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  • 1.
    Butt, Mehwish
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Sharunova, Alyona
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Storga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Khan, Yasir Imtiaz
    Department of Computing, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.
    Qureshi, Ahmed Jawad
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Transdisciplinary Engineering Design Education: Ontology for a Generic Product Design Process2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 70, p. 338-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s highly integrated product development practices emphasize the need to transform the engineering education from disciplinary to transdisciplinary. This paper is based on the results of an empirical study designed to introduce a common transdisciplinary design process in engineering education. It aims to validate the hypothesis that engineering disciplines in education share a common engineering design process. It describes the methodology for the development of a Transdisciplinary Engineering Design Education Ontology (TEDEO) for eight major engineering disciplines. It proposes a high-level transdisciplinary engineering design process that consolidates a diverse array of engineering terms and concepts into a generalized model.

  • 2.
    Cascini, Gaetano
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Nagai, Yukari
    Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Japan.
    Georgiev, Georgi V.
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Zelaya, Jader
    Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi, Japan.
    Becattini, Niccolo
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Boujut, Jean François
    CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.
    Casakin, Hernan Pablo
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel.
    Crilly, Nathan
    Department of Engineering, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Dekoninck, Elies A.
    University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.
    Gero, John S.
    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, United States.
    Goel, Ashok K.
    Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States.
    Goldschmidt, Gabriela
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    Gonçalves, Milene
    Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Grace, Kazjon S.
    The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Hay, Laura
    Design, Manufacturing and Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Scotland.
    Le Masson, Pascal
    Mines ParisTech, Paris, France.
    Maher, Mary Lou
    The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, United States.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Motte, Damien
    Division of Product Development, Department of Design Sciences LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Papalambros, Panos Y.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, United States; University of Michigan, Livonia, United States.
    Sosa, Ricardo
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand; Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Srinivasan, Venkatamaran V.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Tversky, Barbara
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, United States; Columbia University, New York, United States.
    Yannou, Bernard
    Laboratoire Génie Industriel, Chatenay-Malabry, France; CentraleSupélec - Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Universite Paris-Saclay, Saint-Aubin, France.
    Wodehouse, Andrew J.
    University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Perspectives on design creativity and innovation research: 10 years later2022In: International Journal of Design Creativity and Innovation, ISSN 2165-0349, E-ISSN 2165-0357, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-30Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 3.
    Cash, Philip J.
    et al.
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Stanković, Tino
    Engineering Design and Computing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich.
    Štorga, Mario
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb.
    An introduction to experimental design research2016In: Experimental Design Research: Approaches, Perspectives, Applications / [ed] Philip Cash, Tino Stanković, Mario Štorga, Springer, 2016, , p. 270p. 3-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained in importance as the field has matured. As in other evolving disciplines, e.g. behavioural psychology, this maturation brings with it ever-greater scientific and methodological demands (Reiser 1939; Dorst 2008). In particular, the experimental paradigm holds distinct and significant challenges for the modern design researcher. Thus, this book brings together leading researchers from across design research in order to provide the reader with a foundation in experimental design research; an appreciation of possible experimental perspectives; and insight into how experiments can be used to build robust and significant scientific knowledge. This chapter sets the stage for these discussions by introducing experimental design research, outlining the various types of experimental approach, and explaining the role of this book in the wider methodological context

  • 4.
    Cash, Philip J.
    et al.
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Stanković, Tino
    bEngineering Design and Computing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich.
    Štorga, Mario
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb.
    Experimental design research: Approaches, perspectives, applications2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational understanding is becoming increasingly tenuous, calling for a multidisciplinary and transdiscipinary perspective. Experimental design research thus offers a powerful tool and platform for resolving these challenges. Providing an invaluable resource for the design research community, this book paves the way for the next generation of researchers in the field by bridging methods and methodology. As such, it will especially benefit postgraduate students and researchers in design research, as well as engineering designers.

  • 5.
    Cash, Philip J.
    et al.
    Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Stanković, Tino
    Engineering Design and Computing Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich.
    Štorga, Mario
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb.
    Preface2016In: Experimental Design Research: Approaches, Perspectives, Applications / [ed] Philip Cash, Tino Stanković, Mario Štorga, Springer, 2016, , p. 270p. VII-VIIIChapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained in importance as the field has matured. As in other evolving disciplines, e.g. behavioural psychology, this maturation brings with it ever-greater scientific and methodological demands (Reiser 1939; Dorst 2008). In particular, the experimental paradigm holds distinct and significant challenges for the modern design researcher. Thus, this book brings together leading researchers from across design research in order to provide the reader with a foundation in experimental design research; an appreciation of possible experimental perspectives; and insight into how experiments can be used to build robust and significant scientific knowledge. This chapter sets the stage for these discussions by introducing experimental design research, outlining the various types of experimental approach, and explaining the role of this book in the wider methodological context

  • 6.
    Cash, Philip J.
    et al.
    Department of Management Engineering, DTU Technical University of Denmark.
    Storga, Mario
    University of Zagreb.
    Multifaceted assessment of ideation: using networks to link ideation and design activity2015In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 26, no 10-12, p. 391-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ideation is core to the innovation process, and has been the subject of study across a range of fields, from psychology to engineering. However, despite substantial progress in outcome-based descriptions of idea generation, research has often resulted in more questions than answers. For example, open questions remain with respect to the differences in behaviour related to ideation between novices and experts, the change in rates of ideation over time in different design teams, and the changing role of ideation from conceptual to detailed design. In each of these cases, robust explanation has proved elusive due to difficulties in characterising the ideation process itself. This paper discusses a major new approach for elucidating ideation and its related design processes through direct observation. A novel network visualisation approach is demonstrated in practice for the first time. This uses network analysis to link ideas dynamically to both the engineering context and the wider design process. This linking analysis gives a substantial new insight into what drives ideation and how previously inscrutable results can potentially be explained by linking ideation into other design processes.

  • 7.
    Cash, Philip
    et al.
    DTU Management, DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Škec, Stanko
    DTU Management, DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark. Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croati.
    The dynamics of design: exploring heterogeneity in meso-scale team processes2019In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 64, p. 124-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a critical gap in understanding how meso-scale team processes - interactions between individuals in a team - develop in design teams and specifically how they dynamically balance design with managerial effort. We treat this deficit by contrasting two in-depth cases using work sampling data. We identify a number of contributions. First, we describe how design team processes display both goal/action and temporal heterogeneity. Second, we demonstrate how this heterogeneity is underpinned by common principles that consistently shape team processes in design. Specifically: proportional goal/action composition and recurring process patterns over time. Finally, we describe how these principles can be integrated via ‘archetypal process types’. Together, these substantially extend prior theory and point to specific implications for future design research.

  • 8.
    Horvat, Nikola
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kunnen, Steffen
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Product Engineering, Duisburg, Germany.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Nagarajah, Arun
    University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute for Product Engineering, Duisburg, Germany.
    Škec, Stanko
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Immersive virtual reality applications for design reviews: Systematic literature review and classification scheme for functionalities2022In: Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN 1474-0346, E-ISSN 1873-5320, Vol. 54, article id 101760Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of immersive virtual reality (IVR) applications for design reviews is a major trend in the design field. While many different applications have been developed, there is little consensus on the functionalities necessary for these applications. This paper proposes a classification scheme for IVR functionalities related to design reviews (DRs), combining conceptual-to-empirical and empirical-to-conceptual strategies. The classification scheme consists of eight class categories (Input, Representation, Navigation, Manipulation, Collaboration, Edit, Creation, and Output), 22 class subcategories, and 55 classes. The classification scheme has been validated by analysing several commercial IVR applications for DRs. As part of the classification scheme development, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was utilised to review 70 articles that develop IVR applications for DRs. The results from systematic literature reviews suggest the development of solutions that integrate several class categories, are better connected to current design workflows, include various design information, support a DR planning cycle, and support distributed work. The proposed classification scheme helps to orient the future development of IVR applications for DRs and provides a framework to systematically accumulate evidence on the effect of such applications on DRs.

  • 9.
    Lukačević, Fanika
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Škec, Stanko
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Challenges of Utilizing Sensor Data Acquired by Smart Products in Product Development Activities2022In: Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, ISSN 1785-8860, E-ISSN 2064-2687, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 165-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging digital technologies enable capturing of a product’s digital footprint through continuous monitoring of its performance, usage, and working environment while using data acquired by its embedded sensors. However, it seems that product development (PD) teams, within engineering companies, have not yet embraced the usage of sensor data acquired by smart products (SPs) when conducting PD activities. This study discusses several challenges that hinder a broader utilization of SP's sensor data, within PD. In addition to the literature review, the discussion is supported with empirical data gathered through a qualitative exploratory case study conducted in a large engineering and manufacturing company. As a result, three challenges are outlined. First, it is challenging for the company's management and PD team to gain transparency over the benefits of sensor data utilization for PD. Second, solutions providing accessibility and visualization of gathered data should be tailored to the PD activities and teams, which requires a holistic understanding. Finally, it is suggested that new skills, roles and processes should be introduced, in order to enable SP's sensor data utilization, within PD activities. 

  • 10.
    Lukačević, Fanika
    et al.
    Chair of Design and Product Development, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Škec, Stanko
    Chair of Design and Product Development, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    Chair of Design and Product Development, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Horvat, Nikola
    Chair of Design and Product Development, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Chair of Design and Product Development, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Spatial Perception of 3D CAD Model Dimensions and Affordances in Virtual Environments2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 174587-174604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design understanding and needed level of the accompanying spatial skills that enable it depend on information input provided by a visual representation of a design solution. During product development, designers use models to visually represent a design solution. These visual representations can be mediated by various technologies (for example, an immersive virtual reality (IVR) technology or 2D user interfaces such as a monitor display), providing designers with different types of information. Capabilities of an IVR technology such as stereopsis, eye-height reference, spatial updating, and multimodal interaction, have shown a potential to mitigate the cognitive load and the need for highly developed spatial skills enabling design understanding. Nevertheless, specific design understanding aspects for which IVR technology may be beneficial over conventional 2D user interfaces are yet to be clarified. The conducted experiment aimed to explore differences in designers’ spatial perception of spatial properties and relations (affordances) of a design solution in virtual environments (VEs). The design solution was presented by a 3D CAD model in immersive virtual environment (IVE) and non-immersive virtual environment (nIVE). IVE was mediated using the IVR technology (head-mounted display; HMD), while nIVE using the conventional 2D user interface (a monitor display, a mouse, and a keyboard). Results indicate that engineering students more accurately perceive spatial properties in the IVE than nIVE. Besides, it is suggested that the likelihood of making the correct judgment of the affordance is similar in both VEs.

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  • 11.
    Lukačević, Fanika
    et al.
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10 000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Škec, Stanko
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10 000, Zagreb, Croatia. DTU Management, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Törlind, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Ivana Lučića 5, 10 000, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Identifying subassemblies and understanding their functions during a design review in immersive and non-immersive virtual environments2021In: Frontiers of Engineering Management, ISSN 2095-7513, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 412-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design review (DR) is a product development (PD) activity used to inspect the technical characteristics of a design solution. Immersive virtual reality (IVR) technology enables the presentation of spatial information and interaction with 3D CAD models inside an immersive virtual environment (IVE). Such capabilities have shown the potential to mitigate the cognitive load needed for the visual perception of spatial information and, consequently, enhance design understanding and DR performance. Thus, an increasing number of studies have explored the effect of IVR technology on DR activities in different domains. However, determining when the implementation of IVR technology rather than a conventional user interface for DRs in mechanical engineering PD projects will be beneficial remains unclear. Hence, a conceptual DR experimental study was conducted to investigate the differences in the ability of engineering students to identify mechanisms and understand their functions when a design solution for a technical system is presented in an IVE by IVR technology and in a non-immersive virtual environment (nIVE) by a conventional user interface (monitor display, keyboard, and mouse). Data were collected by performing DR tasks and having participants complete a prior experience questionnaire, presence questionnaire, and mental rotations test. Findings of the study indicate that IVR does not support an enhanced ability of engineering students to identify mechanisms and understand their functions compared with a conventional user interface.

  • 12.
    Mansouri, Mo
    et al.
    School of Systems and Enterprises, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA; Department of Science and Industry Systems, University of South-Eastern Norway, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Dynamics and Emergence: Case Examples from Literature2022In: Handbook of Engineering Systems Design / [ed] Anja Maier, Josef Oehmen, Pieter E. Vermaas, Springer, 2022, 1, p. 557-592Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of emergence has roots in systems complexity and dynamics, with prominent impact in contemporary science and in design, analysis, and governance of complex engineering systems. It is almost impossible to effectively model emergence within the dynamics of systems, due to the obscurity of its nature and imperfection of our information on its relational systemic interactions. Thus, paying attention to basic meta-questions about emergent properties of complex engineering systems is crucially important in understanding both the trajectories of evolution of systems and correspondingly the patterns of system behaviour. From this trajectorial/behavioural perspective, emergence and dynamics are considered as very close concepts: understanding the variables of one can be realised by tracing and modelling the other. This chapter reviews and summarises the topics of emergence and dynamics through their applications in six case examples. Six studies conducted by researchers around the world are selected, representing a portfolio of cases studied with multiple theoretical foundations, levels of scope, application domains of engineering systems design, phenomena of emergence, and modelling methods used that detect and identify emergence through dynamics. The case reviews provide a gateway to comprehending emergence in systems through emphasising the dynamics of interactions.

  • 13.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    et al.
    Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Škec, Stanko
    Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia;Technical University of Denmark, DTU Management Engineering, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Horvat, Nikola
    Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    A state-transition model of team conceptual design activity2019In: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 103-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to model the micro-scale process patterns which can be identified during team conceptual design activities. A state-transition model has been developed and used to empirically investigate the patterns of design operations during two types of team conceptual design activities: ideation and concept review. The presented work builds on the perception of design problems as ill-defined and implies that conceptual design activities involve the simultaneous development of problems and solutions using three distinctive design operations—analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The three design operations have been defined as fine-grain design steps performed by design teams when exploring the content of both the problem and the solution dimensions of the design space. Moreover, design operations have been conceptualised as transitions between states of the explored design space, thus providing a basis for the state-transition model. The model’s ability to map and visualise proportions of design operation sequences emerging during ideation and concept review has facilitated the identification of both the activity-specific patterns and patterns that were likely to appear during both types of empirically investigated activities. The two activities exhibited similar patterns, such as alternation of solution synthesis and analysis, sequences of synthesis, analysis and evaluation within solution space, and the potential co-evolution episodes. Nevertheless, divergent traits have been identified for ideation, and convergent traits for concept review, based on the significant differences in proportions of design operations and their sequences.

  • 14.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Škec, Stanko
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Lukačević, Fanika
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modelling proportions and sequences of operations in team design activities2021In: Proceedings of the Design Society, Cambridge University Press, 2021, Vol. 1:ICED21, p. 2187-2196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research aims at modelling and formalising the process of team design activity as an interplay between the evolution of design problems and solutions. The motivation founds primarily on a presumption that there exist regularities in designing which can be captured and formalised using the appropriate models. The study thus investigates whether the identified design operation proportions and sequence probabilities are consistent throughout the different parts of team conceptual design activities. It does so by exploring the utility of mathematical models built based on the correlations and statistically significant sequences underlying the previously identified designing patterns. The developed mathematical model was tested by replicating moving-average analyses of design operation proportions and sequences, which were originally observed in the protocol analysis study. A close fit was found between the simulated and the observed data, particularly in providing insights regarding operation patterns and proportion trends. The presented models and modelling methodology are potentially an appropriate means for the next steps in describing, and consequently predicting and supporting team design activity dynamics.

  • 15.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    et al.
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Škec, Stanko
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Revisiting Problem-Solution Co-Evolution in the Context of Team Conceptual Design Activity2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 18, article id 6303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conventional prescriptive and descriptive models of design typically decompose the overall design process into elementary processes, such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. This study revisits some of the assumptions established by these models and investigates whether they can also be applied for modelling of problem-solution co-evolution patterns that appear during team conceptual design activities. The first set of assumptions concerns the relationship between performing analysis, synthesis, and evaluation and exploring the problem and solution space. The second set concerns the dominant sequences of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, whereas the third set concerns the nature of transitions between the problem and solution space. The assumptions were empirically tested as part of a protocol analysis study of team ideation and concept review activities. Besides revealing inconsistencies in how analysis, synthesis, and evaluation are defined and interpreted across the literature, the study demonstrates co-evolution patterns, which cannot be described by the conventional models. It highlights the important role of analysis-synthesis cycles during both divergent and convergent activities, which is co-evolution and refinement, respectively. The findings are summarised in the form of a model of the increase in the number of new problem and solution entities as the conceptual design phase progresses, with implications for both design research and design education.

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  • 16.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    et al.
    University of Zagreb.
    Škec, Stanko
    University of Zagreb.
    Storga, Mario
    University of Zagreb.
    Exploring the decomposition of team design activity2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Salustri F.,Skec S.,Maier A.M.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Van der Loos M., The Design Society, 2017, p. 229-238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Presented research explores the nature of teamwork activity in the conceptual design phase with an aim to unfold the patterns of team behaviour during execution of a specific design task. Teamwork activity process is observed as a sequence of analysis, synthesis and evaluation design operations applied to the problem and solution spaces. Design operations are used to represent abstract and fine-granularity steps of exploring and modifying the problem-solution space. Protocol study was conducted to investigate if teamwork activity can be decomposed into patterns of design operations and problem-solution alternation. Brainstorming sessions of two design teams were coded by employing an operation-based coding scheme. Protocol segmentation revealed the distribution of design operations and problemsolution related discussion, as well as the distribution of transitions between design operations. The emphasis is placed on the cycles of synthesis and analysis that appear within both problem and solution space, but also in-between the two spaces, thus indicating the co-evolution of the problem-solution space. These findings support and complement what has been reported in the literature.

  • 17.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    et al.
    University of Zagreb.
    Škec, Stanko
    University of Zagreb; Technical University of Denmark (DTU).
    Šklebar, Jelena
    University of Zagreb.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. University of Zagreb.
    Applying Engineering Design Ontology for Content Analysis of Team Conceptual Design Activity2019In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED19), Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 2467-2476Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of design activity have been dominantly reporting on different aspects of the design process, rather than the content of designing. The aim of the presented research has been the development and application of an approach for a fine-grain analysis of the design content communicated between designers during the team conceptual design activities. The proposed approach builds on an engineering design ontology as a foundation for the content categorisation. Two teams have been studied using the protocol analysis method. The coded protocols offered fine-grain descriptions of the content communicated at different points in the design session and enabled comparison of teams’ approaches and deriving some generalisable findings. For example, it has been shown that both teams focused primarily on the use of the developed product and the operands within the technical process, in order to generate new technical solutions and initial component design. Moreover, teams exhibit progress from abstract to concrete solutions as the sessions proceeded and focused on the functional requirements towards the end of the sessions.

  • 18.
    Midžic, Ida
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture.
    Storga, Mario
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture.
    Eco-evaluation in conceptual design phase: a case study2015In: Transactions of Famena, ISSN 1333-1124, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 47-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of qualitative eco-evaluation methods for product concept eco-evaluation is explored in a case study where mechanical engineers performed an eco-evaluation of product concepts in a two-stage evaluation process. In the first stage of the case study, the evaluators were asked to evaluate the environmental friendliness of the product concepts and to rank the concepts accordingly. The obtained rankings were based upon subjective preferences of the evaluators and their subjective interpretation of the eco-value of the considered concepts. In the second stage of the case study, the evaluators eco-evaluated the same concepts, but this time they used ecodesign guidelines as eco-criteria. The evaluators have obtained different rankings of the concepts, so the results of the two sets of rankings are compared. Findings are analysed in the context of confounding variables of the case study design.

  • 19.
    Midžic, Ida
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Department of Design and Product Development.
    Storga, Mario
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Department of Design and Product Development.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Department of Design and Product Development.
    Validation of the eco-transformity method2016In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN / [ed] Bojcetic N.,Marjanovic D.,Pavkovic N.,Storga M.,Skec S., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture , 2016, p. 371-380Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Osman, Kresimir
    et al.
    Termo Servis Ltd., Technical Department, Zagreb.
    Štorga, Mario
    University of Zagreb.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    University of Zagreb.
    An algorithm for behaviour prediction of complex technical systems2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Rotini F.,Cantamessa M.,Marjanovic D.,Weber C.,Husung S.,Cascini G., Glasgow: The Design Society, 2015, Vol. 7, p. 217-226Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the research presented in this paper is to develop an algorithm for predicting behaviour of complex technical systems in an uncertain working environment. System's dynamic behaviour modelling and simulation should help to develop new and improve existing architectures of complex technical systems by mapping in both directions, from the structural to the behavioural domain and vice versa. The algorithm for predicting behaviour during system's architecture development consists of several operations shortly described in this paper. The proposed algorithm was verified on an example of a complex technical system - an air-handling unit.

  • 21.
    Parraguez, Pedro
    et al.
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark .
    Piccolo, Sebastiano A.
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark .
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Maier, Anja M.
    DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark .
    Process Modularity Over Time: Modeling Process Execution as an Evolving Activity Network2021In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1867-1879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process modularity describes the extent to which processes can be decomposed into modules to be executed in parallel. So far, research has approached process modularity from a static perspective, not accounting for its temporal evolution. As a result, the understanding of process modularity has been limited to inferences drawn from aggregated analyses that disregard process execution. This article introduces and develops the notion of dynamic process modularity considering the evolving activity network structure as executed by people. Drawing on network science, the article quantifies process modularity over time using archival data from an engineering design process of a biomass power plant. This article shows how studying the temporal evolution of process modularity enables a more complete understanding of activity networks, facilitates the comparison of actual process modularity patterns against formal engineering design stages, and provides data-driven decision-support for process planning and interventions. Finally, managerial recommendations for interface management, resource allocation, and process decomposition are proposed, to help practitioners better to understand and manage dynamic processes.

  • 22.
    Penšic, M.M.
    et al.
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Department of Design.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Department of Design.
    Storga, Mario
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Department of Design.
    Kanduč, Tadej
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Department of Design.
    Agent-based simulation framework to support management of teams performing development activities2016In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN / [ed] Bojcetic N.,Marjanovic D.,Pavkovic N.,Storga M.,Skec S., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture , 2016, p. 1925-1936Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Perisic, Marija Majda
    et al.
    University of Zagreb.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    University of Zagreb.
    Storga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. University of Zagreb.
    Gero, John
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte; George Mason University .
    A Computational Study of the Effect of Experience on Problem/Solution Space Exploration in Teams2019In: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED19), Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 11-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of computational experiments aimed at studying the effect of experience on design teams’ exploration of problem-solution space. An agent-based model of a design team was developed and its capability to match theoretically-based predictions is tested. Hypotheses that (1) experienced teams need less time to find a solution and that (2) in comparison to the inexperienced teams, experienced teams spend more time exploring the solution-space than the problem-space, were tested. The results provided support for both of the hypotheses, demonstrating the impact of learning and experience on the exploration patterns in problem and solution space, and verifying the system's capability to produce the reliable results. 

  • 24.
    Perisic, Marija Majda
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, FSB, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Gero, John S.
    UNC Charlotte.
    Computational study on design space expansion during teamwork2021In: Proceedings of the Design Society, Cambridge University Press, 2021, Vol. 1:ICED21, p. 691-700Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When observing a design space expansion during teamwork, several studies found that cumulative solution-related issues' occurrence follows a linear trend. Such findings contradict the hypothesis of solution-related issues being characteristic for the later design stages. This work relies on agent-based simulations to explore the emerging patterns in design solution space expansion during teamwork. The results demonstrate trends that accord with the empirical findings, suggesting that a cognitive effort in solution space expansion remains constant throughout a design session. The collected data on agents' cognitive processes and solution space properties enabled additional insights, which led to the detection of four distinct regimes of design solution space expansion.

  • 25.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    et al.
    Department of Design, University of Zagreb.
    Storga, Mario
    Department of Design, University of Zagreb.
    Gero, John S.
    UNC Charlotte.
    Building a computational laboratory for the study of team behaviour in product development2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Salustri F.,Skec S.,Maier A.M.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Van der Loos M., The Design Society, 2017, Vol. 8, p. 189-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     As the result of the first phase of building a computational laboratory which is aimed to enable detail study of the emergent team properties and team behaviour in product development, this paper focuses on the design of a computational representation of a member of product development team. Since team members are often faced with the necessity to adjust to changes in their environment, the emphasis was put on modelling of human adaptive capacity. Specifically, the paper brings together the theoretical findings on mechanisms individuals use when faced with disruptions and introduces the architecture of an adaptable agent that can be used for studying adaptation of product development team. Building on the findings from psychology, sociology and cognitive science, the proposed agents are defined as cognitive, situated, affective and social. The proposed computational workbench is aimed to augment understanding of team processes prior, and in response to adaptation triggers in the context of product development projects, and should enable anticipation of possible pitfalls, enhance the development of design methodologies and tools, and provide guidelines for design education.

  • 26.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    et al.
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Gero, John
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA George Mason University, USA.
    Situated Novelty in Computational Creativity Studies2019In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Computational Creativity / [ed] Kazjon Grace; Michael Cook; Dan Ventura; Mary Lou Maher, Association for Computational Creativity (ACC) , 2019, p. 286-290Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper furthers the study of creative design by taking a situated view of novelty. A set of computational experiments is performed utilizing an agent-based model of a design team, and resulting data is used to examine the influence of a change in a situation (or a design frame) on the perception of a design’s novelty in terms of its difference from existing or possible designs. The experiments demonstrate that, over the course of designing, solutions which were regarded as novel, can become not novel. They also show that a solution which was not seen as novel in one situation can be assessed as novel when a situation changes. The results, therefore, emphasize the importance of studying novelty as a situated measure.

  • 27.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Croatia.
    Gero, John
    UNC Charlotte, USA.
    The Emergence and Impact of Synchrony in Design Teams: A Computational Study2023In: Proceedings of the Design Society, ICED 2023, Cambridge University Press , 2023, Vol. 3, p. 3385-3394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies revealed that, while collaborating, humans tend to synchronise on multiple levels (e.g., neurocognitive or physiological). Inter-brain synchrony has been linked to improved problem-solving, decision-making, and creativity. Nevertheless, studies on synchrony in design teams started to emerge only recently. This study contributes to this stream of research by utilising a computational model of a design team to explore the relationships between team cohesion, synchrony, and team performance. The experiments revealed a positive link between team cohesion level and the emergence of (cognitive) synchrony. Furthermore, cohesive teams were found to be more efficient, converging quicker and producing solutions at a higher rate. In addition, the diversity of the solutions generated by highly cohesive teams tends to increase over time. Teams in medium- and low-cohesive settings initially generate highly diverse solutions, but such diversity decreases as the simulation progresses. Finally, highly-cohesive teams were found to be prone to premature convergence.

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  • 28.
    Perišić, Marija Majda
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architectur.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architectur.
    Podobnik, Vedran
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing.
    Agent-Based Modelling and Simulation of Product Development Teams2018In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 524-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of product development highly depends on the quality of cooperation among members of a team involved in the process. Thus, a tool capable of simulating product development team may be beneficial for researchers interested in teamwork, as well as useful for managers struggling with team formation during process planning phase. This work aims at providing a detailed overview of agent-based simulators of product development teams. Specifically, the scientific databases Web of Science, Scopus, ACM DL, and IEEE were searched to extract relevant agent-based models of teamwork in mechanical engineering and aerospace context and obtained models were reviewed to identify their key advantages and limitations. 

  • 29.
    Smojver, Vladimir
    et al.
    Vehicle Center of Croatia, Vehicle Testing Department.
    Potočki, Eva
    University of Zagreb.
    Storga, Mario
    University of Zagreb.
    A visual analysis of technical knowledge evolution based on patent data2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Salustri F.,Skec S.,Maier A.M.,Kim H.,Kokkolaras M.,Oehmen J.,Fadel G.,Van der Loos M., The Design Society, 2017, p. 307-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge visualization can provide a narrative for understanding the dynamics of knowledge dissemination, synthesis and redistribution. The interactions between various knowledge instances is not cumulative, but spawns new knowledge instances. These knowledge instances can then spawn new knowledge instances. This is a process which cannot be controlled, but its dynamics can be understood through visualization. Using visualization, patterns of knowledge asset interactions that can lead to innovation and success, or conflict and failure, can be identified. In today's knowledge economy, organizations that operate in highly competitive market conditions have a need for up-to-date knowledge of emerging technologies. This research attempts to provide insight into a technology fields evolution by analysing how the content of patent claims changes over time. This is achieved by analysing keywords that occur in patent claims and using this data to create topics of interest addressed by patents

  • 30.
    Smojver, Vladimir
    et al.
    Vehicle Center of Croatia, Vehicle Testing Department.
    Storga, Mario
    Vehicle Center of Croatia, Department for Vehicle Testing.
    Potočki, Eva
    Vehicle Center of Croatia, Department for Vehicle Testing.
    An extended methodology for the assessment of technical invention evolution2016In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN / [ed] Bojcetic N.,Marjanovic D.,Pavkovic N.,Storga M.,Skec S., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture , 2016, p. 1135-1144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Smojver, Vladimir
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Potočki, Eva
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Determining the Life Cycle Phase of a Technology Based on Patent Data2019In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing new technologies is one of the most important goals of today’s scientific and industrial research. Understanding how technology evolves, as well as its current state, is invaluable in an ecosystem where technology is evolving at an increasingly rapid pace. In this paper, patent data is used to determine a technology’s life cycle. Two patent maps are created, one based on patent citations and one based on keywords. The citation patent map visualizes how patents cite each other, while the keyword patent maps visualize keywords used to describe patents and their relations. Both of these patent maps are dynamic, meaning they change over time thus giving insight into an examined technology’s evolution. A growth analysis of both networks is conducted as well as a degree distribution analysis. Both of these analyses are used to help determine the technology’s lifecycle phase as well as its patterns of growth. This insight is invaluable to stakeholders tasked to make strategic decisions related to technology development.

  • 32.
    Smojver, Vladimir
    et al.
    Center for Vehicles of Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia and the Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology. Department of Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Zovak, Goran
    Department of Traffic Accident Expertise, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Exploring knowledge flow within a technology domain by conducting a dynamic analysis of a patent co-citation network2021In: Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1367-3270, E-ISSN 1758-7484, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 433-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to present a methodology by which future knowledge flow can be predicted by predicting co-citations of patents within a technology domain using a link prediction algorithm applied to a co-citation network.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Several methods and approaches are used: a dynamic analysis of a patent citation network to identify technology life cycle phases, patent co-citation network mapping from the patent citation network and the application of link prediction algorithms to the patent co-citation network.

    Findings

    The results of the presented study indicate that future knowledge flow within a technology domain can be predicted by predicting patent co-citations using the preferential attachment link prediction algorithm. Furthermore, they indicate that the patent – co-citations occurring between the end of the growth life cycle phase and the start of the maturation life cycle phase contribute the most to the precision of the knowledge flow prediction. Finally, it is demonstrated that most of the predicted knowledge flow occurs in a time period closely following the application of the link – prediction algorithm.

    Practical implications

    By having insight into future potential co-citations of patents, a firm can leverage its existing patent portfolio or asses the acquisition value of patents or the companies owning them.

    Originality/value

    It is demonstrated that the flow of knowledge in patent co-citation networks follows a rich get richer intuition. Moreover, it is show that the knowledge contained in younger patents has a greater chance of being cited again. Finally, it is demonstrated that these co-citations can be predicted in the short term when the preferential attachment algorithm is applied to a patent co-citation network.

  • 33.
    Stevanović, Milan
    et al.
    Markot.tel, Product Development.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    Markot.tel, Product Development.
    Storga, Mario
    Markot.tel, Product Development.
    Managing the process of preparation for product development: Ideas assessment and evaluation2016In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN / [ed] Bojcetic N.,Marjanovic D.,Pavkovic N.,Storga M.,Skec S., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture , 2016, p. 1155-1164Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Stevanović, Milan
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Idea Assessment and Selection in Product Innovation: The Empirical Research Results2016In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1707-1716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of innovation takes significant resources, and therefore it is of great importance for companies to recognize the ideas with high innovation capacity as early as possible, and in a transparent manner, with the least necessary amount of expert knowledge. Current research indicates that companies often carry out the selection of ideas ad hoc or intuitively, and that only a small number of companies have defined the methods for ideas assessment and evaluation. In doing so, such problems as imprecise definition of the variables used in the evaluation process of the innovation capacities of ideas, undefined metrics and interaction variables will arise. In order to determine the practical points of view in this area, a study was conducted in the form of a survey on a representative sample of Croatian companies which have product innovation in their production program. The survey is aimed at determining what motivates companies to innovate, and the ways in which companies carry out the assessment and selection of ideas. Through a thorough study of the literature, a set of variables that are commonly used in the idea capacities assessment for product development have been defined, and the survey tried to establish the practical significance of individual variables for the participants of the process. This paper presents the results of the study.

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  • 35.
    Stevanović, Milan
    et al.
    Markot.tel d.o.o.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    Faculty of mechanical engineering and naval architecture, University of Zagreb.
    Štorga, Mario
    Faculty of mechanical engineering and naval architecture, University of Zagreb.
    Idea management in product innovation: The empirical research results2016In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1285-1294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitiveness of the economy to a large extent depends on its ability to innovate. There is a consensus between researchers and business practices on the high importance of innovation management process, particularly in the earliest stage when it is necessary to identify business opportunities and find the best possibilities for their realizations. In the process of innovation management, many authors emphasize the critical role of idea management and efficient ways of creating, gathering, evaluation, promotion, selection, and implementation of ideas. As part of the research project "Models and methods of knowledge management in product development", by the Croatian Ministry of science, education and sport, a survey was conducted on a sample of Croatian companies which have product development in their production process. The conducted survey attempted to determine the situation in the area of product innovation, as well as in the field of innovation and idea management in the economy and to compare data with best practices. The collected data show when and how the ideas are collected, which motives and purposes are drivers for the collection of ideas and how companies are organized and trained for this demanding job. This paper presents the results of the survey, which suggest ways to improve product development, and sources and methods of collecting ideas. Publication of the outcome of this and other research on product innovation aims to spread the knowledge about this very important but under-explored area

  • 36.
    Čeh, Ivan
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lučića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Delač, Goran
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    Agent-Based Modelling: Parallel and Distributed Simulation of Product Development Team2022In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 1424-1432Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful collaboration of team members plays a crucial role in product development. Research of different teamwork factors may help understand the process, and computer simulation can be a suitable method of achieving this goal. This work aims to give an overview of agent-based modelling of product development teams and survey existing models that tackle this problem. Some tools and frameworks for agent-based modelling will be described with an emphasis on parallel and distributed architectures which are used to improve performance and enable very big and complex simulations.

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  • 37.
    Đurić, Marko
    et al.
    Law Firm Porobija & Špoljarić LLC.
    Martinec, Tomislav
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture.
    Porobija, Marko
    Law Firm Porobija & Špoljarić LLC.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture.
    Designing for Legal Practitioners: Lessons Learned from Legal Tech Development and Implementation2023In: Proceedings of the Design Society, ICED 2023, Cambridge University Press , 2023, Vol. 3, p. 1377-1386Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the design and digitalisation approaches have become increasingly utilised in the legal context, typically under the names of legal design and legal tech. One of their goals is to help legal practitioners be more efficient and to provide better quality and more comprehensive legal services. Also, given that both movements rely heavily on participatory and co-design, they will require increased support not only from design practitioners but also from design researchers and educators. Therefore, this paper investigates, from a design research viewpoint, the opportunities and challenges of developing and implementing legal tech, with a particular focus on legal practitioners. It reports on four cases of designing legal tech solutions and their implementation in a law firm. The main insights are related to the importance of value perception through participatory and co-design, the need for efficient and effective testing methodologies, and the opportunity to test a wide range of design methods and tools in the legal context. The paper also complements the legal design and legal tech literature with additional arguments on why designing in the legal context is challenging compared to designing in other domains.

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  • 38.
    Škec, Stanko
    et al.
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Cash, Philip
    Department of Management Engineering, Technology Innovation Management, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design. University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineeirng and Naval Architecture.
    A dynamic approach to real-time performance measurement in design projects2017In: Journal of engineering design (Print), ISSN 0954-4828, E-ISSN 1466-1837, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 255-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in engineering design management point to the need for more dynamic, fine-grain measurement approaches able to deal with multi-dimensional, cross-level process performance in product design. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach to the measurement and management of individual and teamwork performance in engineering design projects. This integrates multiple, previously disparate, aspects of design management and performance measurement theory in a single framework. Further, a fully realised performance measurement approach is developed, which complements existing management strategies. This framework is synthesised from an extensive review and illustrated via an in-depth case study. As such, this work contributes to performance measurement theory in engineering design and has significant implications for both engineering design research and industry.

  • 39.
    Škec, Stanko
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Architecture, Department of Design and Product Devellopment.
    Storga, Mario
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Architecture, Department of Design and Product Devellopment.
    Antonic, I.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Architecture, Department of Design and Product Devellopment.
    Analysis of information behaviour in product development context2016In: Proceedings of International Design Conference, DESIGN / [ed] Bojcetic N.,Marjanovic D.,Pavkovic N.,Storga M.,Skec S., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture , 2016, p. 1605-1614Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Škec, Stanko
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering & Naval Architecture.
    Štorga, Mario
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Tečec Ribarić, Zlatka
    KONČAR Electrical Engineering Institute, Inc..
    Work Sampling of Product Development Activities2016In: Technical Gazette, ISSN 1330-3651, E-ISSN 1848-6339, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1547-1554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For effective management of development projects, it is necessary to take into consideration its socio-technical perspective – working processes, teamwork and features of the working environment. Data gathering about socio-technical aspects of the product development activities is often hampered by constraints of the actual working environment in R&D organizations. For that reason, to support practical data collection, the work sampling application for mobile phones has been introduced. The work sampling application consists of sequence of input screens with predefined input menus enabling data gathering about different aspects of the product development activity (such as work type, activity type, context, participants, execution manner, information transaction and motivation). For validation of the proposed application, the empirical study was carried out in the company whose research and development activities are focused on the systems for the generation, distribution and transformation of electrical energy.

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  • 41.
    Škec, Stanko
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Department of Design.
    Štorga, Mario
    University of Zagreb, Department of Design.
    Tečec Ribarić, Zlatka
    Koncar - Electrical Engineering Institute, Inc.
    Marjanović, Dorian
    University of Zagreb, Department of Design.
    Work sampling approach for measuring intellectual capital elements in product development context2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED / [ed] Rotini F.,Cantamessa M.,Marjanovic D.,Weber C.,Husung S.,Cascini G., Glasgow: The Design Society, 2015, Vol. 3, p. 457-466Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By embracing insights from project management and intellectual capital measurement research fields, basis can be established for development of new performance indicators for monitoring intangible project aspects of individual and team work within the product development context. Focusing on individual and team level of product development projects, data gathering is hampered by constraints of the real organizational environment. Therefore, in this research paper, development of work sampling self-report application is presented which allows data capturing for real-time measurement of intellectual capital elements in a practical and straight-forward way. Preliminary work sampling study was executed in R&D company whose main preocupation is development of the electro-mechanical devices for distribution and transformation of the electrical energy within the energy infrastructure or mass transportation systems. Information about potential trends of particular underperforming values related to the communication and information sharing, innovativeness/ideation and motivation/satisfaction on individual or team level, could provide added value for the project managers and decision makers.

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