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  • 1.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kaasalainen, Hanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Sweco.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyström, Elsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    StopOx: Utilization Of Industrial Residuals For Prevention Of Sulfide Oxidation In Mine Waste2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the outcome of the SIP STRIM project

    StopOx-Utilization of industrial residuals for prevention of sulfide oxidation in mine waste implemented at Applied geochemistry, Luleå University of Technology running from 2015 to 2018. Boliden Mineral has been partner and co-funder of the project. Other partners in the project were Cementa, Dragon Mining, MEROX, Nordkalk, and SP Processum. The overall aim of the project was to develop prevention technologies to reduce the sulfide oxidation in mine waste, during and after operation, and thereby reduce the generation of acid mine drainage. The StopOx project has been focusing on sulfidic mine waste from the Boliden area which were disposed of and are causing acid mine drainage or have the potential. Industrial residues/products were supplied by BillerudKorsnäs, Cementa, MEROX, and Nordkalk. The report consists of chapters based on three subprojects.

    Chapter 1. Introduction

    Chapter 2. Inhibition technology with aim to minimize waste rock oxidation during operations by using residues from other industries (passivation of sulfidic surfaces by the formation of secondary minerals)

    Chapter 3. The suitability of green liquor dregs as substitutes for or additives to till in a sealing layer as part of a cover system

    Chapter 4. Weathering of waste rock under changing chemical conditions

    The research described in chapters 2 and 3 was performed by Ph.D. students and will continue until 2021, while the subproject in chapter 2 ended in 2018.

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  • 2.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Nyström, Elsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Siren, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Utilization of Industrial Residuals for Prevention of Sulphide Oxidation in Mine Wastes2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Kronsell, Ida
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Virolainen, Anna
    Boliden Mineral, Boliden, Sweden.
    Jia, Yu
    Department of Environment and Mineral Resources, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland.
    Pabst, Thomas
    Research Institute on Mines and the Environment (RIME), Polytechnique Montreal, Canada.
    Marurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Amelioration of permeable soil with green liquor dregs for the construction of sealing layers for mine waste storage facilities2020In: 4th European Conference on Unsaturated Soils (E-UNSAT 2020) / [ed] R. Cardoso, C. Jommi, E. Romero, EDP Sciences, 2020, article id 06006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining of sulfidic ore generates acidic waste which often leads to the generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) having an adverse impact on aquatic flora and fauna. Engineered multilayer cover is one of the commonly used methods to prevent oxygen from being transported to mine waste. The sealing layer has a key function in the cover, thanks to its high water retention capacity and a low hydraulic conductivity, which enable the layer to remain near water saturation, effectively hindering oxygen diffusion. When adequate material is not available improvement of local soil material with a sealing agent is principally the only option to produce sealing layer material. Apart from bentonite clay, Green Liquor Dregs (GLD), a waste from the pulp and paper industry, have the ability to reduce the oxygen diffusion when mixed to granular soil, improving the water retention capacity of the blend. Experience from the development of Till/GLD-blends for the construction of sealing layers is compiled to address issue related to soil amelioration using waste with focus on material variation and quality control. The presentation focuses on the opportunities and challenges for the establishment of a circular system based on reutilization of a waste, herein GLD for improvement of soil’s geotechnical property.

  • 4.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Green liquor dregs-amended till to cover sulfidic mine waste2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry produces massive amounts of waste that without treatment and in contact with oxygen can result in acid rock drainage (ARD) and increased leaching of metals. In Sweden, the common way to manage the mine waste after closure is to apply a dry coverage on top of the waste deposition. The access to a suitable cover-material is however limited and can lead to extensive costs for the mining company. This creates a great driving force for alternative solutions, e.g. bentonite amendment to till. However, bentonite production is costly both economically and environmentally due to time- and resource- consuming production. Recycling of industrial residues as a cover material is another option. The recycling is beneficial for many parts, i.e. the industry producing the residue, the mining industry that will use the residue and the society in its strive for zero waste. An industrial residue that has potential to improve the sealing layer qualities of a local till is Green Liquor Dregs (GLD), a residue from pulp production in a paper mill. In this study 5 to 20 wt. % of GLD from two different paper mills, with varying total solid content (TSC) and particle size distributions (PSD), were mixed with three tills also with varying PSD and TSC. The objectives of the study were to investigate if GLD addition can improve a till so it can be used in a sealing layer, how the fines- and clay content in the tills affects the hydraulic conductivity (HC) and the water retention capacity (WRC) of the till-GLD mixtures, and how the initial water content will affect the HC in the different mixtures. The HC of the mixtures based most of the tills studied improved, but not enough to reach the required 10-8 m/s. Only the material based on a more clayey silty till had an HC below 10-8 m/s, even if it increased with the addition of GLD. The WRC, on the other hand, shows promising results, especially for 15 wt. % GLD addition. An increase in WRC is seen the more GLD is added. However, due to compaction difficulties more than 20 wt. % addition is not recommended. There is a difference in both HC and WRC between the mixtures based on the different tills, and a characterization of the till as a bulk material and its mixture with GLD is suggested before using it in mine remediation purposes. The HC of the till is affected by the content of fines and especially clay. The results from the WRC is more complicated and a mineralogical study on the GLD and the clay fraction of the tills is recommended. This study also shows that the initial water content of the materials rather than dry density has an impact on the HC of the mixtures. The initial water content determines the degree wet of optimum that in this and previous studies has shown to greatly affect the HC. A drier till and GLD leads to that more GLD should be added to the mixture when reaching for optimal HC. Even if the study did not result in low enough HC in most of the cases, the WRC shows promising results and is the most important parameter minimizing the oxygen diffusion to the mine waste. The greatest challenge when working with GLD is, however, its heterogeneity which makes it difficult to predict how it will behave in a sealing layer. Even though, the recycling of GLD in mine waste remediation should be strived for as it is beneficial for both the industry that provides the residue and the mining company. It is also a great profit for the environment as it minimizes the waste disposed and reduce use of natural resources.

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  • 5.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Recycling of green liquor dregs in cover application on acid generating mine waste2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry generates massive amounts of waste that without treatment and in contact with atmospheric oxygen can cause the formation of acid rock drainage (ARD). In Sweden, the most common reclamation measure for mine waste is to apply a multi-layer cover on top of the waste deposit. The access to suitable cover-materials is, however, limited and can lead to extensive costs for the mining companies. This creates a driving force for alternative solutions, e.g., bentonite amendment to till. As bentonite production is costly both economically and environmentally, recycling of industrial residues to produce sealing layer material is an attractive option. The recycling is beneficial for the industry generating the residue, the mining industry using the residue and the society in its strive for zero waste. An industrial residue that has potential to improve the sealing properties of local till is green liquor dregs (GLD), a residue from pulp production. The main objective of this study was to, by laboratory studies and field application and evaluations, investigate if green liquor dregs amended till can be used as a sealing layer material on top of acid generating mine waste. The conclusion from the laboratory study is that the hydraulic conductivity does not decrease significantly with GLD addition to the silty till. However, the water retention capacity, which can be seen as the major important feature of a sealing layer to be used on top of sulfidic mine waste by keeping the layer close to saturation, shows significant improvements with GLD addition. In the field study the GLD amended till was applied successfully from a soil mechanical point of view (e.g., the compaction degree after application). The early results from the monitoring of the sealing layer indicate results comparable to the more frequently used bentonite amendment in a sealing layer, with soil moisture values reaching close to saturation. However, this study also concludes that the great variation in GLD, especially regarding its soil mechanical properties such as water content, makes it difficult to use compared to commercial products. The material used in the laboratory investigations in the planning phase of a project might behave differently than the one that is delivered to the minesite for reclamation.

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  • 6.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Monitoring a field application of a Green Liquor Dregs-till mixture in a sealing layer on top of sulfidic mine waste2018In: 11th ICARD | IMWA | WISA MWD 2018 Conference: Risk to Opportunity, 2018, p. 57-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sul dic mine waste le unattended and in contact with oxygen oxidize and have potential to produce acid rock drainage (ARD). A typical method in Sweden to stop sul de oxidation is to apply a dry cover on top of the mine waste. Using the non-hazardous industrial residue Green Liquor Dregs (GLD) in the cover is useful for the mining industry and the industry providing the residue and a large bene t for the environment. In this study, the e ectiveness of a mixture of till and 10 wt. % of GLD in a dry cover was studied by monitoring temperature, oxygen- and moisture content. e conclusion is that the sealing layer in una ected by frost, the oxygen concentrations are decreasing with time, but not in depth and the sealing layer with GLD-till mixture seem to be nearly saturated.

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    Nigéus 2018
  • 7.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Kyrkogatan 2, Box 850, SE-97126 Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Evaluation of sealing layers made of GLD- and bentonite amended till on top of sulfidic mine wasteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydrogeological Properties of Till Amended with Green Liquor Dregs (GLD): Recycling of an Industrial Residue for Reclamation of Acid Generating Mine Sites2023In: Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, ISSN 0960-3182, E-ISSN 1573-1529, Vol. 41, p. 3625-3639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidation of sulfide minerals in mine wastes is a possible threat to the environment as it might have potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD). A common method to reduce ARD is to apply a dry cover on the mine waste deposit. Considering the massive amounts of mine waste produced in Sweden (104-million-ton in year 2018) there is a great need for suitable dry cover materials. Using non-hazardous industrial residues in the dry cover would be beneficial for both the mining industry and the providing industry as stricter waste management legislation incentivizes them to develop their waste management strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate if an addition of Green Liquor Dregs (GLD), a residue from pulp production, can decrease the hydraulic conductivity and increase the water retention capacity (WRC) of three different tills, with the purpose of improving the performance of a dry cover material on a mine waste deposit. Another objective was to investigate how the hydraulic conductivity and WRC are affected by the contents of fines and clays in the tills. The study concludes that the water retention capacity of the tills improves with GLD addition, however, the hydraulic conductivity did not decrease enough to reach the in Sweden required < 10−8 m/s. Even though, GLD could still successfully be used in the reclamation of mine sites as the high WRC can be seen as the most important factor in deterring acid rock drainage by keeping the sealing layer close to saturation. This study further indicates that there are other factors than the particle size distribution of the materials that controls the hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures, such as initial water content, dry density, and compaction effort.

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  • 9.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Kyrkogatan 2, Box 850, 97126, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Instrumentation of Sealing Layers Made of Two Different Amendments (Green Liquor Dregs and Bentonite) to Till for Reclamation of Sulfidic Mine Waste2023In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 441-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a dry cover solution is commonly used to stop sulfide oxidation and the production of acid rock drainage from unattended sulfidic mine waste. Recycling a non-hazardous industrial residue, such as green liquor dregs (GLD) generated during pulp production, in this cover solution is beneficial for both the mining industry where there is a great need for cover materials and the pulp production industry. The objectives of this field study were to install and evaluate the instrumentation of sealing layers made of GLD- and bentonite-amended till, and to evaluate the practical aspects of two different methods of installation: monitoring wells and pits. This practical field study demonstrated that it is difficult to properly seal the drill holes after installing the probes in observation wells and suggests that a better (easier and less costly) alternative for future instrument installation in a sealing layer might be to excavate a pit in the protective layer after installation of the soil cover and then drill the probes into the sealing layer from that pit.

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  • 10.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    The Drivers of Hydraulic Conductivity in Green Liquor Dregs Amended Till: Application to Reclamation of Acid Generating Mine Sites2023In: Mine Water and the Environment, ISSN 1025-9112, E-ISSN 1616-1068, Vol. 42, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mining industry produces massive amounts of waste that in contact with oxygen can result in leaching of metals. Access to a suitable cover-material for the mine waste is sometimes limited, creating a driving force for recycling industrial residues for these purposes. Green liquor dregs (GLD), an industrial residue from paper and pulp production, has the potential to be used in a sealing layer as an amendment to till. Though hydraulic conductivity is commonly used to evaluate the quality of the sealing layer, field application from laboratory investigations is challenging as many factors, apart from vast variations in the physical properties of both the till and the GLD, control hydraulic conductivity. In this study, 5–20 wt.% of GLD from two different paper mills, with different total solid contents and particle size distributions, were mixed with a silty till with varying total solid contents to investigate how the materials’ dry density, initial water content, and compaction affects the hydraulic conductivity. We found that the initial water content of the materials was the most important factor. With a drier till and GLD, more GLD should be added to attain the lowest hydraulic conductivity possible. The compaction was not found to notably affect the mixtures’ hydraulic conductivity.

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  • 11.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Kyrkogatan 2, Box 850, SE-97126 Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Water Retention Capacity as a Measure to Evaluate the Effectiveness of a Green Liquor Dregs-Amended Till to Cover Sulfidic Mine Waste2022In: IMWA 2022 Conference - "Reconnect": Proceedings of the International Mine Water Association Conference / [ed] James Pope; Christian Wolkersdorfer; Rachel Rait; Dave Trumm; Hana Christenson; Karoline Wolkersdorfer, International Mine Water Association 2023 , 2022, p. 337-344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic conductivity is often used as a measure to evaluate the effectiveness of a sealing layer material on top of mine waste. However, the most important soil parameter minimizing the oxygen diffusion to the mine waste is the water retention capacity (WRC) of the sealing layer, as a high saturation corresponds to a low oxygen diffusion rate. This study shows that an amendment of Green Liquor Dregs (GLD), an industrial residue, to a till increases its WRC and has therefore potential to be a more accurate method to evaluate the effectiveness of a sealing layer than hydraulic conductivity.

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  • 12.
    Nigéus, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jenny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Josef, Mácsik
    Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dimensioning and Construction of a Sealing Layer Made of Green Liquor Dregs Amended Till—Remediation of Sulfidic Mine Waste2023In: Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, ISSN 2524-3462, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 2281-2292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using non-hazardous industrial residues in mine waste remediation is beneficial not only for the mining industry where substantial amounts of the waste generated have potential to produce acid rock drainage and pollute the environment, but also the providing industry, minimizing the waste landfilled. In this study green liquor dregs (GLD), residue from 15 different paper mills were characterized to valorize it as a potential product as a cover material. In another part of the study, one of the GLDs and a local till were characterized to determine the optimal mixture of GLD amended till to be used in a field application at the closed Näsliden Mine in northern Sweden. The study concluded 10% GLD-amended till to be the optimal recipe and was successfully applied at the Näsliden mine waste dump. However, the great variability in the characteristics of GLD creates challenges if it is to be valorized as a product.

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  • 13.
    Siren, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Bergforsk 20162016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Siren, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aktivitet: SveMin miljökonferens2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Siren, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aktivitet: SveMin Miljökonferens 20152015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Siren, Susanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Aktivitet: Wascon 20152015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Siren, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ramböll Sverige AB, Kyrkogatan 2, Box 850, SE-97126 Luleå, Sweden.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of mixtures of green liquor dregs and till for application as a sealing layer on sulfidic mine waste2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidation of sulphides in mine wastes is a possible threat to the environment as it might have potential to generate acid and release metals. Recent research has shown that a residue from the paper production, Green Liquor Dregs (GLD) has properties suitable for a sealing layer on top of mine waste, i.e. it is fine grained and has a low hydraulic conductivity (HC). A sealing layer mitigates oxidation of metals by deterring oxygen to enter the waste. In this study, sieved till (<20mm) with fines (<63 μm) of 30-40 % was mixed with 5, 10 and 15 wt. % of GLD. HC and maximal density after compaction were determined for each mixture. The maximal density in the sieved till studied decreased with increasing addition of GLD (1.95 to 1.89 t/m3). The decrease is likely due to that the high flow stress and the low shear strength of the GLD inhibits compaction. Increasing water contentand amount of GLD in the mixture prevents compaction of the samples, leading to an increase in HC (5.5*10-10 to 2.2*10-9 m/s). The study concludes that an addition of 5 % GLD is acceptable in a fine grained till regarding compaction properties and HC.

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  • 18.
    Siren, Susanne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ramboll, Köpmangatan 40B, S-97233 Luleå, Sweden.
    Alakangas, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Green liquor dregs in mine waste remediation, from laboratory investigations to field application2016In: Mining Meets Wate: conflict and solutions IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016 / [ed] Carsten Drebenstedt; Michael Paul, Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, p. 706-713Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidation of sulphides in mine wastes is a possible threat to the environment as it has potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD). A way to reduce ARD formation is to apply a soil cover to reduce oxygen fluxes and water infiltration to the underlying reactive wastes. A typical mine waste cover in Sweden consists of a compacted sealing layer of a fine grained till overlaid by an on-compacted protection layer. However, a fine grained till with low enough hydraulic conductivity (HC) can be difficult to find in the vicinity of the mine and it might be necessary to mix it with a fine grained material. In this study a mixture of till and a residue from pulp and paper production, Green Liquor Dregs (GLD) was studied in laboratory and in a pilot cell study. The objective of the laboratory study was to investigate if an addition of GLD will improve the HC of tills with different clay contents. The results show that HC of the different tills studied decreases with addition of 5-10 w.% of GLD, except from the clayey till that already had a low HC without addition of GLD. In the pilot scale study a cell was constructed to investigate the feasibility to compact a sealing layer of a fine grained till and 10 w. % of GLD. The pilot scale study shows that it can be difficult to reach a high compaction degree in the field. However, it does not necessarily mean that the HC of the sealing layer will increase. In fact the laboratory study shows the opposite trend, a decrease in HC with a decrease in dry density for tills with low clay content. The main conclusion of the study is that addition of GLD can be an alternative option to improve the properties of a local till that alone does not meet the requirements for HC.

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