need. Through building information modeling (BIM), relevant information can be encapsulated and organized, and computational design approaches can leverage computers’ computational capability to efficiently generate, represent, and evaluate solutions. Together, these can represent an approach that facilitates the need for exploration and optimization of building design solutions. However, to achieve this further iterations, refinement, and evaluation with different design problems and contexts are needed to better leverage and understand its potential. This includes contributing to a further understanding of how and when different computational design approaches can be used to support the building design process.

    Therefore, the overall purpose of this thesis was to explore computational design for building design. The aim was to develop frameworks for exploring and optimizing building design solutions in a BIM-based workflow. The research design was based on an exploratory approach, in which frameworks were developed and evaluated in different building design settings. In this approach, a problem drives an iterative development of frameworks, where cycles of objectives, development, demonstration, and evaluation of the frameworks lead to suggestions that are communicated. The frameworks were then demonstrated and evaluated through real-world cases in building design settings. This process was iterated until the identified problems were addressed and the research purpose was achieved. 

    The main findings in the research presented are:

    • The inclusion of interactive exploration with computational design, where progression is not solely reliant on algorithms, facilitates the addition of qualitative preferences and criteria to be used in guiding the exploration of design solutions. This may be particularly useful in the early stages of design and when the emphasis is on finding novel design solutions.
    • The inclusion of multi-objective optimization techniques (e.g., genetic algorithms) in computational design approaches can be used in situations where exploitation is of interest to optimize design solutions with multiple or conflicting objectives. This may be particularly useful when distinct and measurable objectives are available and targeted, such as the minimization of a building’s energy use, or costs from a life cycle perspective.
    • Sensitivity analysis can be used to provide additional information on the impact of relevant parameters on a building solution’s performance. This can be applied to assist the analysis of alternative solutions from a computational design approach and can be useful in supporting the selection of solutions to bring forward in the design process.
    • A master model approach can be used to structure and contain the constituent components needed to link inputs, outputs, and processes used in computational design approaches. This provides a framework to define a product, its design variables, constraints, and objectives, and to support the generation of representations and models necessary for performance evaluation.
    • To facilitate information exchange and interoperability for the systems involved in a computational design approach, a middleware approach can be used to create interfaces between components. This facilitates the integration of existing computer-based methods and tools in BIM-based workflows into computational design approaches.

    Overall, the research presented in this thesis highlights different choices of computational design approaches and possible applications supporting the design process of buildings depending on the design problem’s characteristics and objectives. The proposed frameworks facilitate this through two different objectives: one targeted at the exploration of design solutions, and one targeted at the optimization of design solutions. Both are focused on facilitating and strengthening the role of computers as collaborative partners in the design process, rather than solely for information organization or increasing efficiency. By purposefully choosing an approach and through thoughtful application in different design problems, practitioners could be supported in making well-informed decisions regarding multiple design criteria, for example, in relation to environmental sustainability. The work in this thesis also presents approaches for mitigating some of the shortcomings of interoperability between a BIM-based workflow and components related to the proposed frameworks, which are necessary to overcome to maximize the effectiveness of a computational design approach. 

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  • 9.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Structures for supporting BIM-based automation in the design process2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades the advent of IT in the construction industry has prompted a gradual shift from manual paper-based processes to computer-aided design and production. In this shift there has been an increasing interest in the application of building information modelling (BIM) for the overall management of information throughout the lifecycle of a building. By implementing BIM and automating the workflows within, decreased time spent on engineering tasks and an increased focus on building performance could be achieved during the design process. Due to the complexity of the design process it is rare that a single BIM application can manage all the activities that are present. This puts pressure on the coupling of multiple applications, tools, and information. The challenges that this poses on interoperability and information exchange has received a wealth of attention in research however it is still argued that many of these operations require manual input. Automating parts of a BIM-based workflow is facilitated by the possibilities that exists for exchanging information and controlling the flow of information. This implies that not only do we need to understand this on a data level, but also that we understand how the system and information structures can be managed to enable this.

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how structures could be applied on both a system and information level to support automation within a BIM-based design process, and more specifically how these structures could be used to overcome some of the challenges of information exchange. Three studies were conducted to explore different methods and their potential in achieving automated workflows. The findings of these studies were then analysed against a theoretical framework based on structures of systems and information. The results show that choosing a distributed method for structuring systems allows for the coupling of multiple software, tools, and information without the need for a single shared schema. The critical component of the distributed system structure is a middleware which is responsible for controlling the flow of information. It is the middleware that when implemented allows for the management of multiple sources of information, each with their corresponding schemas. The results also showed that information which travels between the components of the distributed system can be structured according to their relationships to provide the foundation for a mapping. This structure enables the decomposition of information that can be used to transfer information only relevant to the current activity. When applied this aids to resolve the coupling of information at each activity in an automated BIM-based workflow.

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  • 10.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Holmberg, Anton
    Veidekke Entreprenad AB.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Approach for Automated Planning Using 5D-BIM2016In: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st-Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early planning decisions are usually dependent on time-demanding, manually produced cost estimations and schedules. There is a trend in the construction industry to use 5D-BIM to speed up these processes and automated approaches can be used to further improve effectiveness. This research aims to investigate how to create an automated 5D-BIM planning process when using industrialized building systems. We propose an approach that combines a BIM manual with predefined databases based on the building system and its properties. A case study at one of Scandinavia’s largest construction and property development companies was conducted where the presented approach was tested. The findings show that planning using 5D-BIM is possible to partially automate through our approach but that there are challenges for a fully automated process in the standardization required and assuring that the quality of data in each step is adequate.

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  • 11.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Structuring information from BIM: A glance at bills of materials2018In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, p. 362-368Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized house-builders are moving towards an enhanced production where management of information along the value chain is critical in order to deliver housing projects on time and with the desired quality. Today digital tools and systems are used in both design and production to produce, deliver and instruct actors throughout the phases of aproject. However, the information usually exists in different islands and manual transfers are required tokeep the flow of information between IT-systems and individuals continuous. A key to improving the ability for the members in different stages of a project to work with the same information is to facilitate different views. One of the building blocks for creating bridges between the islands of information is to introduce bills of materials which can be used to organize information for different purposes. Uniting the use of building information modeling (BIM) withbills of materials (BOM) is therefore our focus in this paper. This is done in the context of industrialized house-building and the facets which it brings to the subject. The aim of this paper is to present an early endeavor into a BOM based approach for structuring information from BIM models. A demonstration tool was developed, and together with application in a case project from an industrialized house-builder, the generation of BOMs from BIM data is illustrated and discussed. The findings illustrates that we can apply different structures to the information located in our BIM models and that we can produce a BOM perspective on our products. Also, it is highlighted that we still need further studies to better understand how application of BOMs in the context of industrialized house-building is realized.

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  • 12.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Architectural Design Exploration Using Generative Design: Framework Development and Case Study of a Residential Block2020In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of generative design has been suggested to be a novel approach that allows designers to take advantage of computers’ computational capabilities in the exploration of design alternatives. However, the field is still sparsely explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential use of generative design in an architectural design context. A framework was iteratively developed alongside a prototype, which was eventually demonstrated in a case study to evaluate its applicability. The development of a residential block in the northern parts of Sweden served as the case. The findings of this study further highlight the potential of generative design and its promise in an architectural context. Compared to previous studies, the presented framework is open to other generative algorithms than mainly genetic algorithms and other evaluation models than, for instance, energy performance models. The paper also presents a general technical view on the functionality of the generative design system, as well as elaborating on how to explore the solution space in a top-down fashion. This paper moves the field of generative design further by presenting a generic framework for architectural design exploration. Future research needs to focus on detailing how generative design should be applied and when in the design process.

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  • 13.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Karin
    RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden, Laboratorgränd 2, SE-93177, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden, Laboratorgränd 2, SE-93177, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden, Laboratorgränd 2, SE-93177, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Sustainability evaluation of timber dwellings in the north of Sweden based on environmental impact and optimization of energy and cost2020In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 44, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying design variations that strike the balance between environmental, energy and cost can be aided using multi-objective optimization. From the resulting Pareto-solutions, selecting a single optimal solution remains a challenge. Thus, research is still needed to increase the practical use of optimization for architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) practitioners. This paper presents the use of an optimization approach where the results and an environmental assessment are discussed with AEC practitioners. The method was tested in two case studies: a prestige tourist cottage and a multifamily residential building. Different superstructures, insulation materials and windows were varied for the cottage’s envelope whilst evaluating life-cycle energy and cost. In addition, the environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions was evaluated for the initial and optimal design suggestions for the two different superstructures. For the residential building, the insulation material thickness and the windows were varied for its evaluation of life-cycle energy and cost. For the cottage, a report was written and then read by the practitioners and used as a base for future decisions. For the residential building, the results were presented orally for the practitioners. In both cases, it was possible to communicate the overarching results of the optimizations through visual plots, although future research should find ways to also explain the detailed results.

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  • 14.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    An integrated optimization and sensitivity analysis approach to support the life cycle energy trade-off in building design2021In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 253, article id 111529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building design process plays a central role in efforts to implement energy-efficient practices. However, unilateral design choices based solely on reducing operational energy use can significantly increase a building’s embodied energy and life cycle energy use as there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. To support such trade-off problems, multi-objective optimization represents a useful approach that produces a set of optimal solutions from where a solution can then be selected and progressed within the design process. Selecting one solution from the set of optimal solutions can however be a challenging task as each solution has the potential to be chosen as the optimum. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore how solutions from a multi-objective optimization approach can be analyzed further to provide information to decision-makers when selecting the optimal design solution. An approach is proposed where the integration of post-optimization sensitivity analysis into a multi-objective optimization approach aims to support decision-makers in analyzing the optimal solutions provided by the optimization process. The applicability of approach is demonstrated using a case of a multifamily apartment building located in Sweden, where the aforementioned trade-off is explored for a set of energy efficiency measures. Thereby, a diverse range of optimal solutions that could result in up to 4520 GJ life cycle energy (LCE) savings relative to the case building’s initial design was initially identified using the multi-objective optimization. These solutions were then subjected to a sensitivity analysis where the results indicated that in general the lowest and highest sensitivity in terms of LCE use belonged to the insulation thicknesses in roof and walls, respectively. Furthermore, the thickness of exterior floor insulation yielded the greatest variation in the sensitivity. The findings of case study indicate that the post-optimization sensitivity analysis can add valuable information that complements the results obtained using a multi-objective optimization approach. Consequently, it can support decision-making on how to progress with the design in terms of what design parameters have a negligible or significant impact on the objectives when they are varied, thus facilitating prioritization.

  • 15.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Exploring the life cycle energy trade-off in buildings using multi-objective optimization and sensitivity analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building design process plays a central role in efforts to implement energy-efficient practices. However, unilateral design choices based solely on reducing operational energy use can significantly increase a building’s embodied energy and life cycle energy use, because there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. To mitigate this and to support building design in exploring trade-off problems, multi-objective optimization approaches have been suggested, which provide a set of optimal solutions from where a solution then can be selected and progressed within the design process. The purpose of this paper is to explore how these optimal solutions can be analyzed to provide further information to decision-makers. For this purpose, a multi-objective optimization approach is herein extended by integrating a post-optimization sensitivity analysis which aims to support decision-makers in analyzing the optimal solutions provided by the multi-objective optimization. This approach is demonstrated using a case of a multifamily residential building located in Sweden, where the aforementioned trade-off is explored for a set of energy efficiency measures. The results indicate the usefulness of integrating a post-optimization sensitivity analysis for performing further analysis of optimal solutions, where the sensitivity of relevant design parameters is exposed. This can provide additional information for making decisions on how to progress with the design in terms of what design parameters have a negligible or significant impact on the objectives when they are varied, thus facilitating prioritization.

  • 16.
    Sandberg, Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Byggteknik.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader: Case Ripan i Kiruna2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability includes several parameters, and these can be measured and valued in many different ways. This study focuses on balancing the various parts to achieve sustainability by minimizing energy for heating and energy to produce the materials used in the building as well as minimizing cost for material investment and cost for heating using optimization techniques. This is balanced together with the environmental impact. This report describes an initial study for sustainability optimization of a smaller building. The goal is to develop a comprehensive approach to provide a broader basis of decisions for new construction.

    The calculation included the building envelope (exterior walls, roof and floors), interior walls and stabilizing elements for different frames of wood (timber frame and CLT).

    The result from the Ripan Case shows that the timber frame design has the lowest embodied energy and operating energy, and lowest cost for investment and heating during the operating phase. The environmental impact of the timber frame design was also low.

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  • 17.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Gerth, Robert
    Design Evolution Scandinavia AB.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Design automation in construction: An overview2016In: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st – Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the construction industry continues its digital journey the applications within design automation is growing, making development processes less time-demanding and more organized. Design automation applications can show design impact on e.g. cost, equipment availability, staff capabilities and buildability. It can also facilitate reuse of successful solutions instead of reinventing the wheel for every project. Thanks to automation it becomes easier to generate several solutions and trying different what-if-conditions. The field has many different approaches but an overview for construction where the connections between the different approaches are indicated is needed. The purpose of this paper is to describe our view of how the design automation fields of building information modelling, master models,  nowledge-based engineering, configuration, modularization, platforms and simulation are  onnected and to provide input to the design automation discussion in construction. Each of  hese areas are introduced and then they are analyzed in relation to each other and presented as an overview. These results will serve as a base for future studies.

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  • 18.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Shadram, Farshid
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Multidisciplinary Optimization of Life-Cycle Energy and Cost Using a BIM-Based Master Model2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual design tools and methods can aid in creating decision bases, but it is a challenge to balance all the trade-offs between different disciplines in building design. Optimization methods are at hand, but the question is how to connect and coordinate the updating of the domain models of each discipline and centralize the product definition into one source instead of having several unconnected product definitions. Building information modelling (BIM) features the idea of centralizing the product definition to a BIM-model and creating interoperability between models from different domains and previous research reports on different applications in a number of fields within construction. Recent research features BIM-based optimization, but there is still a question of knowing how to design a BIM-based process using neutral file formats to enable multidisciplinary optimization of life-cycle energy and cost. This paper proposes a framework for neutral BIM-based multidisciplinary optimization. The framework consists of (1) a centralized master model, from which different discipline-specific domain models are generated and evaluated; and (2) an optimization algorithm controlling the optimization loop. Based on the proposed framework, a prototype was developed and used in a case study of a Swedish multifamily residential building to test the framework’s applicability in generating and optimizing multiple models based on the BIM-model. The prototype was developed to enhance the building’s sustainability performance by optimizing the trade-off between the building’s life-cycle energy (LCE) and life-cycle cost (LCC) when choosing material for the envelope. The results of the case study demonstrated the applicability of the framework and prototype in optimizing the trade-off between conflicting objectives, such as LCE and LCC, during the design process.

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  • 19.
    Schade, Jutta
    et al.
    RISE -Research Institutes of Sweden, Department Built Environment, 50115 Borås, Sweden.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE -Research Institutes of Sweden, Department Built Environment, 41258 Göteborg, Sweden.
    von Scherling, Mathias
    RISE-Reserach Institutes of Sweden, Department Built Environment, 11428 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Greenhouse gas emissions and sustainability of green roofs and stormwater systems at a district level – comparisons with a life cycle perspective2022In: Proceedings of LCM 2021: 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Management / [ed] S. Albrecht; M. Fischer; C. Scagnetti; M. Barkmeyer; A. Braune, EDP Sciences , 2022, article id 04003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reach future climate targets, it is important to verify that materials and technologies used for construction are sustainable and have a minimal environmental impact. The goal of this project was to add a broad life cycle perspective for quantifying energy and greenhouse gas emission, from the upstream flow of the construction process and the operational phase by including buildings and stormwater systems at a district level. The hypothesis was that green roofs might have a higher impact on greenhouse gas emissions as more material is needed compared to a standard roof. In return, green roofs reduce and retain stormwater, which may reduce the risk of hydraulic overloading in connected stormwater systems. This may lead to reduced CO2 emission if an upgrade of existing systems is not necessary. To evaluate this complex issue, a framework was developed combining construction modelling, energy simulation, stormwater system modelling, and life cycle assessment. The result of this theoretical study indicates that green roofs reduce and retain stormwater but are in most cases not sufficient to reduce the risk of hydraulic overloading in connected stormwater systems. The results demonstrated that green roofs should be not solely implemented to reduce and retain stormwater in the Nordic climate.

  • 20.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction. Urban Design Group at IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Bhattacharjee, Shimantika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lidelöw, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Exploring the trade-off in life cycle energy of building retrofit through optimization2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 269, article id 115083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building retrofit is considered as a vital step to achieve energy and climate goals in both Europe and Sweden. Nevertheless, retrofitting solutions based merely on reducing operational energy use can increase embodied energy use, mainly due to altering the existing trade-off between the two. Considering this trade-off is vitally important, especially for retrofitting buildings located in cold climate regions, as reduction of operational energy use to meet standards of energy-efficient buildings may require a deep retrofitting that can considerably increase the embodied energy and thus be unfavorable from a Life Cycle Energy (LCE) perspective. This article presents a case study in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the impact of a wide range of retrofitting measures on the aforementioned trade-off for a building in Sweden located in a subarctic climatic zone. The studied building was a typical 1980s multi-family residence. The goal was to explore and compare the optimal retrofitting solution(s) for the building, aiming to achieve Swedish energy-efficient building standards (i.e. new-build and near-zero energy standards). The results of the optimization indicated that (1) use of additional insulation in walls and roof, (2) replacement of existing windows with more energy-efficient ones, and (3) change of traditional mechanical extract ventilation to heat recovery ventilation are the primary and optimal retrofitting measures to fulfill the new-build Swedish energy standard and achieve highest LCE savings. However, to fulfill more far-reaching operational energy savings, application of additional retrofitting measures was required, increasing the embodied energy use considerably and resulting in lower LCE savings compared to the optimal retrofitting solution that only reached the Swedish new-build energy standard. The LCE difference between the optimal retrofitting solutions that fulfilled the new-build standard and the strictest near-zero (passive house) standard was 1862 GJ, which is equivalent to almost four years of operational energy use for the original building. This indicates that there is a limit to the reduction of operational energy use when retrofitting existing buildings, beyond which additional reductions can considerably increase the embodied energy and thus be unfavorable in terms of LCE use.

  • 21.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    An Integrated BIM-based framework for the optimization of the trade-off between embodied and operational energy2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 158, p. 1189-1205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design choices with a unilateral focus on the reduction of operational energy for developing energy-efficient and near-zero energy building practices can increase the impact of the embodied energy, as there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. Multi-objective optimization approaches enable exploration of the trade-off problems to find sustainable design strategies, but there has been limited research in applying it to find optimal design solution(s) considering the embodied versus operational energy trade-off. Additionally, integration of this approach into a Building Information Modeling (BIM) for facilitating set up of the building model toward optimization and utilizing the benefits of BIM for sharing information in an interoperable and reusable manner, has been mostly overlooked. To address these issues, this paper presents a framework that supports the making of appropriate design decisions by solving the trade-off problem between embodied and operational energy through the integration of a multi-objective optimization approach with a BIM-driven design process. The applicability of the framework was tested by developing a prototype and using it in a case study of a low energy dwelling in Sweden, which showed the potential for reducing the building’s Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use by accounting for the embodied versus operational energy trade-off to find optimal design solution(s). In general, the results of the case study demonstrated that in a low energy dwelling, depending on the site location, small reductions in operational energy (i.e. 140 GJ) could result in larger increases in embodied energy (i.e. 340 GJ) and the optimization process could yield up to 108 GJ of LCE savings relative to the initial design. This energy saving was equivalent to up to 8 years of the initial design’s operational energy use for the dwelling, excluding household electricity use.

  • 22.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Exploring the effects of several energy efficiency measures on the embodied/operational energy trade-off: a case study of Swedish residential buildings2019In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 183, p. 283-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building design process is crucial in efforts to implement energy-efficient practices by adopting Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs). However, design choices based solely on reducing operational energy use can significantly increase a building's embodied energy and Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use, because there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. This article presents a case study in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the effects of various EEMs on the aforementioned trade-off. Optimal solution(s) for six different building shapes (rectangular, H-, U-, l-, T- and cross-shaped) based on two sets of EEMs were investigated and compared. The first set of EEMs consisted of EEMs that can be implemented or modified during the early design phase, such as the building's shape, orientation, Window to Wall Ratio (WWR), and constituent materials. The second set comprised EEMs that can be implemented later in the design phase (i.e. EEMs relating to the constituent materials). The LCE reductions achieved by finding optimal solutions for EEMs in the first set (ranged from 2175.2 to 3803.8 GJ) were significantly (over 5 times) higher than those achieved for the second set (ranged from 418.6 to 625.6 GJ) for all building shapes. Moreover, LCE use for pre-optimization building designs varied significantly with building shape. However, after optimization, the differences in LCE use between the optimal solutions of different building shapes were modest. This means that designers and construction companies can select building shapes based on customer requirements, but also highlights the importance of using multi-objective optimization during early design process to identify optimal combinations of EEMs that minimize LCE use.

  • 23.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Division of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, 751 05 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Improving Life Cycle Sustainability and Profitability of Buildings through Optimization: A Case Study2022In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building developers are continuously seeking solutions to increase saleable/rentable floor area and thus the profitability of investments, especially in large/dense cities where the real estate/rental values are high and shortage of available land results in smaller building footprints. Application of passive energy efficiency measures (e.g., thick insulation in walls) not only affects the life cycle sustainability of buildings, but also the floor area and its profitability. This can affect the decisions made on the choice of measures when aiming to improve sustainability. In line with limited studies in this context, a case study is presented here in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the impact of various passive energy efficiency measures on the life cycle sustainability when accounting for the profitability of the floor area. The building case was a high-rise apartment based on a standardized building concept situated in different locations in Sweden, namely Vindeln, Gothenburg, and Stockholm. The findings indicated that, regardless of the location, use of (1) thick cellulose coating for the roof, and (2) moderately thick expanded polystyrene for the floor, were necessary to improve the life cycle sustainability. However, the optimal wall insulation was dependent on the location; in locations with high real estate values, the scope for using thick and conventional insulations (mineral wool/cellulose) was limited due to the significant economic loss caused by floor area reductions. In general, the optimization identified optimal solutions that could save up to 1410.7 GJ energy, 23 tonnes CO2e, and 248.4 TEUR cost from a life cycle perspective relative to the building’s initial design.

  • 24.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    A BIM-Based Method for Analyzing the Trade-Off between Embodied and Operational Energy2017In: ICCREM 2016: BIM Application and Offsite Construction - Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on Construction and Real Estate Management 2016 / [ed] Wang Y.,Al-Hussein M.,Shen G.Q.P.,Zhu Y., Reston, VA: American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2017, p. 59--70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that the operational energy and the embodied energy caused by production of building materials off-site (i.e., "cradle-to-gate" embodied energy) contribute to the major part of a building's total energy use, with roughly equal proportions. In addition, it has been reported that there is a trade-off between embodied-and operational energy which is mainly due to the use of additional materials with higher embodied energy and utilization of new appliances for construction of the building (or building of interest). Hence, application of sustainable strategies in early stages of the design phase, which enables evaluation of different design scenarios in terms of materials and systems, can provide a great scope to launch an optimization in the trade-off between embodied-versus operational energy. With respect to early stages of the design phase, Building information modeling (BIM) has become an applicable platform where its recent developments can provide interoperability with energy performance simulation (EPS) tools that enable assessment of the operational energy. However, existing BIM software generally lacks interoperability with conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) tools that are the main means for assessment of the embodied energy. Consequently, embodied energy assessment is often performed when the design has either been accomplished or developed to a relatively detailed level where there is less scope to investigate different design decisions for analyzing the trade-off between embodied-and operational energy. To overcome this obstacle, this paper presents a BIM-based method which strives to reduce the building's life cycle energy (LCE) use by accounting the trade-off between embodied-and operational energy at early stages of the design phase. The method is then exemplified by using an energy-efficient building case, demonstrating the applicability of the method in reducing the building's total energy use and also highlighting the areas where further development is required to address in future research

  • 25.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Trade-off optimization of embodied versus operational carbon impact for insulation and window to wall ratio design choices: A case study2018In: Sustainability in Energy and Buildings 2018: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference in Sustainability on Energy and Buildings (SEB’18) / [ed] Prasad Kaparaju, Robert J. Howlett, John Littlewood, Chandima Ekanyake, Ljubo Vlacic, Springer, 2018, p. 12-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of carbon impacts during building design has for too long unilaterally focused on the operational carbon impacts through the application of Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs), e.g. enhancing the thermal resistance of the building envelope by using additional insulations, Window to Wall Ratio (WWR) etc. Research indicates that there is a need to also include the embodied carbon impacts and optimizing the trade-off between embodied and operational carbon impacts. Multi-objective optimization approaches can be a solution for handling this trade-off. Therefore, a previously developed BIM-based multi-objective optimization approach has been extended to also cover the impact of the carbon footprint. The extended optimization approach was then tested in a case study of a multifamily residential building located in Stockholm to find the optimal design solutions of the embodied versus operational carbon impact trade-off. The results of the case study demonstrate the applicability of the extended approach in handling the trade-off problem and aiding in more environmentally friendly decisions during the design process.

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