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  • 1.
    Gaff, Milan
    et al.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kačík, František
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic;Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Gašparík, Miroslav
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Todaro, Luigi
    School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Corleto, Roberto
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic;School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Makovická Osvaldová, Linda
    Department of Fire Engineering, Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina, Žilina, Slovakia.
    Čekovská, Hana
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    The effect of synthetic and natural fire-retardants on burning and chemical characteristics of thermally modified teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood2019In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 200, p. 551-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the effect of various temperatures of thermal modification and fire retardants on selected burning characteristics and chemical wood components of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood. The thermal modification was carried out at temperatures 160 °C, 180 °C and 210 °C. Subsequently, thermally modified wood was treated by natural (arabinogalactan) and synthetic (ammonium phosphate) fire retardants. The effect of thermal modification as well as fire retardant was detected by burning characteristics such as weight loss, burning rate, maximum burning rate, ratio of the maximum burning rate and time to reach maximum burning rate. The chemical changes caused by the influence of these factors were determined by changing the content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, holocellulose, lignin and extractives. The relationship between burning characteristics and chemical changes in the thermally modified wood was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation. The results showed that the thermal modification of teak wood had a negative effect on its ignition and burning properties. Synthetic fire retardant had the highest retardation effect in all cases. The natural fire retardant caused a better retardation effect on thermally modified wood at temperature 180 and 210 °C. The relative content of lignin, extractives and cellulose increased, while the amount of holocellulose and particularly hemicelluloses decreased.

  • 2.
    Garskaite, Edita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Stankeviciute, Zivile
    Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Aivaras, Kareiva
    Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Surface hardness and flammability of Na2SiO3 andnano-TiO2 reinforced wood composites2019In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 48, p. 27973-27986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to explore an effect of the combined inorganic materials on the wood hardness and flame-retardancy properties in a concept of sustainable material management. Herein, the reinforcement of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood with sodium silicate and TiO2 nanoparticles via vacuum-pressure technique is reported. Pyrolysis of modified wood was studied by TG-FTIR analysis; the results showed that maximum weight loss for the modified wood was obtained at 40–50 °C lower temperatures compared to the reference untreated wood. The Gram–Schmidt profiles and spectra extracted at maxima absorption from Gram–Schmidt plots indicated chemical changes in wood–inorganic composites. SEM/EDS analysis revealed the presence of Na–O–Si solid gel within the wood-cell lumen and showed that TiO2 was homogeneously distributed within the amorphous Na–O–Si glass-forming phase to form a thin surface coating. EDS mapping further revealed the higher diffusivity of sodium into the cell wall compared to the silicon compound. The presence of amorphous sodium silicate and nano-TiO2 was additionally confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR spectra confirmed the chemical changes in Scots pine sapwood induced by alkalization. Brinell hardness test showed that the hardness of the modified wood increased with the highest value (44% increase in hardness) obtained for 10% Na2SiO3–nTiO2 modified wood. The results showed good correlation between TG and flammability test; limiting oxygen index (LOI) values for the wood–inorganic composites increased by 9–14% compared to the untreated wood.

  • 3.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    COST FP1303 “performance of bio-based building materials”2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Sandberg, Dick
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wood modification ‒ different processes and their use in Europe.2018In: Proceedings of the 8th hardwood conference with special focus on "new aspects on hardwood utilization - from science to technology" / [ed] Németh R, Teischinger A, Rademacher P, Bak M., Sopron, 2018, p. 12-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, wood modification is referred to as a process used to improve the physical, mechanical, or aesthetic properties of sawn timber, veneer or wood particles used in the production of wood composites. Though many aspects of these treatments are known, the fundamental influence of the process on product performance, the environment, and end of life scenarios remain relatively unknown. It is essential to integrate interactive assessment of process parameters, developed product properties, and environmental impacts. To optimize modification processing to minimize environmental impacts, much more information must be gathered about all process related factors affecting the environment. Wood modification represents an assortment of innovative processes currently being adopted in the wood protection sector or are at different stage of development (Fig. 1). These processes produces a material that can be disposed at the end of a product's life cycle without presenting any environmental hazards greater than those that are associated with the disposal of unmodified wood. 

  • 5.
    Ugovšek, Aleš
    et al.
    M SORA d.d., Žiri, Slovenia.
    Šubic, Barbara
    M SORA d.d., Žiri, Slovenia.
    Starman, Jernej
    M SORA d.d., Žiri, Slovenia.
    Rep, Gregor
    Silvaprodukt d.o.o., Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Humar, Miha
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Lesar, Boštjan
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Thaler, Nejc
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Brischke, Christian
    Department of Wood Biology and Wood Products, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
    Meyer-Veltrup, Linda
    Institute of Vocational Sciences in the Building Trade, Faculty of Architecture and Landscape Sciences, Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Limited, Neath, UK.
    Häggström, Urban
    Research Institute of Sweden, Built Environment/Building Technology, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Lozano, Jose Ignacio
    Tecnologías Avanzadas Inspiralia S.L., Madrid, Spain.
    Short-term performance of wooden windows and facade elements made of thermally modified and non-modified Norway spruce in different natural environments2018In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally modified wood is becoming an increasingly popular material for different applications in buildings. Laboratory tests indicated a positive effect of thermal modification on durability, dimensional stability and thermal conductivity of wood. Therefore, windows and facade elements made of thermally modified Norway spruce and non-modified Norway spruce were tested in the field and installed in different test objects which were exposed at five locations in Europe (Slovenia, Germany, Sweden, and Spain). Results from monitoring showed that elements and windows made of thermally modified spruce (TMS) had considerably lower wood moisture content compared to the ones made of non-modified spruce and that wax further positively influenced moisture performance. Colour changes of TMS were more intensive compared to non-modified spruce but were successfully retarded by adding pigments to the wax. Mould and stain growth was largely dependent on the location, amount of precipitation and relative humidity.

  • 6.
    Verbist, Maxime
    et al.
    ISISE, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, Guimarães, Portugal.
    Nunes, Lina
    LNEC, Structures Department, Lisboa, Portugal;cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes, Azorean Biodiversity Group and University of the Azores, Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd., Neath, United Kingdom.
    Branco, Jorge M.
    ISISE, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, Guimarães, Portugal.
    11 - Service life design of timber structures2019In: Long-term Performance and Durability of Masonry Structures: Degradation Mechanisms, Health Monitoring and Service Life Design / [ed] Bahman Ghiassi and Paulo B. Lourenço, Elsevier, 2019, p. 311-336Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood has been widely used by humans for millennia as a construction material and can be easily found in everyday life, anywhere around the world. Since wood is a natural, sustainable, and organic composite material, it can be affected by several wood-deteriorating agents under suitable climate exposure conditions, which may threaten the long-term performance of timber structures in their service life. In that context, this chapter covers the background, guidelines, and current research that can help engineers and architects when designing timber structures. It provides extended knowledge about different wood-deteriorating agents, the natural durability of wood, and the use class concept. Based on this, durability models can be established, taking into account the potential presence over time of wood deterioration agents and allowing design for improved service life. Preventive measures and protection systems can be defined from the beginning, whereas on-site monitoring and maintenance of timber structures should be continuously performed.

  • 7.
    Jones, Dennis (Editor)
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd.
    Brischke, Christian (Editor)
    University of Goettingen.
    Performance of Bio-Based Building Materials2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of Bio-based Building Materials provides guidance on the use of bio-based building materials (BBBM) with respect to their performance. The book focuses on BBBM currently present on the European market. The state-of-the-art is presented regarding material properties, recommended uses, performance expectancies, testing methodology, and related standards.

    Chapters cover both ‘old and traditional’ BBBM since quite a few of them are experiencing a comeback on the market. Promising developments that could become commercial in the near future are presented as well.

    The book will be a valuable reference resource for those working in the bio-based materials research community, architects and agencies dealing with sustainable construction, and graduate students in civil engineering.

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