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  • 1.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Westin, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science. University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics.
    Korpimäki, Jani
    CSI Composites.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Nanofibre distribution in composites manufactured with epoxy reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose: model prediction and verification2016In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 139, article id 012011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a model based on simple scattering is developed and used to predict the distribution of nanofibrillated cellulose in composites manufactured by resin transfer moulding (RTM) where the resin contains nanofibres. The model is a Monte Carlo based simulation where nanofibres are randomly chosen from probability density functions for length, diameter and orientation. Their movements are then tracked as they advance through a random arrangement of fibres in defined fibre bundles. The results of the model show that the fabric filters the nanofibres within the first 20 µm unless clear inter-bundle channels are available. The volume fraction of the fabric fibres, flow velocity and size of nanofibre influence this to some extent. To verify the model, an epoxy with 0.5 wt.% Kraft Birch nanofibres was made through a solvent exchange route and stained with a colouring agent. This was infused into a glass fibre fabric using an RTM process. The experimental results confirmed the filtering of the nanofibres by the fibre bundles and their penetration in the fabric via the inter-bundle channels. Hence, the model is a useful tool for visualising the distribution of the nanofibres in composites in this manufacturing process.

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