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  • 1.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Elastohydrodynamically lubricated finite line contacts operating under transient conditions2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of greenhouse gas emissions contributing to the global warming is today becoming an increasingly important problem worldwide and has led to increased efforts being made on improving tribological performance of interacting surfaces in mechanical systems. Due to increasingly stringent CO2regulations, a reduced fuel consumption has become a key area of interest for the automotive industry where low cost, low emission solutions are continuously developed and where low friction alternatives to machine elements currently in use are evaluated.

    Crankshaft roller bearings have been shown to reduce the mechanical friction in internal combustion engines compared to the plain (sliding) bearings used today, further leading to a reduced fuel consumption and thereby reduced CO2emissions. However, the transition from plain (sliding) bearings into crankshaft roller bearings means new challenges with e.g. increased noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) levels and reduced durability of the bearings. Therefore, in order to optimise the crankshaft roller bearings that operate under the highly transient conditions in the engine, an increased understanding of the tribological system is required.

    Research related to elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) has led to the possibility to improve friction performance and durability of machine elements where lubricated non-conformal contact geometries interact. Traditionally, simplifications of the contacting geometries and the assumption of steady-state conditions have often been applied to the EHL analysis. The purpose of this work has thus been to develop a simulation model based on previous work done in the field and further utilise the model to simulate the contact on a detailed level, incorporating transient effects and the influence of oil behaviour using state-of-the-art modelling.

    The influence of the piezoviscous response and the compressibility-pressure behaviour of the lubricant on the sub-surface stress field were studied, showing that stiff lubricants may lead to increased stress concentrations in the vicinity of the surface, which may further influence the durability of the bearing. It was also seen that highly transient loading conditions applied to the contact initiate oscillations in the lubricated system, affecting pressure, film thickness and sub-surface stresses over time. These findings further elucidate the importance of including non-steady behaviour while analysing highly transient lubricating conditions of EHL contacts. By considering and optimising the aforementioned effects during design of crankshaft roller bearings, an improved NVH performance and an increased durability of the crankshaft roller bearing may be achieved.

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  • 2.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication: Effects of geometry, surface roughness, temperature, and plastic deformation2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in combination with an increased use of sustainable energy resources have led to immense efforts on improving energy efficiency of mechanical systems. Consequently, modern machine elements are typically lubricated with low viscosity oils and designed to endure an increasingly high power density. This typically implies that the surfaces in contact are separated by thinner lubricant films that must carry higher loads. Thereby, in order to improve the durability and efficiency of future machine elements, an improved fundamental understanding of the predominant lubrication mechanisms must be achieved. This thesis concerns numerical simulation of non-conformal lubricated contacts where significant elastic deformations in combination with hydrodynamic effects govern the lubricating film formation, typically found in e.g., rolling element bearings, gears, and cam-follower systems. Such contacts relate to a lubrication regime known as elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), which is often studied using simplifying assumptions due to its multiphysical nature. Typical simplifications of the EHL problem may include e.g., steady-state conditions, perfectly elastic surfaces, isothermal conditions, and Newtonian lubricant behaviour. However, such simplifications may be progressively relieved because of a continuously improved computer performance and the use of increasingly efficient numerical methods. In this work, time dependent simulations of EHL contacts are conducted with the purpose of improving the fundamental understanding of the predominant lubrication mechanisms. This is achieved by the development and utilisation of novel models and modelling techniques, specifically developed for the conducted investigations focusing on e.g., temperature, plastic deformation, surface roughness, and contact geometry. The developed models are all an extension of a full-system finite element modelling approach that was relatively recently introduced to the EHL community. Important findings from this work relate to the influence of transient fluctuations in EHL contacts, which occur due to both transient loads and moving surface roughness. It is shown that in the case of transient loading of a finite line EHL contact, a steady state assumption may overestimate the minimum film thickness and underestimate the maximum pressure over time due to the formation of lubricant waves travelling through the contact. Furthermore, thermal and non-Newtonian effects on viscosity may be necessary to consider in both qualitative and quantitative studies of roughness within the EHL contact, especially under sliding conditions and short wavelength roughness. Lastly, transient fluctuations related to the over-rolling of surface features are shown to potentially increase the pressure within the EHL contact to such an extent that plastic deformations of the contacting surfaces occur. The models established in this work may provide researchers and engineers with ways to improve their studies of transient EHL contacts. The salient findings from the conducted studies also open up for interesting directions that may be extended to potentially improve the lubrication theories currently in use and thereby improve the design of future machine elements that employ non-conformal contacts.

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  • 3.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hansen, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    On the Effects of Two-Sided Roughness in Rolling-Sliding EHL Contacts2020Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 4.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Shirzadegan, Mohammad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Elastohydrodynamic lubrication for the finite line contact under transient loading conditions2018In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 127, p. 489-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research related to elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) has led to improved performance and durability of machine elements where non-conformal contact geometries interact. Only a relatively small portion of the EHL literature has, however, dealt with the lubricating performance of finite line contacts under non-steady conditions, commonly found in many practical applications. The purpose of this work has thus been to further understand the behaviour of finite line EHL contacts under transient conditions by studying a finite length roller subjected to a time varying load using a full-system finite element approach. The transient load was shown to initiate oscillations in the system, governed by waves of lubricant moving through the contact, affecting both pressure and film thickness throughout the contact.

  • 5.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Analysis of Split Crankshaft Roller Bearings with Focus on Lubrication and Contact Stresses2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Volvo Car Corporation, Volvo Cars Torslanda, Sweden.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Transient plasto-elastohydrodynamic lubrication concerning surface features with application to split roller bearings2021In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 235, no 2, p. 453-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of roller bearings as crankshaft main bearings has shown potential in reducing the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. An effective way to mount the roller bearing onto the crankshaft is to split the outer ring. However, this may lead to a severe out-of-roundness in the split region when the bearing is mounted, further implying increased noise, vibrations and contact stresses. In this work, a novel approach to study the plasto-elastohydrodynamic contact using commercial finite element software is developed. The modelling approach is based on the contact moving in space, allowing for the stress history based on the lubricant pressure to be studied in a straight-forward manner. The model is first utilised to study the influence of asperities on the lubricating conditions, indicating that stresses may exceed the yield strength of the material due to the transient effects taking place when the surface feature is over-rolled. Thereafter, the model is used to analyse the step in a mounted crankshaft roller bearing with the purpose of specifying a critical step height, which implies zero plasticity and thereby a reduced risk of accumulated damage in the vicinity of the step.

  • 7.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    On Waviness and Two-Sided Surface Features in Thermal Elastohydrodynamically Lubricated Line Contacts2020In: Lubricants, ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine components are designed to endure increasingly severe operating conditions due to the strive for improved energy efficiency of mechanical systems. Consequently, lubricated non-conformal contacts must rely on thin lubricant films where the influence of surface topography on the lubricating conditions becomes significant. Due to the complexity of the multiphysical problem, approximate assumptions are often employed to facilitate numerical studies of elastohydrodynamically lubricated (EHL) contacts. In this work, the rough, time dependent, thermal EHL problem is solved with focus on two main analyses. The first analysis focuses on the influence of sinusoidal roughness and the difference between a thermal non-Newtonian approach and an isothermal Newtonian approach. The second analysis is focused on the lubricating mechanisms taking place when two-sided surface features overtake within the thermal EHL contact. The results indicate that the film thickness in the outlet of the contact may be significantly overestimated by an isothermal Newtonian approach and that differences in the high-pressure region may also occur due to viscosity variations in the inlet of the contact. Moreover, for the studied two-sided surface features, it became evident that not only the surface feature combination but also the overtaking position influence the film thickness and pressure variations significantly.

  • 8.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Transient analysis of surface roughness features in thermal elastohydrodynamic contacts2020In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 141, article id 105915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the influence of surface roughness in elastohydrodynamically lubricated (EHL) contacts is essential to improve durability and friction performance of machine elements employing non-conformal contacting surfaces. In this work, the transient event of a surface feature passing through a thermal EHL line contact operating under different sliding conditions is investigated with the purpose of providing a deeper understanding of surface roughness influence. This is achieved by solving the EHL problem in space and time. It was seen that sliding influences the temperature rise in the contact significantly, especially in the vicinity of the asperity. However, due to the characteristic behaviour of EHL contacts, the local temperature rise mainly influence the film thickness during exiting of inlet perturbations and the asperity.

  • 9.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Vrček, Aleks
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Influence of lubricant pressure response on sub-surface stress in elastohydrodynamically lubricated finite line contacts2019In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897, Vol. 141, no 3, article id 031502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to adapt to increasingly stringent CO2 regulations, the automotive industry must develop and evaluate low cost, low emission solutions in the powertrain technology. This often implies increased power density and the use of low viscosity oils, leading to additional challenges related to the durability of various machine elements. Therefore, an increased understanding of lubricated contacts becomes important where oil viscosity-pressure and compressibility-pressure behaviour have been shown to influence the film thickness and pressure distribution in EHL contacts, further influencing the durability. In this work, a finite line EHL contact is analysed with focus on the oil compressibility- and viscositypressure response, comparing two oils with relatively different behaviour and its influence on subsurface stress concentrations in the contacting bodies. Results indicate that increased pressure gradients and pressure spikes, and therefore increased localized stress concentrations, can be expected for stiffer, less compressible oils, which under transient loading conditions not only affect the outlet but also the edges of the roller

  • 10.
    Häggström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Energy harvesting from raceway strain in rolling element bearingsIn: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents how strain in rolling element bearings can be utilized to power embedded systems. Mechanical strain can be converted to the electrical domain by using piezoelectric materials; here, we present how piezoelectric patches should be dimensioned and mounted to optimize power output. Previous work has not addressed how repetitive strain in bearings can be used to harvest energy. Simulation data from the SKFtool BEAST are analyzed together with linear piezoelectricity to extract the power output. In the simulated case, results show that piezoelectric patches can be used to power embedded systems and that sensory data can be extracted to monitor the bearings.

  • 11.
    Rudnytskyj, André
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Rodiouchkina, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Berglund, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Contact mechanics and wear of self-lubricating polymer bearings used in hydropower applications2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropower plants are today subjected to more frequent transient operating conditions due to the increased use of intermittent energy production sources, such as solar and wind. The changes arise from the need to regulate the power input to the electrical grid, posing questions on the reliability of the self-lubricated bearings used in hydropower applications. Aiming to study the effects of the transient conditions on wear and lifetime of these bearings, modelling and simulation have been employed to systematically investigate how different parameters influence the sliding contact. A simplified model developed using COMSOL Multiphysics 5.3 and LiveLink™ for MATLAB® of polymer composite bearing materials and stainless steel counter surface is presented and evaluated under different tribological conditions in terms of properties such as pressure, sliding speed, temperature and wear. Roughness of real surfaces is measured by white light interferometry and integrated in the model. Experimental results on the influence of important parameters on the behavior of such bearings are also presented, not only to validate the model, but also to provide input data to the simulation. The results of this study show that the simulation model can be used to identify critical operating conditions for self-lubricating bearings used in hydropower applications.

  • 12.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF, Nieuwegein.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Micro-pitting and wear assessment of engine oils operating under boundary lubrication conditions2019In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 129, p. 338-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current state-of-the-art engine oils tend to enhance micro-pitting damage in rolling contacts under certain operating conditions. ZDDP anti-wear additive was shown to promote such behavior. However, in order to optimize an engine oil formulation for rolling contacts, further studies are needed to assess engine oils in terms of micro-pitting and wear damage. This investigation studies the micro-pitting and wear performance of a number of engine oils for rolling contacts in a ball-on-disc configuration under conditions prevalent in crankshaft roller bearing applications. Based on the results it was concluded that an engine oil containing higher blend of PAO base oil compared to the oil mixture of Group III and PAO has a lower tendency towards micro-pitting and wear.

  • 13.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF Engineering & Research Centre, Nieuwegein, The Netherlands.
    Björling, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Micro-Pitting and Wear Assessment of PAO vs Mineral-Based Engine Oil Operating under Mixed Lubrication Conditions: Effects of Lambda, Roughness Lay and Sliding Direction2019In: Lubricants, E-ISSN 2075-4442, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Under certain operating conditions, rolling contacts have been shown to experience some challenges when lubricated with engine oils containing zinc dialkyldithophosphate (ZDDP) anti-wear additive. In order to better understand the main damage mechanisms during various operating conditions, further studies are needed. This article studies micro-pitting and wear damages of bearing steel surfaces under mixed lubrication conditions in a ball-on-disc setup, lubricated with different engine oils. Based on the results, micro-pitting and wear damage is shown to be highly case-dependent. In general, PAO-based engine oil tends to eliminate micro-pitting damage compared to mineral-based engine oil at less severe lubricating conditions. Moreover, a critical lambda was found for both oils, where the highest micro-pitting damage was observed. 

  • 14.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baubet, Yannick
    SKF Research and Technology Development, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Micro-pitting Damage of Bearing Steel Surfaces under Mixed Lubrication Conditions: Effects of Roughness, Hardness and ZDDP Additive2019In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 138, p. 239-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Micro-pitting presents a failure of the rolling/sliding contact metal asperities operating under boundary/mixed lubrication conditions. The studies have shown that micro-pitting failure competes with mild wear and that lubricant additives can have either detrimental or beneficial effects on micro-pitting evolution. This article describes a methodology to investigate micro-pitting damage on bearing steels using a twin-disc machine to better represent mechanical components, i.e. bearings, crankshafts, etc. In addition, effects of roughness, hardness and the ZDDP additive are presented and discussed. A sufficient hardness difference can completely eliminate micro-pitting damage mode. Furthermore, the presence of ZDDP anti-wear additive in fully formulated engine oil was shown to protect rougher surfaces and promote wear on smoother surfaces, thus completely eliminating the micro-pitting damage mode.

  • 15.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Volvo Car Corporation (VCC), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Micro-pitting and wear characterization for different rolling bearing steels: Effect of hardness and heat treatments2020In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 458-459, article id 203404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current trend of increased power density and reduction of oil viscosity in machine components is forcing engineers and scientists to engineer surfaces to endure higher contact pressures and stresses induced from rolling/sliding motion. Typically, surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue represents the main failure mode and has been gaining more and more attention lately. In this paper, the extent and morphology of the surface damage of different bearing steels in disc-on-disc contact under reduced lubrication conditions are studied. For this, rough-on-smooth contact was selected to promote surface fatigue damage on the smoother surface. Special attention was given to study both the effect of the hardness difference of the discs and the influence of different heat treatments, i.e. surface induction hardening (SIH) or through hardening (TH), on micro-pitting and wear performance. It was demonstrated through tribo-testing that the faster, rough surface undergoes only mild wear and plastic deformation of asperities. However, three different damage modes were observed and assessed on the slower, smoother surface, where the damage mode showed a strong dependence on a surface hardness difference between the smooth and the rough surface. Furthermore, it was observed that a plain medium carbon steel (DIN 56E2) showed better surface fatigue resistance than a low alloy high carbon steel (DIN 100Cr6) at similar surface hardness levels if SIH is applied on the former.

  • 16.
    Vrček, Aleks
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Hultqvist, Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Volvo Car Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Marklund, Pär
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Tribological characterization of potential crankshaft bearing steels for roller bearing engines2021In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 235, no 7, p. 1365-1378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crankshaft roller bearing internal combustion engine (ICE) offers a five percent or more improvement in overall engine efficiency and, thereby, a reduction in a five percent of CO2 emissions, compared to a plain bearing supported crankshaft. Current forged crankshaft steels represent the limiting factor of the rolling component, therefore, a replacement of the crankshaft steel is required. Apart from this, the tribology of the rolling contacts has been shown to be detrimental when lubricated with current engine oils. Therefore, this paper investigates the tribological performance of potential crankshaft bearing steels, i.e. DIN C56E2 (G55); DIN 50CrMo4 (G50); and DIN 100Cr6 (G3), while utilizing a state-of-the-art low viscosity 0W20 engine oil and under conditions prevalent to ICE. For this, damage mode investigation was performed in a disc-on-disc setup. Based on the results, wear damage of DIN 100Cr6 discs was shown to be dependent on the steel grade of which the counterpart disc was made from and surface hardness difference between both discs. In addition, surface fatigue and wear damage can be completely eliminated by selecting a proper surface roughness and hardness combination. Also, while under an elevated roughness level, engine oil was shown to promote both surface fatigue and wear damage through the work of ZDDP additives, which under extreme conditions can act as an extreme pressure (EP) additive. The residual stress measurements using the XRD technique revealed relatively high compressive residual stresses for G55 and G50 in comparison to G3 steel after surface induction hardening. In addition, no significant changes in residual stress for G55 and G50 were observed after the test. In contrast, relatively high tensile stress was observed for G3 near the surface region. This suggests that the most commonly used 100Cr6 bearing steel, in this case, is the most susceptible to surface fatigue.

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