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  • 1.
    Öhman, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    3D localization in digital holography from scattered light from micrometer-sized particles2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a particle is illuminated by a beam of light it will scatter and redistribute the light in all directions. How it scatters depends on the size, shape and refractive index of the particle. Additionally, it depends on the wavelength and polarization of the illuminating beam. The direction and distance to the observer relative the particle also needs to be considered.  A digital holographic imaging system is used to collect parts of the scattered light from micrometer-sized particles. By utilizing digital holography a three-dimensional reconstruction of the imaged scene is possible. Traditionally, particles are localized based on the intensity in the holographic reconstructions. In this licentiate thesis, the phase response of the scattered light is investigated and utilized. An alternative method for locating spherical particles is presented. The method locate particles based on a simple feature of a propagating wave, namely the fact that the wavefront curvature changes from converging to diverging at the axial location of the particle. The wavefront curvature is estimated using two different methods. The first method estimates the lateral phase-gradients using a finite-difference method. The second method uses a three-dimensional parametric model based on a Chebyshev polynomial expansion. The methods are demonstrated using both simulations and experimental measurements. The simulations are based on the Lorenz-Mie scattering theory for spherical particles and are combined with an imaging system model. Experiments are performed using an off-axis polarization sensitive digital holographic system with a coherent Nd:YAG laser. Measurements of stationary particles are made to validate and evaluate the proposed method. It is found that these methods estimate the true axial position and does not have the offset that is associated with intensity-based methods. Additionally, it is possible to exclude noise that shows up as false particles since noise does not have the same phase response as a real particle. The second method, that uses a parametric model, also improves the standard deviation in the positioning.

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  • 2.
    Öhman, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Polarization-Resolved Particle Holography2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, measurement of particle fields using digital holography is the main subject. The questions investigated consider positioning, identification and sizing of nanometer and micrometer particles. The thesis explore these topics using both simulations and experimental measurements. Measuring particles is inherently a three-dimensional problem. Digital holography is, therefore, chosen as the measurement technique since it can record three-dimensional information in the interference pattern.

    Two main digital holographic setups are considered in this work, one single-view and one dual-view, both with off-axis configuration for the reference wave. Methods for positioning along the optical axis is the central question for the single-view system. This work presents a new method for axial positioning based on the wavefront curvature of the scattered light. In the reconstructed volume, along the optical axis, the scattered wave changes from converging to diverging around its location. This assumption is verified using simulations. An estimation of the position where this change occurs, hence, is an estimation of the actual axial position. Two different methods for quantification of the wavefront curvature is presented. The first uses the finite difference method of the reconstructed phase. The second uses a Chebyshev model for the phase-response. The difference between the two methods is that the one based on the Chebyshev model is more robust and less sensitive to noise.

    The dual-view system is an extension of the single-view setup where an identical system is placed perpendicular with the first system. The sample is illuminated from below, making the angle between the illumination and the two systems $90^\circ$. The concept of polarization-resolved registration is also incorporated in the detection. This detection is made possible by using two reference waves with linear and mutually orthogonal polarization at different off-axis tilts. One hologram can, therefore, be reconstructed into two complex amplitudes, one for each polarization component. The measurements using this system focus on how particle properties influence the polarization-response. The transition from single to dual-view polarization-resolved detection increases the complexity in the reconstruction. There is a need for accurate calibrations for this type of setup. The thesis contains details on calibrations of both the spatial mapping and polarization detection.

    The first application of the dual-view polarization-resolved setup is for identification and size estimation of nanometer-sized particles. The T-matrix method is used to establish a model for the sizing of spherical and spheroid particles. It is possible to estimate the size unambiguously up to approximately 200 nm for smooth particles. The sizing is limited to this lower size range.

    The second application investigates how the detected polarization varies for different kinds of microplastics. The measurements show that the microplastics have a complex polarization-response, indicating an irregular and non-spherical shape. In general, for both sizing and identification, the problem becomes more complex as the size increases and the particle shape is less smooth.

    This thesis shows that it is possible to estimate particle information from the polarization-response. However, the method is constricted both by the size and complexity of the particles.

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  • 3.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Polarization-resolved dual-view holographic system for 3D inspection of scattering particles2019In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 58, no 34, p. G31-G40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel dual-view polarization-resolved pulsed holographic system for particle measurements is presented. Both dual-view configuration and polarization-resolved registration are well suited for particle holography. Dual-view registration improves the accuracy in the detection of 3D position and velocities, and polarization-resolved registration provides polarization information about individual particles. The necessary calibrations are presented, and aberrations are compensated for by mapping the positions in the two views to positions in a global coordinate system. The system is demonstrated on a sample consisting of 7 μm spherical polystyrene particles dissolved in water in a cuvette. The system is tested with different polarizations of the illumination. It is found that the dual view improves the accuracy significantly in particle tracking. It is also found that by having polarization-resolved holograms, it is possible to separate naturally occurring sub-micrometer particles from the larger, 7 μm seeding particles.

  • 4.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Axial Particle Positioning by Wavefront Parameterization using Chebyshev Polynomials and Off-axis Digital Holography2017In: Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Imaging, Washington: The Optical Society , 2017, article id M4A.3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A particle can be axially positioned where its scattered light has a plane wavefront. The phase anomaly compared to a plane wave is fitted to 3D Chebyshev polynomial, where coefficients correspond to the axial position.

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  • 5.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Identification, tracking, and sizing of nano-sized particles using dual-view polarization-resolved digital holography and T-matrix modeling2020In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 59, no 14, p. 4548-4556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we demonstrate how polarization-resolved holography can be used to determine if a particle is spherical or not and to estimate the size information of nanoparticles. The T-matrix method is used to model the scattered light from both spheres and spheroids. A dual-view polarization-resolved imaging system is used in order to obtain polarization ratio angles (β₁,β₂). From the obtained β₁ and β₂, it is possible to estimate whether or not a particle is spherical or not. It is found that non-sphericity only has a minor effect up to around sizes of 120nm, and for that range, a spherical approximation is valid. For larger particles, the orientation influence the polarization response greatly. The size of a non-spherical particle can be estimated from the polarization ratio angles. The upper limit we can estimate unambiguously is around 200nm. Finally, the model is applied to experimental measurements of naturally occurring particles in purified water. From the measurements, it is possible to separate spherical from non-spherical particles and also give a rough estimate of the size.

  • 6.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Improved particle position accuracy from off-axis holograms using a Chebyshev model2018In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 57, no 1, p. A157-A163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Side scattered light from micrometer-sized particles is recorded using an off-axis digital holographic setup. From holograms, a volume is reconstructed with information about both intensity and phase. Finding particle positions is non-trivial, since poor axial resolution elongates particles in the reconstruction. To overcome this problem, the reconstructed wavefront around a particle is used to find the axial position. The method is based on the change in the sign of the curvature around the true particle position plane. The wavefront curvature is directly linked to the phase response in the reconstruction. In this paper we propose a new method of estimating the curvature based on a parametric model. The model is based on Chebyshev polynomials and is fit to the phase anomaly and compared to a plane wave in the reconstructed volume. From the model coefficients, it is possible to find particle locations. Simulated results show increased performance in the presence of noise, compared to the use of finite difference methods. The standard deviation is decreased from 3–39 μm to 6–10 μm for varying noise levels. Experimental results show a corresponding improvement where the standard deviation is decreased from 18 μm to 13 μm.

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  • 7.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Off-axis digital holographic particle positioning based on polarization-sensitive wavefront curvature estimation2016In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 55, no 27, p. 7503-7510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor axial resolution in holographic particle imaging applications makes particle positioning in 3D space morecomplex since the positions are not directly obtained. In this paper we estimate the axial position of micrometerparticles by finding the location where the wavefront curvature from the scattered light becomes zero. By record-ing scattered light at 90°using off-axis holography, the complex amplitude of the light is obtained. Byreconstruction of the imaged scene, a complex valued volume is produced. From this volume, phase gradientsare calculated for each particle and used to estimate the wavefront curvature. From simulations it is found that thewavefront curvature became zero at the true axial position of the particle. We applied this metric to track an axialtranslation experimentally using a telecentric off-axis holographic imaging system with a lateral magnification ofM1.33. A silicon cube with molded particles inside was used as sample. Holographic recordings are performedboth before and after a 100μm axial translation. From the estimated positions, it was found that the mean dis-placement of particles between recordings was 105.0μm with a standard deviation of 25.3μm.

  • 8.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Polarization Resolved Dual-View Holographic System for Investigation of Microparticles2019In: OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2019), 2019, article id Th2A.5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual-view polarization resolved digital-holographic system is presented. The necessary calibration for both polarization and spatial coordinates are outlined. As an example the system is is used to track spherical microparticles in a cuvette.

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  • 9.
    Öhman, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Österlund, Helene
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Nordqvist, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Polarization-Resolved Digital Holographic Measurements of MicroplasticsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-view digital holography is used to image samples of microplastics. The detection is polarization-resolved and produces, in total, four different intensities, one in each polarization direction on each camera. Ratio angles between all four components are calculated, and differences between the samples are investigated. This paper uses four different samples, particles from rubber tires, plastic bottles, coffee cups, and a reference sample. It is found that the data varies a lot for all samples. But when calculating the correlation coefficients differences between the samples are observed.

1 - 9 of 9
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