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  • 1.
    Asplund, Matthias
    et al.
    Swedish Transport Administration, Trafikverket Luleå.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Improved wheel-rail system of Sweden’s iron ore line2017In: Proceedings of the 11th International Heavy Haul Association Conference (IHHA 2017), Cape Town, South Africa, 2–6 September 2017 / [ed] P.J. (Hannes) Gräbe, R.D. Fröhling, 2017, p. 759-766Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: The Swedish Iron Ore Line (IOL) is the only heavy haul line in Europe. The northern part of the line is located above the Arctic Circle, a very harsh climate. Because of the introduction of new vehicles with a 30-tonnes axle load, the track were gradually replaced between 2006 and 2009 with heavier rails, mostly with a steel grade of R350LHT. Just after the first replacement of track in 2006, the project presented herein was established with the primary goal of improving the life length of the rail, and monitoring activities started. This project now has a unique database of rail degradation data. So far, the information has been used to improve the performance of the wheel-rail system and thus extend the life length of the rail, as well as to improve our knowledge of heavy haul operations in a cold climate. The paper discusses the project progress in general and gives some examples of improvements that have been successfully implemented, such as new rail profiles and a higher grinding frequency. Finally, it discusses the challenges of future capacity improvements, such as an increase in the axle load, and how these can be addressed.

  • 2.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Effects of top-of-rail friction modifiers on the friction, wear and cracks of railway rails2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The railway is an economical and environmentally friendly mode of transport for long distances and heavy loads. The demands on the operators are increasing with increased competition in the market, and therefore they are currently demanding more track capacity. In the short term, the existing network is expected to deliver the increased capacity. In order to achieve increased capacity without introducing double track, either the axle load or the number of trains (i.e. the annual gross tonnage) needs to be increased, which will decrease the life of the rail and thus increase the maintenance cost. To increase the lifetime of the rails without compromising with regard to the axle load and speed, one must increase the strength of the rails, decrease the traction forces between the rails and wheels, or introduce a third body with anti-wear and anti-crack properties that can reduce the wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) without reducing the traction forces below the safety limit.

    The traction forces depend on several variables, for example third bodies in the wheel-rail interface, the train dynamics, the wheel and rail profiles, etc. Third bodies in the wheel-rail interface are one of the important influencing factors. The additive third bodies with anti-wear properties and friction reduction capabilities reduces both the wear and the RCF. However, a friction coefficient in the wheel tread and the top of the rail below 0.3 can cause slippage and a long braking distance. To reduce the degree of utilised friction to a value close to 0.35 from dry conditions with a value of 0.55, and thereby reduce the wear, a product known as top-of-rail friction modifier (TOR-FM) was developed in North America and presented in 2003 at the heavy haul conference. The TOR-FM manufacturers claim that their products provide a fixed range of friction coefficients (μ) and Kalker’s coefficients in the wheel-rail interface. Kalker’s coefficient considers the tendency of creepage between the rail and wheel as a function of the traction forces at lower creepage levels. Field and laboratory tests in the USA, Canada and China have determined the benefits of using friction control products, which include the reduction of RCF, wear, corrugation, bogie hunting, noise, and fuel consumption without any side effects. In contrast, researchers at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) have found that such products in certain conditions give unacceptably low friction that can cause long braking distances and slippage. Initial measurements performed using a wayside TOR-FM system on the Iron Ore Line (IOL – “Malmbanan” in Swedish) could not find any benefits of implementing such systems.

    Trafikverket is considering the implementation of the TOR-FM technology on the IOL. Directly implementing such technology can be inappropriate and expensive, because the reliability of a TOR-FM system has never been assessed for the conditions of the IOL. The IOL is the northernmost railway line in Sweden and is experiencing the problem of RCF, especially on its curves. This railway line is a single track and is mainly utilised by the ore freight trains operated by the Swedish mining company LKAB. The freight trains run by LKAB have an axle load of 30 tonnes, which is the heaviest in Europe. At present LKAB is planning to increase the axle load of their heavy haul trains to 32.5 tonnes, which will increase the RCF and wear issues.

    The present research investigated the effects of TOR-FMs using computer-based simulations, laboratory tests and field tests. The results from all the tests and simulations were used to calculate the life cycle cost of wayside and on-board systems. The simulation results have shown that by reducing the friction, the RCF can be reduced. This reduction in the RCF is greater on narrow curves than on larger curves as the traction forces decrease with an increase in the curve radius. Curves with a radius larger than m are not prone to RCF. The damage index method used in the simulation has also shown that on circular curves with a radius smaller than 300 m, the so-called “magic wear” rate can be achieved. Magic wear means that the wear rate due to normal operation is equal to the crack generation rate. The field results obtained using a handheld tribometer have shown that by using a TOR-FM, both the wear and the friction coefficients can be reduced. The content of the TOR-FM can have a significant effect on the carry distance and, generally, non-drying FMs have a longer carry distance. Excessive use of TOR-FM may cause unacceptably low friction and a high operational cost, and only result in an insignificant increase in the carry distance. In addition, it was also concluded that in the case of the wayside system during extreme winters, the equipment could have maintenance issues and thus a high operational cost. The on-board system is an economical alternative to the wayside system, as it has lower operation and maintenance costs. The results have also shown that snow and ice formation in the winter act as a lubricant. However, further investigations are needed to provide knowledge of the efficiency of such natural lubricants and their retention on the rail. The present research has taken the IOL as a case study, but the results will be applicable all over the world.

     

  • 3.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Effects of Top-Of-Rail Friction-Modifier (TOR-FM) on wear, cracks and friction2016Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Stenström, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Carry distance of top-of-rail friction modifiers2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 10, p. 2418-2430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rail issues such as corrugation, rolling contact fatigue, noise and wear have been increasing with the increase in railway traffic. The application of top-of-rail friction modifiers (TOR-FMs) is claimed by their manufacturers in the railway industry to be a well-established technique for resolving the above-mentioned issues. There are various methods for applying friction modifiers at the wheel–rail interface, among which stationary wayside systems are recommended by TOR-FM manufacturers when a distance of a few kilometres is to be covered. TOR-FM manufacturers also claim that by using wayside equipment, the TOR-FM can be spread over a minimum distance of 3 km, over which it maintains a coefficient of friction of µ = 0.35 ± 0.05. To determine the carry distance of TOR-FMs, some researchers use tribometers to measure the coefficients of friction. However, moisture and deposits from the environment and trains can alter the top-of-rail friction and give a misleading indication of the presence of a friction modifier. Therefore, the coefficient of friction itself is not a clear indicator of the presence of TOR-FMs. In the present study, cotton swabs dipped in a mixture of alcohol and ester were used to collect surface deposits (a third body) from both the wheel and rail at various distances from the point of application. Subsequently, the third body collected on the cotton swab was analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The results have shown that the maximum carry distance of TOR-FMs on the top of the rail is limited to 70 m when using a TOR-FM from one manufacturer and to 450 m when using a TOR-FM from another manufacturer. The carry distance on the contact band of the wheel is limited to 100 m and 340 m. The friction modifier on the edges of the contact band was detected over a distance of up to 3 km; however, this will not minimise the damage or friction at the wheel–rail interface.

  • 5.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Persson, Ingemar
    AB DEsolver, Östersund, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Stenström, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Prediction of the effects of friction control on top-of-rail cracks2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 484-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling contact fatigue is a major problem connected with railway tracks, especially in curves, since it leads to highermaintenance costs. By optimising the top-of-rail friction, the wear and cracks on the top of the rail can eventually bereduced without causing very long braking distances. There are several research articles available on crack prediction,but most of the research is focused either on rail without a friction modifier or on wheels with and without frictioncontrol. In the present study, in order to predict the formation of surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, a range offriction coefficients with different Kalker’s reduction factors has been assumed. Kalker’s reduction factor takes care ofthe basic tendency of creepage as a function of the traction forces at lower creepage. The assumed range covers possiblefriction values from those for non-lubricated rail to those for rail with a minimum measured friction control on the top ofthe rail using a friction modifier. A fatigue index model based on the shakedown theory was used to predict thegeneration of surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue. Simulations were performed using multi-body simulation, forwhich inputs were taken from the Iron Ore line in the north of Sweden. The effect of friction control was studiedfor different curve radii, ranging from 200 m to 3000 m, and for different axle loads from 30 to 40 tonnes at a constanttrain speed of 60 km/h. One example of a result is that a maximum friction coefficient (m) of 0.2 with a Kalker’s reductionfactor of 15% is needed in the case of trains with a heavy axle load to avoid crack formation.

  • 6.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Persson, Ingemar
    AB DEsolver, Östersund.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Stenström, Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Prediction of top-of-rail friction control effects on rail RCF suppressed by wear2017In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 380-381, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) and wear, two major deterioration processes, limit the lifetime of rails. These deterioration processes are even more severe on the curves of tracks used by heavy haul trains. Because wear is a material removing process, it can suppress the formation of RCF (also known as surface initiated cracks). In railways, cracks have a higher risk of instigating a catastrophic failure than wear; hence, it is comparatively better to have wear than to have cracks. By controlling the top-of-rail friction, both of these deteriorating processes can be reduced to enhance the lifetime of rails. In order to achieve these possible advantages, the infrastructure manager of the Swedish railway is planning to implement a top-of-rail friction control technology on the iron ore line in northern Sweden wherein RCF is a major problem on the curves. The present study uses a damage index model in a multi-body simulation software and predicts the probability of RCF formation with suppressing effect of wear for different friction control values. The effect of friction control is simulated on curve radii ranging from 200 to 3,000 m and axle loads ranging from 30 to 40 t at a constant train speed of 60 km/h. Findings show that on a very sharp circular curve, radius < 300 m, RCF can be eliminated without friction control due to the high wear rate. On moderate curves, 300 < radius < 1,000 m, a friction coefficient (µ) of, at most, 0.3 with a Kalker's coefficient of, at most, 30% is required to avoid RCF

  • 7.
    Nordmark, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Domay, C
    LKAB.
    Use of electro-dynamic braking on locomotives and its effect on rolling contact fatigue2017In: Proceedings of the 11th International Heavy Haul Association Conference (IHHA 2017), Cape Town, South Africa, 2–6 September 2017, 2017, p. 1133-1137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT: The mining company LKAB uses IORE locomotives to haul iron ore trains. When evaluated using life cycle cost (LCC) analysis for reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS), wheel life is found to be 930,000 km. The IORE locomotives are equipped with electro-dynamic (ED) brakes, but because of the inability of the contact grid to handle the full regenerative energy from the locomotives, the use of theED-brake was restricted until the contact grid was upgraded in 2010. From around 2011, the wheel life started to decrease because of increased rolling contact fatigue (RCF), dropping to around 350,000 km. LKABsuspected the use of the ED-brake was contributing to the RCF problem. A field test compared one locomotive with ED-braking reduced to a minimum level to a locomotive with full ED-braking capacity. The wheels of the two locomotives were visually inspected at intervals of about 13,000 km. The results showed no difference in RCF performance between the locomotives.

  • 8.
    Rosenkrantz, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Institute of Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Khan, Saad Ahmed
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Institute of Functional Materials, Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Szurdak, Adam
    Institute of Metal Forming, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hirt, Gerhard
    Institute of Metal Forming, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Gachot, Carsten
    Department of Material Science and Engineering, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Wear behavior of micro-coined steel surfaces under mixed lubrication2017In: Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, ISSN 0036-8792, E-ISSN 1758-5775, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1033-1039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of hemispherical structures fabricated by hot micro-coining on the resulting wear performance. Hemispherical structures with different area densities (20 and 30 per cent), depths (50 and 100 mu m) and diameters (100 and 200 m) were fabricated by hot micro-coining on stainless steel samples.

    Design/methodology/approach - The wear performance of these samples was studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer in rotational sliding mode using a normal load of 30 N and a fixed sliding velocity of 2 cm/s. Two different poly-(alpha)-olefin (PAO) oils without any additive having a kinematic viscosity of 4 and 40 cSt, were used to study the influence of the oil viscosity on the wear behavior.

    Findings - Concerning the polished reference, an enlarged wear volume with an increase in the cycle number and the oil viscosity was observed. In the case of the micro-coined surfaces, all samples demonstrate a pronounced reduction in the wear volume (up to a factor of 100 for PAO 40) compared to the polished reference irrespective of the oil viscosity used.

    Originality/value - This study details new research work studying the wear behavior of hot micro-coined surfaces.

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