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  • 1.
    Carmona, Matthew
    et al.
    The Bartlett School of Planning, University College London.
    Punter, John V.
    Department of City and Regional Planning, Cardiff University.
    Chapman, David
    The Bartlett School of Planning, University College London.
    From Design Policy to Design Quality: The treatment of design in community strategies, local development frameworks and action plans2002Book (Other academic)
  • 2. Carmona, Matthew
    et al.
    Tiesdell, Steve
    Heath, Tim
    Oc, Taner
    Public Places – Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design2010Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public Places Urban Spaces 2e is a thorough introduction to the principles of urban design theory and practice. Authored by experts in the fields of urban design and planning, it is designed specifically for the 2500 postgraduate students on Urban Design courses in the UK, and 1500 students on undergraduate courses in the same subject. The second edition of this tried and trusted textbook has been updated with relevant case studies to show students how principles have been put into practice. The book is now in full colour and a larger format, so students and lecturers get a much stronger visual package and easy to use layout, enabling them to more easily practically apply principles of urban design to their projects. Sustainability is the driving factor in urban regeneration and new urban development, and the new edition is focused on best sustainable design and practice

  • 3.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Arctic Urbanization and Climate Change2020In: Winter Cities Conference; Irkutsk National Research Technical University, 1-23 february 2020, Siberia, Russia. / [ed] Sergey Mayarenkov, Professor of Practice, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    By Design, from design guidance to built form2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the planning policy era of By Design: Urban design in the planning system: towards better practice through the lens of Planning Policy Guidance 1 (PPG1): General Policy and Principles and Planning Policy Guidance 3: Housing. The paper explores the objectives of urban design, as set out in By Design against PPG1’s objective to promote higher standards of urban design and PPG3’s objective to revise housing densities. Research takes a systematic approach to reviewing the evidence base available for the production of By Design and analyses density targets and urban design objectives against generic housing types of the day and four housing led development schemes delivered during the policy period. The paper argues that on density grounds, only two of the researched generic housing types delivered the density targets prescribed by PPG3, requiring the development industry to bring forward new models of development. The case study analysis establishes that the industry was able to adapt to the objectives of By Design with selected developments delivering the urban design objectives set out in By Design and density standards of PPG3. The paper concludes by arguing that whilst ‘By Design’ was extinguished as policy in 2012, its design objectives are still valid and may be relevant to new emerging dimensions related well-being as part of; Ease of movement and seasonal climate change as part of; Quality of the public realm.  

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  • 5.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Cities in time, temporary urbanism and the future of the city2019In: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 158-163Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Climate as Urban Morphology: The case for winter cities2020Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Chapman, David
    Glasgow School of Art.
    ‘Compacte-stadsbeleid’ is dead: long live the Dutch compact city2002In: MacJournal, ISSN 1355-3046, no 5, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Is climate a modifier and shape-giver in urban morphology?2021In: Urban morphology, ISSN 1027-4278, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 93-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Neoliberal Urbanism and its Contestations, Crossing Theoretical BoundariesJenny Ku¨ nkel and Margit MayerPalgrave Macmillan, 248 pp. ISBN 978-0-2302-7183-82014In: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 567-568Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Chapman, David
    Bartlett School of Planning University College London .
    Patterning the Dutch Compact City2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge to town planners in Britain is to help fulfil current and future housing need in a sustainable manner and avoid excessive development land take.

    This thesis therefore establishes what future development models are currently under debate and undertakes extensive research into Governments preferred option the 'Compact City'. Research focuses on empirical data for sustainable development and arguments for/against a policy of urban intensification.

    On conclusion that research alone fails to provide a sufficient basis for promoting a policy of 'Compact Cities', research emphasis was placed on the Dutch planning system, which has promoted such a policy for over a quarter of a century. Dutch experience was used to answer many unresolved arguments surrounding the 'Compact City' and an investigation was undertaken into how the Dutch have made this policy successful.

    In light of the fact that Dutch experience has shown that high quality urban housing is fundamental to attracting residents back to cities, an investigation of current UK generic housing models was undertaken and these were tested against sustainable density research and UK/Dutch design advice. On comparison it was established that many failed both tests and it was established that additional housing types could be required under a policy of 'Compact Cities'. An alternative development brief for additional housing models was therefore developed and this brief was investigated through the design of three alternative housing types.

    In final conclusion it was proposed that the Dutch treatment of density could provide a model for future planning in England and their design principles could aid the creation of alternative urban housing types.

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  • 11.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The Modern City Revisited Thomas Deckker (ed.)2003In: Urban Design Quarterly, ISSN 0266-6480, no 85, p. 42-43Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The potential of ephemeral interventions1997In: Mac Journal, ISSN 1355-3046, p. 35-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    The street, a quintessential social public space2018In: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 163-164Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Urban design of winter cities: Winter season connectivity for soft mobility2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    All across the world the form of the built environment is playing a crucial role as enabler or inhibitor for urban outdoor activity such as soft mobility. Urban form can make it more attractive for people to be mobile outdoors and playing a role in the public life, or it can put people off venturing outside. For winter cities, a question for urban design is how we can design environments that are attractive for outdoor activity in the winter season as well as summer and additionally how will climate change influence these aspects.

    The reason for studying this is the importance of understanding how, in relation to urban form, weather, seasonal variations, and climate change influences human outdoor activity. In this study the focus on outdoor activity is problematised around the concern that people spend a low percentage of their time outdoors in winter conditions. For society, the problem is that this trend and the related low levels of physical activity are associated with a range of health issues.

    To study this the main question for this research is what attracts and hinders soft mobility during the winter season and how can this knowledge underpin new considerations about urban design for connectivity in winter cities? To address this, the research methods focused on document studies, surveys, mental mapping, photo elicitation and semi-structured discussions.

    The study works at three scientific levels. Firstly, it seeks to understand the interrelationship between the built environment and people’s outdoor activity in winter. Secondly, it attempts to understand how connectivity for soft mobility in winter is being affected by weather and climate change. Thirdly, it seeks new ways of thinking about how the urban form can be designed to increase outdoor soft mobility in winter.

    The discussion and conclusions focused on the argument that in winter settlements, the winter season can alter spatial patterns and settlement organisation. Here it was argued that in these settlements the winter season can be an aspect of urban morphology and can be part of the process of shaping the public realm and its connectivity for soft mobility in winter.

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  • 15.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Urban Designer: Myth or Reality?2015In: Plan: tidskrift för planering av landsbygd och tätorte, ISSN 0032-0560, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    York New City Beautiful: Toward an Economic Vision2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Arctic Risk in Urban Space2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 18.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Arctic Risk in Urban Spaces (ARUS): Report of meeting 16th & 17th January 20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Report from the ARUS workshop in Abisko Research Station of the 16th and 17th January 2018. The workshop was used to develop a project agenda and key issues around changing risks in the Arctic public realm. Whilst this workshop was exploratory, the aim was to identify design challenges to urban space that climate change could bring for soft mobility.  The objective was to develop a research strategy that can develop ways to adapt Arctic settlements to these new environmental risks. The goal is to grow these agendas into research applications and funded research.

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  • 19.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Climate change and human behaviour: Understanding modal choice in a rapidly urbanising Arctic2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This poster explores the human dimension of non-motorised transport, i.e. soft-mobility in Arctic communities. Empirical results are used to show how people’s modal choice in the European Arctic is being influenced by climate evolution and human-made climate change. From these results, it is possible to conceive new visions of the how to design the outside environments of Arctic settlements that can better enable people to move around in Arctic communities with reduced reliance on vehicles. At the societal level, this research will help reduce energy consumption and pollution from transport.

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  • 20.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Climate change and human behaviour: Understanding modal choice in a rapidly urbanising Arctic2020In: Arctice Frontiers Science: Theme 4: Local or Global Arctic?, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores the human dimension of non-motorised transport, i.e. soft-mobility in Arctic communities. Empirical results are used to show how people’s modal choice in the European Arctic is being influenced by climate evolution and human-made climate change. From these results, it is possible to conceive new visions of the how to design the outside environments of Arctic settlements that can better enable people to move around in Arctic communities with reduced reliance on vehicles. At the societal level, this research will help reduce energy consumption and pollution from transport. For the individual, it highlights social, economic and the health benefits of soft-mobility. This includes creating places that are attractive, safe, and recognisable, as a basis for people’s informed decision-making about outdoor activities and modal choice. Pilot projects are ongoing in Riksgränsen, Björkliden and Abisko (Sweden) with data collected from residents and tourists using citizen science. Outcomes have practical and policy implications for town planning and tourism.

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  • 21.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Practical urban planning for winter cycling: lessons from a Swedish pilot study2021In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 21, article id 101060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    A detailed understanding of how the weather affects cycling is lacking. Where research has been carried out, the focus has often been on temperate and hotter climates; little research has been carried out regarding cycling in colder climate communities. This study therefore investigated the lived experience of winter-season cycling to provide empirical data for planning winter cycling in cold-climate communities.

    Methods

    Between 1 December 2017 and 30 April 2018, the activities of 13 cyclists (eight female and five male, mean age 42 years, age range 11–74 years) in Luleå, Sweden, were surveyed. Methods: Structured questionnaires, individual travel diaries, and recorded data for outdoor temperature, precipitation type, and snow cover were used.

    Results

    1) Cycle level and frequency could be maintained during the winter season; 2) in winter, participants were more likely to use their bicycles for commuting than other activities, 3) electric bicycles helped winter cycling significantly; 4) the quality of the cycling infrastructure is critical to making winter cycling attractive.

    Conclusion

    For winter cycling to be successful, town planners need to consider winter cycling as a specific activity with its own design, policy and management requirements. This study has shown that year-round cycling can be achieved in cold-climate communities, with all its attendant potential health benefits.

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  • 22.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Toward an Integrated Model for Soft-Mobility2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 3669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key urban design challenge is to create built environments that encourage outdoor activityall year round. This study explores a new model for soft-mobility that places the interaction betweenthe urban form, the seasonal climate and climate change, and the individual at the center of people’ssoft-mobility choices, or in more general, their modal choice. The research methods used werecomparative studies of documents, surveys, mental mapping, and photo elicitation. These studieswere undertaken to research people’s outdoor activity in the built environment during the winterseason of a cold climate settlement. The results were analyzed against the three-dimensions of themodel. In the discussion it is argued that in places with significant climate variation, the interactionbetween the urban form, the season, and the individual together influence soft-mobility choices. Inturn, these interactions influence people’s level of outdoor activity and the individual health benefitssuch activity can aord. In conclusion, it is highlighted that all three dimensions of the model are in aconstant state of change and evolution, especially in relation to planning and development processesand climate change.

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  • 23.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lee, Young-Sook
    School of Business & Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Designing winter cities: Arctic urbanisation and Asian mobilities consumption2021In: Asian Mobilities Consumption in a Changing Arctic / [ed] Young-Sook Lee, Taylor & Francis, 2021, p. 168-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter considers an urbanising Arctic and the design of winter cities with a specific focus on Asian mobilities consumption. The chapter explores how Asian consumption mobilities can be seen as the outcome of interactions between the built environment of Arctic settlements, individuals and climate.

    Special attention is placed on how the built environment of Arctic cities is modified and shaped by “winter”. The focus is placed on the theory of urban morphology, production of space and ongoing climate change. This is important in order to understand Asian tourist mobilities in Arctic settlements because these environments bring unexpected conditions and challenges for tourists’ perceptions of heritage sites and their mobility between them. The chapter concludes by presenting some urban design recommendations for Arctic cities that can assist in understanding and enabling Asian mobilities in a changing Arctic.

  • 24.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina L.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Winter City Urbanism: Enabling All Year Connectivity for Soft Mobility2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores connectivity for soft mobility in the winter season. Working with residents from the sub-arctic city of Luleå, Sweden, the research examines how the interaction between the built environment and winter season affects people’s use of the outdoor environment. The research questions for this study are, 1) how do residents perceive the effects of winter on an areas spatial structure and pattern of streets and pathways? and 2) what enablers and barriers impact resident soft mobility choices and use of the public realm in winter? Methods used were mental mapping and photo elicitation exercises. These were used to gain a better understanding of people’s perception of soft mobility in winter. The results were analysed to identify how soft mobility is influenced by the winter season. The discussion highlights that at the neighbourhood scale, residents perceive that the winter alters an areas spatial structure and pattern of streets and pathways. It was also seen to reduce ease of understanding of the public realm and townscape. In conclusion, it is argued that new and re-tooled town planning strategies, such as extending blue/ green infrastructure planning to include white space could help better enable all year outdoor activity in winter cities.

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  • 25.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Climatic barriers to soft-mobility in winter: Lulea, Sweden as case study2017In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 35, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban form can moderate the effects of weather on human movement. As such, the interrelationship between built environment, weather and human movement is a critical component of urban design. This paper explores the impacts of weather on non-motorised human movement (soft-mobility). Throughout we look at soft-mobility from the citizen’s perspective and highlight the barriers to soft-mobility in winter.

    The aim of this study was to test the traditional pallet of winter city urban design considerations. Those of solar-access, wind and snow management and explore other weather and terrain conditions that act as barriers to soft-mobility in winter. This study is based on survey responses from 344 citizens in the sub-arctic area of Sweden. Outcomes from the research highlight that rain, icy surfaces and darkness are today’s most significant barriers to soft-mobility in winter.

    Results from this study link changing barriers to soft-mobility in winter with climate change. The paper concludes that future urban design and planning for winter cities needs to consider a wider pallet of weather conditions, especially rain.

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  • 26.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Rizzo, Agatino
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Updating winter: the importance of climate-sensitive urban design for winter settlements2018In: Arctic Yearbook, ISSN 2298-2418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores winter settlement urban design principles to begin to identify climate related conditions that are affecting soft mobility (walking and cycling) in these communities.

    Winter communities have evolved lifestyles and means that fit with working and living with local conditions and seasonal variations. With climate change, however, comes evolving weather’s that these communities need to adapt too. These changes may present new risks and unexpected challenges to outdoor soft mobility in the community.

    Public policy highlights physical inactivity as a major health concern. For these communities, winter has always limited outdoor soft-mobility. Here, we understand that in winter outdoor activity can be reduced by weather and fear of accidents.

    People’s understanding of the barriers and enablers to soft mobility are also often based on experience and ability to detect environmental clues. To help winter communities maximise the opportunities for outdoor soft mobility and the wellbeing benefits this can bring, built environments need to be designed with an understanding of climate change. 

    This study explores barriers and enablers to soft mobility in winter and discusses them in light of climate change and human wellbeing. It is argued that established principles of urban design may require re-evaluation if we want to increase outdoor soft mobility in winter. Increases in physical activity could help reduce costs and pressures on health services by creating safer and more walkable communities. The paper concludes by suggesting that communities should focus on more context based winter urban design principles that account for ongoing climate change.

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  • 27.
    Cowan, Rob
    et al.
    Urban design skills.
    Adams, Scott
    Urban design skills.
    Chapman, David
    Urban design skills.
    Qualityreviewer: Appraising the design quality of development proposals2010Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preface Foreword Planning for quality How to use Qualityreviewer Part A: Qualityreviewer Understand the place Understand the proposal Understand the implementation Make the decision Qualityreviewer at a glance Part B: Thinking about design and quality Using diagrams Six sets of design qualities Part C: Quality reviewer in the planning process Pre-application discussions Effective design statements Outline and full planning applications Beyond assessment Appendices

  • 28.
    Cowan, Rob
    et al.
    Urban design skills.
    Chapman, David
    Urban design skills.
    Adams, Scott
    Urban design skills.
    Huxford, Robert
    Urban Design Group and Esther Kurland of Urban Design London.
    Capacitycheck: Urban design skills appraisal2008Book (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Cowan, Rob
    et al.
    Urban Initiatives.
    Hill, Daniel
    Urban Initiatives.
    Campbell, Kelvin
    Start with the park: Creating sustainable urban green spaces in areas of housing growth and renewal2005Book (Refereed)
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  • 30.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lindelöw, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilson, Finn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Resultat workshops om forskningsprogram om planering för gångtrafik2024Report (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Johansson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lindelöw, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nilsson, Finn
    Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sverige.
    Berggård, Glenn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Förstudie för Centrum för planering för Gång2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är resultatet av en förstudie för projektförslaget Centrum för Planering för Gång, hädanefter kallat Forskningsprogrammet Planering för Gång. Syftet med det tilltänkta forskningsprogrammet är att arbeta med transportslaget gång enligt de två övergripande projektmålen att öka kunskapen om (1) hur gångtrafiken kan öka och (2) hur trafikslagets säkerhetssituation kan förbättra. Syftet är även att integrera dessa tillsammans, på ett systematiskt och tvärvetenskapligt sätt inom trafikplaneringen. Betydelsen av att ”färdas till fots” är bred i denna ansats, med fokus på att behandla det ”som ett transportsätt".

    I denna förstudie har tre seminarier genomförts för att identifiera forskningsämnen, partners, behovet och fokus av ett sammanhållet forskningsprogram avseende transportslaget gång och dess olika aspekter. De tre seminarierna har ordnats med deltagare från kommuner, Trafikverket och andra statliga aktörer, teknik- och designföretag/Innovationsföretagen m.fl. Denna förstudie avser således verksamhetsplanering för fortsatt Forskningsprogrammet Planering för Gång.

    Deltagarna till seminarierna valdes strategiskt ut från författarens professionella nätverk. Syftet var att inkludera ett stort antal olika intresseorganisationer, offentliga myndigheter och privata företag från hela Skandinavien. Totalt bjöds 162 personer in till de tre seminarierna, och totalt 68 personer deltog vid ett, två, eller alla tre seminarierna. De identifierade övergripande frågeställningarna eller perspektiven var:

    • Synen på gångtrafik och fotgängare

    Ett tydligt och genomgående tema eller perspektiv i seminarierna var den makthierarki som befästs inom trafikmiljön. Den dominerande synen är att motoriserad transport prioriteras, följt av cykling. Längst ned i hierarkin finns gång.

    • Samhällelig och rumslig planering

    Detta tema behandlar planering i en vid betydelse – på gatunivå ända upp till urban/regional nivå.Från både ett design-, säkerhets- och upplevelseperspektiv är mjuka värden såsom upplevelser, trygghet och estetik viktiga komponenter i relation till att uppmuntra transportslaget gång.

    • Data och indikatorer och data för uppföljning

    Oavsett om det handlar om exponeringsdata, skadedata, trygghetsdata eller framåtblickande indikatorer i relation till fotgängare finns stora brister i datakvalitet och definitioner. Bristen på data innebär i sin tur att utvärderingar av interventioner är svåra att genomföra.

    • Ansvar och organisation

    Behoven hos fotgängare, oavsett om dessa relaterar till underhåll, planering eller säkerhet, är spridda på många olika samhällsaktörer.

    • Brist på övergripande strategier och riktlinjer samt ett spretigt forskningsfält

    Trots det miljö- och hälsomässiga fördelarna av gång finns inga nationella strategier för hur antalet fotgängare ska öka eller hur mängden steg ska öka.

    • Socio-ekonomiska aspekteriv

    Då socio-ekonomiska faktorer är centrala för att förstå och förklara risk, exponering och beteendemönster är bristen på denna typ av kunskap problematiskt. Inte minst gäller detta i relation till planering, interventioner eller underhåll för att veta hur olika socioekonomiska grupper påverkas och deras möjlighet att gå (på ett säkert sätt).• Samhällsekonomiska effekterFör att fullt ut förstå gångens fulla effekt på individer och samhälle behövs en mer sammansatt förståelse av transportslaget gångs effekter på samhällets kostnader och vinster.

    • En övergripande modell

    Utöver perspektiven ovan identifierades också ett övergripande perspektiv – relationen mellan individen, klimatet och dess omkringliggande (byggda) miljö.

    Vår målsättning är att Forskningsprogrammet Planering för Gång ska bli ett nationellt kunskapsprogram för forskning och utbildning om transportslaget gång och fotgängare. Grunden för vår verksamhetsidé är att forskningsprogrammet ska vara öppet för alla relevanta aktörer och intressenter för kunskapsutbyte och innovation för transportslaget gång och fotgängare. Forskningsprogrammet Planering för Gång ska öka det tvärvetenskapliga samarbetet, arbeta för långsiktig kunskapsuppbyggnad, knyta forskningen närmare samhället och uppfylla följande syften om transportslaget gång och fotgängare:

    • Att möta samhällets utmaningar och aktörernas behov genom tillämpad forskning och utveckling samt spridning av kunskap.
    • Att bygga upp en långsiktig, konkurrenskraftig och sammanhållen kompetens inom transportslaget gång och fotgängare genom forskning, utbildning och professionell erfarenhet.
    • Att skapa en plattform för excellent och innovativ forskning.

    Baserat på utredningen ovan är förslaget att organisationsformen för ett framtida ”center” är forskningsprogram. Detta ger de tydligaste förutsättningarna gällande både organisation och hantering av ekonomi. Organisationsformen forskningsprogram ger även möjlighet till den mest inkluderande ansatsen, olika typer av professionella organisationer kan delta, och det blir tydligt hur och när eventuell medfinansiering kan ske, samt hur avtal för det kan tas fram.

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  • 32.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Berglund, Lotta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Project: Health on thin ice - urban planning for good helth in cold climates2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stadsplaneringen i kallt klimat och dess betydelse för god hälsa diskuterades när forskare från Sverige, Norge och Finland träffades på Wibergsgården, Luleå tekniska universitet (LTU), i slutet av februari. -Vi har en het idé om god hälsa i kallt klimat, säger Catrine Kostenius, biträdande professor i hälsovetenskap vid Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.Tillsammans med Kristina Nilsson, professor i arkitektur, LTU, var hon värd för evenemanget tillsammans med projektledare Mia Tossavianen.Den tvärvetenskapliga forskargruppen har deltagare från LTU, Trondheim Norwegian University of Science och Oulu University i Finland.Samarbetet mellan forskargrupperna i Hälsopromotionsgruppen och Arkitektur har gjort ett pilotprojekt med innevånare och yrkesverksamma inom stadsplanering och hälsovård i Luleå och Pajala kommuner.De har nu gått samman med forskarkollegor från Finland, Norge och Sverige, och nästa steg är att använda delade kunskaper och erfarenheter från att utveckla en metod för att planera stadsmiljön för god hälsa i kallt klimat.- Det känns väldigt spännande att samarbeta med våra grannländer för utbyta goda erfarenheter och med förenade krafter utveckla användbara metoder som kombinerar hälsa och stadsplanering, säger Kristina Nilsson.

  • 33.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Changing risks to outdoor activity in the Arctic: Resilience to climate-related community change2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic communities have over generations evolved lifestyles that fit with working and living with local conditions and seasonal variations. With climate change, however, comes evolving and unknown weather’s that these communities need to adapt too. These environmental changes may present new risk and unexpected outcomes to outdoor activity that communities will need to address.

    In subarctic regions, pedestrians encounter a variety of road or pavement surface conditions, such as snow, ice, melting ice or mixed icy and snowy surfaces.  Slips and falls are a significant cause of work- and leisure-time accidents. The costs for medical care of fall-related injury treatment is high. Fear can also result in physical inactivity which is a significant population health concern worldwide. 

    This presentation highlights the traditional risks associated with outdoor activity in winter and how they are changing with climate change. It does this through the analysis of survey responses about the use of outdoor public space. The survey is from 1) 344 people in the city of Luleå Sweden (Dfc climate classification area), and 2) 325 responses from people living in Dfb and Dfc climate areas across the world, e.g. Canada.

    At a societal level, this change suggests that new forms of sustainable development and public policy are needed. These could help reduce costs and pressures on the health services by creating safer and more walkable arctic communities. Here costs and benefits related to inactivity and injury are high and affect both the individual and society as a whole.

  • 34.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Outdoor human environments: the changing face of climatic barriers to soft mobility and gathering in winter communities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In Arctic regions, generations have evolved lifestyles that fit with working and living with local conditions and seasonal variations. With emerging climate changes new risks appear and prior individual experiences based on preconceptions of risk may not remain valid. In everyday life, soft-mobility is required in varying conditions, such as ice and snow covered surfaces, darkness, extreme weather conditions. Inability to detect environmental clues to risk is a critical aspect for injury. Also, fear and activity avoidance lead to an increased risk of physical inactivity, a significant population health concern worldwide. Methods: An explorative survey, on subjective ratings of barriers to 1) soft mobility and 2) the use of outdoor public space in winter was performed. The EAMQ –Climate survey, tailored for climatic sensitive urban design research, include dimensions of distance, ambient and terrain, and a range of weather conditions found in winter, such as sun, coldness, wind, ice and ground surface properties (ice, snow, slush). Respondents were 1) 344 people in Northern Sweden, and 2) 361 people in Canada and Scandinavia. Results: The results highlight that rain, icy surfaces and darkness are today’s most significant barriers to soft-mobility in winter. For the use of outdoor public spaces, the most significant barriers were slushy and icy surfaces, rain precipitation and darkness. Conclusions: The traditional risks associated with outdoor activity in winter are changing with climate change. Future urban design and planning for safer and more walkable winter cities need to consider a more extensive pallet of weather conditions.

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  • 35.
    Larsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Chapman, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Perceived impact of meteorological conditions on the use of public space in winter settlements2020In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 631-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to assess the impact of meteorological conditions on the use of public space in Scandinavia and Canada. Between September 21 and December 18, 2017, a cross-sectional online survey ‘EAMQ-Climate: space’ was distributed via web-based platforms. Survey responses were received from 361 residents (258 people from Scandinavia and 103 from Canada). The relative impact of the meteorological determinants on the use of public space was calculated, and a factor analysis was performed. Disparities between Canada and Scandinavia as well as between the climate zones represented were analysed using ANOVA. Overall results showed that the most significant meteorological enablers for the use of outdoor public spaces in winter were solar gain, snowfall and snow-covered surfaces. The main barriers were slush-covered and icy surfaces, rainfall and darkness. Wind and cold were conditions with less influence. The impact of rain and ice, however, differed between climatic zones. It was also established that, when addressing the meteorological impact on avoiding the use of public spaces in winter, it is vital to discriminate between conditions related to a) the ground surface and b) ambient conditions, as well as the particular significance of c) snow and sun, and d) darkness. For the design of public space in winter cities, we conclude that designers need to focus on a wider range of weather conditions than sun, wind and cold, and include snow, rainfall, slushy and icy ground and poor visibility. The study suggests that winter public space has a higher climatic design requirement to be successful than streets and pathways that are mainly used for soft mobility.

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