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  • 1.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen O.
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Faculty of Technology, Linnaeus University, Lückligs Plats 1, Växjö 35195 Sweden.
    Kumar, Anuj
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Production Systems, Tietotie 2, Espoo 02150 Finland.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Faculty of Technology, Linnaeus University, Lückligs Plats 1, Växjö 35195 Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 – Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Nilsson, Bengt
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Faculty of Technology, Linnaeus University, Lückligs Plats 1, Växjö 35195 Sweden.
    Bioenergy production and utilization in different sectors in Sweden: A state of the art review2020In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 9834-9857Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the continual desire to reduce the environmental footprints of human activities, research efforts to provide cleaner energy is increasingly becoming vital. The effect of climate change on present and future existence, sustainable processes, and utilizations of renewable resources have been active topics within international discourse. In order to reduce the greenhouse gases emissions from traditional materials and processes, there has been a shift to more environmental friendly alternatives. The conversion of biomass to bioenergy, including biofuels has been considered to contribute to the future of climate change mitigation, although there are concerns about carbon balance from forest utilization. Bioenergy accounts for more than one-third of all energy used in Sweden and biomass has provided about 60% of the fuel for district heating. Apart from heat and electricity supply, the transport sector, with about 30% of global energy use, has a significant role in a sustainable bioenergy system. This review presents the state of the art in the Swedish bioenergy sector based on literature and Swedish Energy Agency’s current statistics. The review also discusses the overall bioenergy production and utilization in different sectors in Sweden. The current potential, challenges, and environmental considerations of bioenergy production are also discussed.

  • 2.
    Bekhta, Pavlo
    et al.
    Ukranian National Forestry University.
    Sedliacik, Jan
    Technical University in Zvolen.
    Jones, Dennis
    DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd.
    Effect of short-term thermomechanical densification of wood veneers on the properties of birch plywood2018In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 549-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels made from pre-compressed birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) veneer were evaluated. Veneer sheets underwent short-term thermo-mechanical (STTM) compression at temperatures of 150 or 180 ⁰C and at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 3.5 MPa for a period of 1 minute before being adhesive applied and pressed into panels using phenol formaldehyde adhesive at 100 g/m2 spread rate; this was one third less than the adhesive spread used for the control panels (150 g/m2). The pressing pressure was 1.0 MPa that was almost half of the pressure used for the control panels (1.8 MPa); and pressing time was 3 min, also half of the pressing time used for the control panels (6 min). The results showed that surface roughness of compressed veneer, water absorption and thickness swelling of plywood panels made from compressed veneer were significantly improved. The shear strength values of plywood panels made from compressed birch veneer even with reduced adhesive spread were higher than those of plywood panels made from un-compressed veneer. The findings in this study indicated that compression of birch veneer would be considered as an alternative to produce more eco-friendly (owing to smaller adhesive spread) value-added material with enhanced properties.

  • 3.
    Brischke, Christian
    et al.
    University of Goettingen, Wood Biology and Wood Products, Buesgenweg 4, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Box 115, NO-1431 Ås, Norway.
    Bollmus, Susanne
    University of Goettingen, Wood Biology and Wood Products, Buesgenweg 4, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany.
    Humar, Miha
    University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Dept. of Wood Science and Technology Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Limited, Neath, United Kingdom.
    Meyer-Veltrup, Linda
    Heinz-Piest-Intitute for Skilled Crafts, Wilhelm-Busch-Straße 18, 30167 Hannover, Germany.
    Nunes, Lina
    LNEC, Structures Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisboa, Portugal. cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and University of the Azores, 9700–042 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal.
    Enhancing knowledge transfer in the wood protection sector2018In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2018, The International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2018, article id IRG/WP 18-50338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to meet the needs for the developing bio-based economy, maintaining and expanding the market potential for wood raw materials and wood products in indoor and outdoor construction uses remains a key activity for industries in the biotechnological and forestry sector respectively. A major restraint in this respect is the drastically deviating views and expectations on quality and performance of the material. Such differences can be found between producers and consumers, between architects and engineers, between planners and approval bodies as well as between academia on the one hand and industry and traders on the other hand. The wood protection and wood preservation sector is located exactly within this area of deviating opinions. To overcome the barriers due to different perceptions and therewith strengthen the standing of wood as a desirable building material in the future, new strategies and methods for communication, knowledge transfer and education are needed. Networking and scientific exchange between different disciplines is needed, such as forest science, silviculture, applied forestry, material sciences, wood technology, building technology, architecture and engineering. Consumer demands and preferences, which might serve as limit states to develop service life prediction and performance models, need to consider aesthetical aspects as well as the functionality of timber building assemblies. Finally, teaching students, craftsmen, and salesmen is the key to enhance the acceptance of renewable and carbon-storing products, which are both biodegradable and highly variable in their properties. All these peculiarities require a deeper understanding of their nature and characteristics to improve their purpose-related usage.

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  • 4.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lin, Chia-feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Schleicher, Frank
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Svensson, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Use of X-ray computed tomography for real-time studies of the fire progress in wood2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Duarte, Sónia
    et al.
    LNEC, National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Structures Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal. cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and University of the Azores, Faculty of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, 9700–042 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd, 15 Heol Pen Y Coed, Neath, SA11 3SP, United Kingdom .
    Nunes, Lina
    LNEC, National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Structures Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal. cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes / Azorean Biodiversity Group and University of the Azores, Faculty of Agrarian and Environmental Sciences, 9700–042 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal.
    Evaluation of the effect of zwitterionic buffers on termite gut protists2018In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2018, The International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2018, article id IR/WP 18-10933Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal modification of wood is recognized as the most commercialized wood modification process. The treatment of wood at temperatures usually greater than 180 ºC results in a product with some properties enhanced (dimensional stability, durability, aesthetical colour) and some diminished (mechanical properties). The loss of mechanical strength is recognized as a limitation to the use of thermally modified wood in certain products. The mechanical strength reduction is linked in varying degrees to the release of acidic volatile species, the acid-catalysed depolymerisation of the hemicelluloses present and the plasticization and redistribution of the lignin components present. Buffers, although been designed not to influence the reaction systems, may have some interactions when exposed to some conditions, potentially acting as promoters of biological changes on different systems. In this study, two zwitterionic buffers, bicine and tricine, were chosen to be tested regarding their volatilization reduction properties, as well as tricine due to offering the potential of forming Maillard-type products with fragmented hemicelluloses/volatiles. In order to determine if there were any resultant effects of the bicine and tricine treatments submitted or not to thermal modification, the efficacy against subterranean termites was conducted as well as an evaluation of the effect of the different combinations of treatments on the termite gut symbiotic protists. The durability of thermal modified wood is recognized as low and the results of the present work are in accordance with that perception. However, bicine and tricine treatments alone had a clear influence on the survival of the termites and the study of the protist symbionts (9 morphotypes) gave a better insight of the ability of termites to react to unfavorable diet changes.

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  • 6.
    Duarte, Sónia
    et al.
    LEAF (Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food) Research Centre, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa. Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal.
    Nunes, Lina
    LNEC, National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Structures Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal. cE3c, Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes/Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of the Azores, 9700–042 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal.
    Kržišnik, Davor
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Humar, Miha
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 16521 Praha 6–Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Influence of Zwitterionic Buffer Effects with Thermal Modification Treatments of Wood on Symbiotic Protists in Reticulitermes grassei Clément2021In: Insects, ISSN 2075-4450, E-ISSN 2075-4450, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of thermal modification processes are at temperatures greater than 180 °C, resulting in a product with some properties enhanced and some diminished (e.g., mechanical properties). However, the durability of thermally modified wood to termite attack is recognised as low. Recent attempts at combining thermal modification with chemical modification, either prior to or directly after the thermal process, are promising. Buffers, although not influencing the reaction systems, may interact on exposure to certain conditions, potentially acting as promoters of biological changes. In this study, two zwitterionic buffers, bicine and tricine, chosen for their potential to form Maillard-type products with fragmented hemicelluloses/volatiles, were assessed with and without thermal modification for two wood species (spruce and beech), with subsequent evaluation of their effect against subterranean termites (Reticulitermes grassei Clément) and their symbiotic protists. The effect of the wood treatments on termites and their symbionts was visible after four weeks, especially for spruce treated with tricine and bicine and heat treatment (bicine HT), and for beech treated with bicine and bicine and heat treatment (bicine HT). The chemical behaviour of these substances should be further investigated when in contact with wood and also after heat treatment. This is the first study evaluating the effect of potential Maillard reactions with zwitterionic buffers on subterranean termite symbiotic fauna.

  • 7.
    Dvořák, Ondřej
    et al.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kvietková, Monika Sarvašová
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Šimůnková, Kristýna
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Machanec, Ondřej
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pánek, Miloš
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Pastierovič, Filip
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, 165 00 Prague, Czech Republic.
    The Influence of the Initial Treatment of Oak Wood on Increasing the Durability of Exterior Transparent Coating Systems2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 15, article id 3251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined the impact of undertaking an initial treatment of oak wood by sealing its surface pores with epoxy resin, focusing on the durability of transparent coating systems when exposed outdoors. Throughout the exposure period, various parameters including color, gloss, surface wettability, and both macroscopic and microscopic surface evaluation were continuously monitored. The study involved two sets of samples: one set underwent the pretreatment, while the other did not. Subsequently, four coating systems were applied to the samples, comprising two solvent-based and two water-based coatings. The experiment was conducted over a period of two years, utilizing natural weathering methods within the premises of the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague. The pretreatment with epoxy resin exhibited enhanced durability for all paint systems. The analysis showed a significant difference in gloss and color after 12 months of weathering exposure without any significant effect on surface wettability and sealing. However, after 24 months of the weathering exposure, no significant differences between the sealed and unsealed surface were observed. The most significant change in properties was noted for the water-based coatings used in coating systems number 3 and 4, and these coatings were rated as the best.

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  • 8.
    Esteves, Bruno
    et al.
    Department of Wood Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal; Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and Society-CERNAS-IPV Research Centre, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal.
    Ferreira, Helena
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal.
    Viana, Hélder
    Department of Ecology and Sustainable Agriculture, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal; Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences-CITAB, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados, 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal.
    Ferreira, José
    Department of Wood Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal; Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and Society-CERNAS-IPV Research Centre, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal.
    Domingos, Idalina
    Department of Wood Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal; Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and Society-CERNAS-IPV Research Centre, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal.
    Cruz-Lopes, Luísa
    Centre for Natural Resources, Environment and Society-CERNAS-IPV Research Centre, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal; Department of Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, Av. Cor. José Maria Vale de Andrade, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences, Kamýcká 1176, Praha 6, 16521 Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Nunes, Lina
    Structures Department, LNEC, National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal; Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal; Azorean Biodiversity Group, University of Azores, Rua Capitão João d’Ávila, 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal.
    Termite Resistance, Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of Paulownia tomentosa Wood before and after Heat Treatment2021In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 12, no 8, article id 1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new species in forest management must be undertaken with a degree of care, to help prevent the spread of invasive species. However, new species with higher profitability are needed to increase forest products value and the resilience of rural populations. Paulownia tomentosa has an extremely fast growth. The objective and novelty of this work was to study the potential use of young Paulownia trees grown in Portugal by using heat treatment to improve its properties, thereby allowing higher value applications of the wood. The average chemical composition of untreated and heat-treated wood was determined. The extractive content was determined by successive Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM), ethanol and water as solvents. The composition of lipophilic extracts was performed by injection in GC-MS with mass detection. Insoluble and soluble lignin, holocellulose and α-cellulose were also determined. Physical (density and water absorption and dimensional stability) and mechanical properties (bending strength and bending stiffness) and termite resistance was also determined. Results showed that extractive content increased in all solvents, lignin and α-cellulose also increased and hemicelluloses decreased. Compounds derived from the thermal degradation of lignin were found in heat-treated wood extractions. Dimensional stability improved but there was a decrease in mechanical properties. Resistance against termites was better for untreated wood than for heat-treated wood, possibly due to the thermal degradation of some toxic extractives.

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  • 9.
    Ferreira, José
    et al.
    Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Instituto Politécnico De Viseu, Campus Politécnico De Repeses, Viseu, Portugal.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Esteves, Bruno
    Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Instituto Politécnico De Viseu, Campus Politécnico De Repeses, Viseu, Portugal.
    Cruz-Lopes, Luisa
    Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Instituto Politécnico De Viseu, Campus Politécnico De Repeses, Viseu, Portugal.
    Pereira, Helena
    Forest Research Centre, School of Agriculture, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Domingos, Idalina
    Research Center for Natural Resources, Environment and Society (CERNAS), Instituto Politécnico De Viseu, Campus Politécnico De Repeses, Viseu, Portugal.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Maritime Pine Wood: A Portuguese Case Study2021In: Journal of Sustainable Forestry, ISSN 1054-9811, E-ISSN 1540-756X, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 431-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life Cycle Assessment has become one of the most recognized and internationally accepted method for examining the environmental performance of forest products and processes. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental impact associated with different commercial outputs of maritime pine wood (round, industrial, and residual) produced in the Portuguese forest under natural regeneration. Identifying the hotspots in the life cycle (cradle-to-gate) of each sort of maritime pine was another objective of the study. SimaPro software was used for this study, whilst the CML-IA (baseline) method was chosen to assess the environmental impacts. The study showed that round wood presented the highest values in all impact categories and industrial wood presented the lowest values except in photochemical oxidation where residual wood was the best co-product when economic allocation is chosen. The major hot spots appeared to be the felling and hauling processes due to fossil fuel combustion in the chainsaw and forwarder, respectively. The co-product that should be more environmentally friendly considerably depends on the allocation procedure chosen.

  • 10.
    Gaff, Milan
    et al.
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kačík, František
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic;Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies, Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Technical University in Zvolen, Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Gašparík, Miroslav
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Todaro, Luigi
    School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Corleto, Roberto
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic;School of Agricultural, Forestry, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Basilicata, Potenza, Italy.
    Makovická Osvaldová, Linda
    Department of Fire Engineering, Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Žilina, Žilina, Slovakia.
    Čekovská, Hana
    Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
    The effect of synthetic and natural fire-retardants on burning and chemical characteristics of thermally modified teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood2019In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 200, p. 551-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with the effect of various temperatures of thermal modification and fire retardants on selected burning characteristics and chemical wood components of teak (Tectona grandis L. f.) wood. The thermal modification was carried out at temperatures 160 °C, 180 °C and 210 °C. Subsequently, thermally modified wood was treated by natural (arabinogalactan) and synthetic (ammonium phosphate) fire retardants. The effect of thermal modification as well as fire retardant was detected by burning characteristics such as weight loss, burning rate, maximum burning rate, ratio of the maximum burning rate and time to reach maximum burning rate. The chemical changes caused by the influence of these factors were determined by changing the content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, holocellulose, lignin and extractives. The relationship between burning characteristics and chemical changes in the thermally modified wood was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation. The results showed that the thermal modification of teak wood had a negative effect on its ignition and burning properties. Synthetic fire retardant had the highest retardation effect in all cases. The natural fire retardant caused a better retardation effect on thermally modified wood at temperature 180 and 210 °C. The relative content of lignin, extractives and cellulose increased, while the amount of holocellulose and particularly hemicelluloses decreased.

  • 11.
    Garskaite, Edita
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Stankeviciute, Zivile
    Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Aivaras, Kareiva
    Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Geosciences, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Surface hardness and flammability of Na2SiO3 and nano-TiO2 reinforced wood composites2019In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 9, no 48, p. 27973-27986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to explore an effect of the combined inorganic materials on the wood hardness and flame-retardancy properties in a concept of sustainable material management. Herein, the reinforcement of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood with sodium silicate and TiO2 nanoparticles via vacuum-pressure technique is reported. Pyrolysis of modified wood was studied by TG-FTIR analysis; the results showed that maximum weight loss for the modified wood was obtained at 40–50 °C lower temperatures compared to the reference untreated wood. The Gram–Schmidt profiles and spectra extracted at maxima absorption from Gram–Schmidt plots indicated chemical changes in wood–inorganic composites. SEM/EDS analysis revealed the presence of Na–O–Si solid gel within the wood-cell lumen and showed that TiO2 was homogeneously distributed within the amorphous Na–O–Si glass-forming phase to form a thin surface coating. EDS mapping further revealed the higher diffusivity of sodium into the cell wall compared to the silicon compound. The presence of amorphous sodium silicate and nano-TiO2 was additionally confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR spectra confirmed the chemical changes in Scots pine sapwood induced by alkalization. Brinell hardness test showed that the hardness of the modified wood increased with the highest value (44% increase in hardness) obtained for 10% Na2SiO3–nTiO2 modified wood. The results showed good correlation between TG and flammability test; limiting oxygen index (LOI) values for the wood–inorganic composites increased by 9–14% compared to the untreated wood.

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  • 12.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    COST FP1303 “performance of bio-based building materials”2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Limited, 15 Heol Pen Y Coed, Cimla, Neath, SA11 3SP, United Kingdom.
    Developments within COST Action FP1303 related to the modification of wood2018In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2018, The International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2018, article id IRG/WP 18-40847Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COST Action FP 1303 (Performance of bio-based building materials) was established in 2013 with the main aim to improve the knowledge on the performance of bio-based materials used as building products and the assessment of factors influencing these, with the aim of increasing their service life. This Action has helped in understanding the interlinked relationships between durability, product aesthetics, fibre-moisture relationships, decay hazards and achieving a better understanding of the biology and mechanisms influencing the growth of fungi and other degrading organisms and the consequent damage in terms of discoloration and decay of wood and bio-based building materials with building design and maintenance. Within this COST Action performance is considered in its manifold meaning, i.e. optical, aesthetical, moisture and functional performance and durability. Numerous studies into the performance of modified wood was presented by researchers during the 4-year duration of the Action, and this paper aims to provide an overview of some of the work presented by the more than 260 scientists that took part in the Action activities.

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  • 14.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Limited, Neath, United Kingdom.
    Performance of bio-based building materials - Products meeting expectations2019In: Academic Journal of Civil Engineering, ISSN 2680-1000, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 642-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biobased building materials is an important factor in our modern Built Environment, particularly in meeting global environmental challenges linked to continued urbanization. This increase in use comes at a time when performance expectations continue to rise. This paper will review some of the activities from a recently completed COST Action, FP1303 “Performance of Biobased Building Materials”, with particular emphasis on moisture performance.

  • 15.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy plc, Neath, United Kingdom; University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia.
    Brischke, ChristianLeibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany; University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Performance of Bio-Based Building Materials2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance of Bio-based Building Materials provides guidance on the use of bio-based building materials (BBBM) with respect to their performance. The book focuses on BBBM currently present on the European market. The state-of-the-art is presented regarding material properties, recommended uses, performance expectancies, testing methodology, and related standards.

    Chapters cover both ‘old and traditional’ BBBM since quite a few of them are experiencing a comeback on the market. Promising developments that could become commercial in the near future are presented as well.

    The book will be a valuable reference resource for those working in the bio-based materials research community, architects and agencies dealing with sustainable construction, and graduate students in civil engineering.

  • 16.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy plc, Neath, United Kingdom; University of Primorska, Koper, Slovenia.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University Hannover, Hannover, Germany; University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Preface2017In: Performance of Bio-based Building Materials / [ed] Dennis Jones; Christian Brischke, Elsevier Inc. , 2017, p. xiii-xivChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 16500 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kržišnik, Davor
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hočevar, Miha
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Zagar, Andreja
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Humar, Miha
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela
    Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi, Romania; Centre of Wood Science and Technology, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH11 4EP, UK.
    Popescu, Maria-Cristina
    Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi, Romania.
    Brischke, Christian
    Wood Biology and Wood Products, University of Goettingen, Buesgenweg 4, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany.
    Nunes, Lina
    Structures Department, LNEC, National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Curling, Simon F.
    The Biocomposites Centre, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK.
    Ormondroyd, Graham
    The Biocomposites Centre, Bangor University, Deiniol Road, Bangor LL57 2UW, UK.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 16500 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Evaluation of the effect of a combined chemical and thermal modification of wood though the use of bicine and tricine.2022In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of thermal modification of wood have been well established, particularly in terms of reductions in mechanical performance. In recent years, there has been an increase in studies related to the Maillard reaction. More commonly associated with food chemistry, it involves the reaction of amines and reducing sugars during cooking procedures. This study has attempted to combine the use of amines and thermal modification, with subsequent properties investigated for the treatment of spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). In this initial study, the combined effects of chemical treatments by tricine and bicine were investigated with thermal modification. Along with some preliminary data on mechanical properties, the modifications which appeared in the wood structure were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and biological studies according to EN113 and EN117 methodologies. The hierarchal study interpretation of FTIR suggested interactions between the bicine or tricine and the wood, which was partly supported by the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC), though other tests were not as conclusive. The potential of the method warrants further consideration, which will be described.

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  • 18.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Garskaite, Edita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Recent studies into improved fire retardancy of wood undertaken at Luleå University of Technology.2023In: Proceedings IRG54 Scientific Conference on Wood Protection., The International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2023, article id IRG/WP 23-30784Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, 16500 Prague, Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Recent studies into improving the fire retardancy of particleboards at Luleå University of Technologt.2023In: Proceedings of International Panel Production Symposium 2023 / [ed] Spear, M., Curling, S., Dimitriou, A, Elias, R. & Loxton, C., The BioComposite Centre, Bangor University, UK , 2023, p. 85-93Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Militz, Holger
    Wood Biology and Wood Products, Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.
    Overview of the Tenth European Conference on Wood Modification (ECWM10)2023In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Limited, 15 Heol Pen Y Coed, Cimla, Neath SA11 3SP, U.K.
    Nunes, Lina
    Structures Department, National Laboratory for Civil Engineering, Structures Department, Av. do Brasil, 101, 1700-066 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Duarte, Sonia
    ISA, Universidade de Lisboa and LEAF- Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food Research Centre, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal.
    Improving Performance of Thermal Modified Wood against Termites with Bicine and Tricine2022In: Construction Technologies and Architecture, ISSN 2674-1229, Vol. 1, p. 735-742, article id 276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to incorporate wood in modern construction has led to a considerable increase in the use of wood modification techniques, and especially thermal modification. However, thermally modified wood has poor performance against termites. The concept of using a combined chemical and thermal modification has been undertaken through the impregnation with either bicine or tricine prior to modification. This paper considers the effects of these chemicals on the activity of termites and considers their mode of action in terms of termite survival and on their effects on the symbiotic protists present within the termite gut. 

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  • 22.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela
    Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania. Centre of Wood Science and Technology, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK.
    Krzisnik, Davor
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hocevar, Davor
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Humar, Miha
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Popescu, Maria-Cristina
    Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi, Romania.
    The use of bicine and tricine as possible Maillard reagents in a combined thermal/chemical modification of beech2019In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2019, The International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2019, article id IRG/WP 19-40852Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of thermal modification have been well established, particularly in terms of reductions in mechanical performance. In recent years, there has been an increase in studies related to the Maillard reaction. More commonly associated with food chemistry, it involves the reaction of amines and reducing sugars during cooking procedures. This paper has attempted to combine the use of amines and thermal modification, with subsequent properties investigated for the treatment of beech (Fagus sylvatica). In this initial study, the combined effects of chemical treatments by tricine and bicine were investigated with thermal modification. Along with some preliminary data on mechanical properties, the modifications which appeared in the wood structure were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy. After the treatment about 6-7 % of WPG was identified in treated samples, but further thermal treatment decreased the WPG to about 5%. The modifications appearing in the spectra were mostly related to increase of the intensities of the bands assigned to C=O groups but also to N-H and C-N groups, with shifting of some bands to higher wavenumber values.

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  • 23.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd, 15 Heol Pen Y Coed, Neath, SA11 3SP United Kingdom.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    A review of wood modification across Europe as part of COST FP14072019In: Proceedings of Timber 2019, London, 3- 4 Jul 2019, Institute of Materials, Minerals & Mining (IOM3) , 2019, p. 107-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood modification (chemical, thermal, impregnation) represents an assortment of innovative processes continually being adopted in the wood protection sector. COST Action FP1407 (Understanding wood modification through an integrated scientific and environmental impact approach - ModWoodLife) was initiated in 2015, with its 4-year programme aiming to investigate modification processing and products design with emphasis on their environmental impacts. As was reported at Timber 2018, a recent task within COST FP1407 was to re-evaluate the current status of wood modification across the member countries, which resulted in a meeting in Florence, Italy, where the national status of wood modifications in 18 different European countries was presented.

    However, it became clear that activities in other European countries needed to be addressed, and as a result, a more extensive evaluation of wood modification processes across Europe was undertaken. As a result, it became clear that the original figures quoted at Timber 2018 were considerably lower than actual production levels, which are reported herein. These figures suggest that wood modification is undergoing a significant increase in production due to demand, with levels of recent growth seemingly suggesting this will continue for the coming years.

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  • 24.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    A Review of Wood Modification Globally – Updated Findings from COST FP14072020In: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on the Built Environment, ISSN 2738-5418, Vol. 1, article id 1Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood modification (chemical, thermal, impregnation) represents an assortment of innovative processes continually being adoptedin the wood protection sector. COST Action FP1407 “Understanding wood modification through an integrated scientific andenvironmental impact approach — ModWoodLife” was initiated in 2015, with its 4-year programme aiming to investigate modificationprocessing and products design with emphasis on their environmental impacts. Among the final tasks within COST FP1407 wasto re-evaluate the current status of wood modification across the member countries. However, it became clear that activities in otherEuropean countries needed to be addressed, and as a result, a more extensive evaluation of wood modification processes across Europewas undertaken, as well as determining the activities globally. This paper outlines some of the recent updates in wood modification,along with summarising data collected by the authors from international colleagues and online sources, so providing an evaluationof the overall global position. These figures suggest that wood modification is undergoing a significant increase in production due todemand, with levels of recent growth seemingly suggesting this will continue for the coming years. Based on data gathered, the globalcommercial production of modified wood is dominated by thermal modification processes, which produce 1,110,000 m3/year. Amongthe other commercialised processes, acetylation accounts for 120,000 m3/year and furfurylation 45,000 m3/year. A further globalproduction of around 330,000 m3/year is estimated for other processes, predominantly based on resin-based systems (e.g., Impreg- andCompreg-based processes).

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  • 25.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    A Review of Wood Modification globally: Findings from COST FP1407 and 2019 updates2020In: Integrating sustainability and health in buildings through renewable materials: InnoRenew CoE International Conference 2020, Izola, Slovenia: InnoRenew CoE , 2020, p. 35-35Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 26.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wood modification in Sweden2018In: Procedings of COST Action FP1407 WG1 and WG4 meeting.: Wood modification in Europe : processes, products, applications / [ed] Goli G and Todaro L., Florence, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 27.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, DickLuleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.Goli, GiacomoUniversity of Florence.Todaro, LuigiUniversity of Basilicata, Potenza.
    Wood modification in Europe: A state-of-the-art about processes, products, applications2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of a questionnaire and subsequent collation of data, which outlines the current status of wood modification across Europe in terms of national inventories and groups that have reported current activity in the respective research areas covered in this report.

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  • 28.
    Jones, Dennis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. DJ Timber Consultancy Ltd, 15 Heol Pen Y Coed, Neath, SA11 3SP United Kingdom.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kutnar, Andreja
    University of Primorska, Andrej Marušič Institute, Muzejski trg 2; SI-6000 Koper, Slovenia; InnoRenew CoE, Livade 6, SI-6310 Izola, Slovenia.
    A Review of Wood Modification across Europe as Part of COST FP14072018In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wood Modification 2018, Arnhem, The Netherlands / [ed] Jos Creemers; Thomas Houben; Bôke Tjeerdsma; Holger Militz; Brigitte Junge; Jos Gootjes, SHR B.V. , 2018, p. 24-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood modification (chemical, thermal, impregnation) represents an assortment of innovative processes currently being adopted in the wood protection sector. Though many aspects of these treatments are known, the fundamental influence of the process on product performance, the environment, and end of life scenarios remain relatively unknown. It is essential to integrate interactive assessment of process parameters, developed product properties, and environmental impacts. To optimise modification processing to minimise environmental impacts, much more information must be gathered about all process related factors affecting the environment (VOC, energy use, end of life use, etc.). To this end, COST Action FP1407 (Understanding wood modification through an integrated scientific and environmental impact approach - ModWoodLife) was initiated in 2015, with its 4-year programme aiming to investigate modification processing and products design with emphasis on their environmental impacts. This will require analysis of the whole value chain, from forest through processing, installation, in service, end of life, second/third life (cascading) and ultimately incineration with energy recovery.A recent task within COST FP1407 was to re-evaluate the current status of wood modification across the member countries, tasks previously undertaken within COST Actions E22 and E37 respectively and reported in several papers within several of the previous European Conferences on Wood Modification (ECWM). Whilst the early projected advances anticipated for various types of modified wood has not been as previously reported. During a COST FP1407 meeting in Florence, Italy, the national status of wood modifications in 18 different European countries was presented, and the findings will be presented herein.

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  • 29.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Phenol-formaldehyde-resin treatment of Scots pine sapwood for the reduction of resin exudation through coatings2022In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 144-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brown discolouration caused by resin exudation from knots is a problem for a range of light-coloured painted pines, and will negatively affect the appearance of the finish. To solve this problem, a hot-and-cold bath impregnation process of wood prior to painting was tested. Sawn timber, 18 × 120 mm in cross-section dimension, were heated in an oven and then immediately immersed in a cold liquid containing a phenol-formaldehyde-based solution, filling a 1–5 mm thick layer beneath the surface with phenol-formaldehyde. After curing, the timbers were painted with a white coloured coating system intended for exterior use, and tested in artificial weathering test (QUV). The phenol-formaldehyde treatment greatly reduced the discolouration of the coating compared to non-impregnated wood.

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  • 30.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Phosphorylation of Kraft lignin to be used as a water-stable fire retardant in wood2022In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Wood Modification / [ed] Candelier, K., Collet, K., Dumarçay, S. et al., Nancy: University of Lorraine, Faculty of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Study and Research on the Wood Material (LERMaB) , 2022, p. 374-377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions for phosphorylation of softwood kraft lignin was studied. Heating lignin at 150°C with ammonium dihydrogen phosphate water solution in the presence of urea gave a phosphor content in the worked-up product of ca. 2%. The intumescent behaviour during heating could also add to the fire stability of a potential product. In order to use lignin that has been treated with phosphoric acid as fire retardant in wood, acid removal or neutralisation is needed to obtain a final sustainable product. Water washing of phosphoric acid treated lignin led, however, to significant mass losses and a material that under suitable phosphorylation conditions (low temperature and shorter periods) could be efficiently solubilised in alkaline water.

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  • 31.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Elustondo, Diego
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Thermally modified wood treated with methacrylate2018In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting IRG49 Scientific Conference on Wood Protection Sandton, Johannesburg, South Africa 29 April-3 May, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally modified timber (TMT)from Scots pine sapwood similar to Thermo-D quality was impregnated with methacrylate resin by the hot-and-cold method and subsequently cured at elevated temperatures. The results showedthat methacrylate resin could be used to reduce colouring of painted TMT wood during accelerated weathering probably by hindering the migration of extractives. The resin itself did not reduce greying of the unpainted wood. Hardness was only slightly improved by treatment with the resin probably due to a higher density of the material. Formation of blisters occurred but wasreduced by treatment with the resin. Resistance to mould growth by a mixture of Aureobasidium pullulans, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium purpurogenumwas performed by applying EN-15457:2014. Treatment with methacrylic resin hindered the colonisation of the three last mouldfungi.

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  • 32.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Investigations into the use of Maleic Anhydride/Sodium Hypophosphite as a Wood Modification Process2020In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2020, Stockholm: The International Research Group on Wood Protection , 2020, article id IRG/WP 20-40891Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of crosslinked bonds between wood constituents is believed to be an effective way to stabilize wood against wet conditions. The possibility to use maleic anhydride (MA) combined with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as crosslinking agents was studied, using Scots pine sapwood and a model compound. The modified wood showed weight gain and bulking effect after treatment and subsequent Soxhlet extractions, which indicated penetration into the wood cell wall and reaction of the chemicals with the wood constituents. The FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of an ester bond between the wood and MA. Furthermore, a decrease of intensity of band at 1635 cm-1 indicated a reduction of the double bond between carbons in MA after further treatment with SHP, especially at 170 ̊C. Such reactions were studied using monomethyl maleate (MMM) and SHP. The 13C NMR spectra of the reaction product confirmed a reduction of the double bond between carbons. This paper outlines studies undertaken to date, along with outlining aims of ongoing and future work.

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  • 33.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Antzutkin, Oleg
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Shah, Faiz Ullah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wood modification with maleic anhydride and sodium hypophosphite2019In: Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry, ISWFPC20, September 9-11, 2019, Tokyo, Japan, 4 pp., Tokyo: The University of Tokyo , 2019, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 34.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Suchdol, 165 21, Praha 6, Czech Republic.
    Mantanis, George
    Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, 43100, Karditsa, Greece.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, Suchdol, 165 21, Praha 6, Czech Republic.
    Dimensional stabilisation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood by reaction with maleic anhydride and sodium hypophosphite2021In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 589-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood has the ability to absorb and desorb moisture, which can affect its dimensional size when in use. Limiting this can provide products with greater shape stability and less stresses on external coatings. One method that has been investigated for achieving this has been through chemical modification. In this work, the dimensional stabilisation imparted to Scots pine sapwood by chemical modification with maleic anhydride (MA) combined with sodium hypophosphite (SHP) was investigated. The influence of concentration of MA, treatment temperature and treatment period on weight percent gain (WPG) and bulking coefficient (BC) during treatment with MA and SHP of wood was studied. Furthermore, dimensional stability was determined by the water soak/oven dry method (wet-dry cycle) through five cycles in order to determine the hydrolytic stability of the ester bond and any potential cross-linking reactions. Wood blocks (20 × 20 × 10 mm) modified with MA combined with SHP exhibited lower weight loss following water soaking than unmodified blocks or MA-treated blocks. Wood blocks modified with MA and SHP showed the best anti-swelling efficiency and minimum wet-volume (water-saturated). However, as the concentration of SHP increased, dimensional stability was diminished without any increase in weight percentage gain after water soaking. When combined with FTIR results, it appeared that the modification with MA and SHP seemed to form cross-linking between wood constituents, though high concentration of SHP did not seem to result in additional cross-linking.

  • 35.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Maleic anhydride and sodium hypophosphite as a potential wood modification system2019In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering - WSE2019 / [ed] Maria Fredriksson, Lund: Lund University Open Access, 2019, p. 28-30Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 36.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Wood Modification with maleic anhydride and sodium hypophosphite.2021In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting ofthe Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering – WSE2020 / [ed] Marketta Sipi; Juha Rikala, Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki , 2021, p. 44-46Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 37.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Methacrylic resin for protection of wood from discoloration by mould growth and weathering2020In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 7018-7033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discoloration of uncoated wood surfaces in both outdoor and indoor use in non-heated spaces has become an increasing problem in European timber constructions due to the use of less toxic substances for protection and also changes in outdoor climate conditions, necessitating the use of protective coatings. To investigate the effect of methyl methacrylic (MMA) resin for the protection of wood from discoloration and mould growth, resin-treated wood surfaces were studied in a laboratory-scale mould test, as well as in an outdoor weathering test. Non-modified Scots pine and Norway spruce were used, and some of the test materials were also thermally modified. The resin suppressed mould growth for the laboratory-scale experiments. The protective effect was considerably reduced for outdoor tests. The MA resin did not effectively prevent the wood from greying from ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure; there was some protective effect detected on the pine. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of weathered specimens showed a reduction of lignin-associated absorption bands for all treatments, which corresponded to the UV degradation and greying of the wood surface. It is suggested that MMA resin may provide adequate protection against mould growth on wood without direct exposure to rain and sunshine (e.g., attics, basements, etc).

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  • 38.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Thybring, Emil Engelund
    University of Copenhagen, Dept. Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Forestry and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Recent advances in wood modification through the use of maleic anhydride and sodium hypophosphite2022In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Wood Modification / [ed] Candelier, K., Collet, K., Dumarçay, S. et al., Nancy: University of Lorraine, Faculty of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Study and Research on the Wood Material (LERMaB) , 2022, p. 226-233Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maleic anhydride (MA) is a cyclic anhydride capable of forming an ester bond with wood constituents, providing enhanced dimensional stability and fungal resistance of wood. However, the weight gain through treatment was lost during wet-dry cycle, which indicates that the ester bonds in maleated wood is susceptible to hydrolysis. This study focuses on improving the stability of the maleated product through the use of sodium hypophosphite. Studies have shown the combined treatment resulted in improved anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), lower weight loss and smaller saturated volumes than untreated or specimens treated with maleic anhydride along. In order to better understand the relationship between the modified wood and water, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the influence of moisture in wood. The modification process resulted in a weak wood–water interaction using LFNMR, suggesting an increased T2 relaxation time of capillary water. However, the weak wood–water interaction did not seem to be related to the accessible hydroxyl groups because the modification reaction resulted in a similar number of hydroxyl groups as present in unmodified wood. This finding would appear to agree with the concept of MA modification resulting in the “ring opening” of the anhydride, creating a carboxylic acid group for each hydroxyl group modified within the wood.

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  • 39.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Ross, Lone
    Division of Forest and Forest Resources, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Alfredsson, Gry
    Division of Forest and Forest Resources, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, Greece.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Durability of wood modified with maleic anhydride and sodium hypophosphite.2023In: 19th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE 2023): 19th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE 2023), Ås and Oslo, Norway, October 10-12, 2023 / [ed] Larnøy, E, Ås: NIBIO , 2023, p. 22-24Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 40.
    Kim, Injeong
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Thybring, Emil Engelund
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Praha 6-Suchdol, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, Griva 11, 43100 Karditsa, Greece.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Praha 6-Suchdol, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 1176, 16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Characterisation of Moisture in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Sapwood Modified with Maleic Anhydride and Sodium Hypophosphite2021In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 1333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the wood–water interactions in Scots pine sapwood modified with maleic anhydride (MA) and sodium hypophosphite (SHP) was studied in the water-saturated state. The water in wood was studied with low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LFNMR) and the hydrophilicity of cell walls was studied by infrared spectroscopy after deuteration using liquid D2O. The results of LFNMR showed that the spin–spin relaxation (T2) time of cell wall water decreased by modification, while T2 of capillary water increased. Furthermore, the moisture content and the amount of water in cell walls of modified wood were lower than for unmodified samples at the water-saturated state. Although the amount of accessible hydroxyl groups in modified wood did not show any significant difference compared with unmodified wood, the increase in T2 of capillary water indicates a decreased affinity of the wood cell wall to water. However, for the cell wall water, the physical confinement within the cell walls seemed to overrule the weaker wood–water interactions.

  • 41.
    Kumar, Anuj
    et al.
    Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Maarintie 6, 02150, Espoo, Finland.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Faculty of Technology, Linnaeus University, Lückligs Plats 1, 35195, Växjö, Sweden.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Amiandamhen, Stephen O.
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Faculty of Technology, Linnaeus University, Lückligs Plats 1, 35195, Växjö, Sweden.
    Forest Biomass Availability and Utilization Potential in Sweden: A Review2021In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 65-80Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in many parts of the world for more effective biomass utilization due to legislative and public interest in sustainable development. Whilst much of the effort has been on energy generation from biomass, there is considerable interest on biomass availability and utilization for other end uses. With about 1% of the world’s commercial forest areas, Sweden provides about 10% of the sawnwood, and pulp and paper that is traded on the global market. The Swedish agricultural sector also contributes to biomass availability, not only by production of sustainable food crops, but also by utilizing side streams and underutilized land for biomaterial purposes. To meet the challenges that climate change presents, there has to be a shift to sustainable biomass production and increased interest in promoting a circular bioeconomy. This review presents a systematic assessment on the availability of biomass and its utilization potential in Sweden. The review also focuses on biomass production and trade in the Swedish forest industry. In addition, the environmental impact of biomass utilization is discussed.

  • 42.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Chi, Zhang
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fire-retardant phosphorus-containing silica gel modified particleboard2022In: Nordic Polymer Days (NPD 2022), 1-3 June, Gothenburg, Sweden: Book of the abstracts for posters, Chalmers university of technology , 2022, article id 46Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 43.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, GR-431 00 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    High Leach-Resistant Fire-Retardant Modified Pine Wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) by In Situ Phosphorylation and Carbamylation2023In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 11381-11396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exterior application of fire-retardant (FR) timber necessitates it to have high durability because of the possibility to be exposed to rainfall. In this study, water-leaching resistance of FR wood has been imparted by grafting phosphate and carbamate groups of the water-soluble FR additives ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP)/urea onto the hydroxyl groups of wood polymers via vacuum-pressure impregnation, followed by drying/heating in hot air. A darker and more reddish wood surface was observed after the modification. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP-MAS NMR), and direct-excitation 31P MAS NMR suggested the formation of C–O–P covalent bonds and urethane chemical bridges. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry suggested the diffusion of ADP/urea into the cell wall. The gas evolution analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry revealed a potential grafting reaction mechanism starting with the thermal decomposition of urea. Thermal behavior showed that the FR-modified wood lowered the main decomposition temperature and promoted the formation of char residues at elevated temperatures. The FR activity was preserved even after an extensive water-leaching test, confirmed by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimetry. The reduction of fire hazards was achieved through the increase of the LOI to above 80%, reduction of 30% of the peak heat release rate (pHRR2), reduction of smoke production, and a longer ignition time. The modulus of elasticity of FR-modified wood increased by 40% without significantly decreasing the modulus of rupture.

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  • 44.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Bio-based adhesive derived from citric acid and sorbitol for wood-composite manufacture2022In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 397-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood composites are manufactured by joining wood fibres, strands, or particles together with an adhesive, but it is necessary for eliminate the use of formaldehyde-based adhesives in the manufacture of wood composites for the sake of indoor air quality and human health. This initial study has demonstrated the use of sorbitol and citric acid as a potential bio-based formaldehyde-free adhesive for wood-composite manufacture. A solution of citric acid and sorbitol in water was sprayed onto wood particles which were then pressed at 160°C, 180°C, or 200°C for 13 min, to produce boards with a target thickness of 8 mm. The FTIR spectra contained an absorption band at 1720cm−1, presumably due to the esters of citric acid and sorbitol. Pressing of a temperature of 200°C gave boards with the highest modulus of elasticity and the highest internal bond strength. The results reveal a new potential bio-adhesive for the manufacture of wood composites.

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  • 45.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, GR-431 00 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Fire Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Furfurylated Pine Wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) Treated with Guanyl-Urea Phosphate2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 1829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) was introduced into furfurylated wood in order to improve fire retardancy. Modified wood was produced via vacuum-pressure impregnation of the GUP–furfuryl alcohol (FA) aqueous solution, which was then polymerized at elevated temperature. The water leaching resistance of the treated wood was tested according to European standard EN 84, while the leached water was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and inductively coupled plasma–sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). This new type of furfurylated wood was further characterized in the laboratory by evaluating its morphology and elemental composition using optical microscopy and electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). The chemical functionality was detected using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the fire resistance was tested using cone calorimetry. The dimensional stability was evaluated in wet–dry soaking cycle tests, along with the mechanical properties, such as the Brinell hardness and bending strength. The fire retardancy of the modified furfurylated wood indicated that the flammability of wood can be depressed to some extent by introducing GUP. This was reflected in an observed reduction in heat release rate (HRR2) from 454.8 to 264.9 kW/m2, without a reduction in the material properties. In addition, this leaching-resistant furfurylated wood exhibited higher fire retardancy compared to conventional furfurylated wood. A potential method for producing fire-retardant treated furfurylated wood stable to water exposure has been suggested.

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  • 46.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Lab of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Fire Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Pine Wood Impregnated with Melamine Formaldehyde Resin in-Situ with Guanyl-Urea Phosphate/Boric Acid2020In: Wood & Fire Safety: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Wood & Fire Safety 2020 / [ed] Linda Makovicka Osvaldova, Frank Markert, Samuel L. Zelinka, Springer, 2020, p. 83-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aimed at finding ways to improve the leaching resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood impregnated with water soluble fire retardant (FR). Sapwood specimens of Scots pine (10 × 10 × 50 mm) were impregnated with aqueous solution of guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP)/boric acid (BA). Limiting oxygen index (LOI) revealed that treatment could improve the fire performance. At the same time, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) illustrated increased thermal stability after the treatment. However, since the FR itself was not fixed within the wood cell wall, it was extracted during water leaching (EN 84), and the wood lost its fire retarding property. The resistance to leaching of FR from the treated wood can be primarily improved while maintaining high fire retarding performance and thermal stability of treated wood by mixing melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin with GUP/BA before impregnation to the wood. To mix GUP/BA to MF solution, due to the acidic nature of GUP/BA, the condensation/polymerisation reaction would be accelerated in an undesired way even if the solution was adjusted to non-acidic by NaOH. The resulting solution would not penetrate deeply into the wood structure, whilst it would be difficult to re-use the FR solution. In order to avoid the reaction proceeding in an undesired way, introducing 0.5 wt% of pentaerythritol to the GUP/BA/MF solution can decrease the reaction rate. Additionally, it improved the weight percentage gain (WPG) and fire retarding performance, without significantly influencing the leaching resistance and thermal stability. Overall, it is suggested that such a treatment could be a suitable methodology for producing exterior-use fire-retardant pine wood.

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  • 47.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Morphology influence of fire-retardant additives on melamine formaldehyde resin-modified wood2020In: Proceedings of the 16th Annual Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering - WSE2020 / [ed] Marketta Sipi, Juha Rikala, University of Helsinki, 2020, p. 44-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the leachability of the water-borne fire-retardants (FRs) guanylurea phosphate (GUP)/boric acid (BA) in treated wood could be reduced with the help of melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin. The mechanism on how the MF resin reduced the leachability of the FRs was however unclear. In this study, the morphologies of untreated, MF resin modified, as well as FRs with MF resin modified wood were investigated by an optical microscope intended to determine the mode of action of the resin with the FRs.

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  • 48.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Vazovova 5, SK-811 07 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Vazovova 5, SK-811 07 Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Garskaite, Edita
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Lab of Wood Science and Technology, University of Thessaly, Griva 11, GR-43100 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcḱ 1176, Praha 6 - Suchdol CZ-16521, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcḱ 1176, Praha 6 - Suchdol CZ-16521, Czech Republic.
    Approaching Highly Leaching-Resistant Fire-Retardant Wood by In Situ Polymerization with Melamine Formaldehyde Resin2021In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 6, no 19, p. 12733-12745Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the work was to improve the leaching resistance of fire-retardant (FR) modified wood by the incorporation of a thermoset resin. Here, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was impregnated with melamine formaldehyde (MF) resin and hydrophilic FRs guanyl-urea phosphate/boric acid by a vacuum-pressure treatment. Resistance to leaching of FR-modified wood was evaluated, after conducting an accelerated aging test according to European standard EN 84. Inductively coupled plasma analysis showed that the incorporation of MF resin significantly reduced the leachability of FRs. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry revealed that the mechanism of water resistance was by doping the FRs into MF resin microspheres. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the chemical functionality changes of FR-modified wood such as the formation of methylene bridges by drying the modified wood specimens. An increase in the thermal stability of FR-modified wood was confirmed by thermal gravimetric analysis. Excellent fire performance of FR-modified wood after leaching was affirmed by the limiting oxygen index and cone calorimeter tests.

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  • 49.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Composite strategy for improving fire-retardancy of furfurylated wood2022In: Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Wood Modification / [ed] Candelier, K., Collet, K., Dumarçay, S. et al., Nancy: University of Lorraine, Faculty of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Study and Research on the Wood Material (LERMaB) , 2022, p. 393-399Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Furfurylated wood has been used widely for exterior purposes due to its superior dimensional stability and biological durability, though its fire resistance is not enhanced. Here, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was impregnated with a hygroscopic fire-retardant guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) and furfuryl alcohol (FA) by a vacuum-pressure impregnation followed by curing in elevated temperature. The water-resistance of such treated material was evaluated according to European standard EN 84. Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) revealed the penetration of GUP into the cell wall. The hydrophobic FA polymerised in-situ within the wood structure, and this enhanced the water-resistance of GUP. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the chemical functionalities changed such as formation of methylene bridges attributed to the polymerised FA and ketone groups attributed to GUP. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that GUP enhanced thermal stability at elevated temperature by promoting char formation. Fire stability test examined by limiting oxygen index (LOI) showed the improvement of fire-retardancy by the incorporation of GUP. Mechanical properties examined by Brinell hardness and three-point bending test indicated that GUP has a low impact on the properties of surface hardness, modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) of the furfurylated wood. The work suggests that GUP/FA treatment has the prospective to impart substantial fire-retardancy to the furfurylated wood with small reduction in other properties, thus increasing the potential for exterior applications. 

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  • 50.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Lab of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences & Design, University of Thessaly, Karditsa, Greece.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic.
    Leach-resistant fire-retardant treated furfurylated wood by incorporating guanyl-urea phosphate2021In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 429-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Furfurylated wood has been used widely for exterior purposes due to its superior dimensional stability and biological durability, though its fire resistance is not enhanced. Here, the introduction of the fire-retardant additive guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) into furfurylated wood is reported. The treatment improved both the thermal and fire stabilities of the modified wood, as supported by the results of thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) before and after accelerated ageing testing (according to EN 84) to determine the water resistance of the treatment. The results indicated that the hydroscopic GUP remained within the wood structure and provided superior thermal and fire properties. The work suggests the idea of combining GUP and furfuryl alcohol (FA), which has the prospective to impart substantial fire-retardancy to the furfurylated wood, thus increasing the potential for exterior applications. 

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  • rtf