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  • 1.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Different Features of Bilingualism in Relation to Executive Functioning2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no 269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion that the long-term practice of managing two languages is beneficial for the executive control system is an ongoing debate. Criticism have been raised that studies demonstrating a bilingual advantage often suffer from small sample sizes, and do not control for fluid intelligence as a possible confound. Taking those suggested factors into account, focusing on older bilingual age groups and investigating the potential effects of linguistic distances, this study aimed to improve the interpretations of the bilinguals’ advantages. Measures of inhibition (Flanker, Stroop, Simon task) and switching (Number-letter, Color-Shape, Local-global task) were collected in participants in the ages 50-75 years (n = 193). Despite a large study sample, results did not support any beneficial effects related to improve processing costs in executive functioning. Sub-analyses of the two different language groups (Swedish – Finnish / Swedish – English) intended to investigate the effect of linguistic distances did not change this outcome. Future studies exploring the potential long-term term effects of bilingualism would benefit from identifying tests of cognitive control with greater ecological validity and include other measures of cognitive functioning. Language learning interventions may also be a promising tool for future research.

  • 2.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors2016In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Institute of Clinical Dentistry, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Institute of Clinical Dentistry, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Goran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dental Status Is Unrelated to Risk of Dementia: A 20-Year Prospective Study2014In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 979-981Article in journal (Refereed)
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