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  • 1.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydrotermisk karbonisering: en praktisk avfallsbehandlingsmöjlighet?2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a treatment where an organic material is subjected to a combination of heat and pressure, for example 200°C and 20 bars. Then nutrients are dissolved and the structure of the material is changed, leading to a stabilization and comminution, and making it easier to separate from the inorganic materials. Previously HTC has been used mostly for fuel production, but in this study the potential for detoxification and separation of wastes is in focus, and what role HTC can play as a waste management method. The purpose is to judge the potential of HTC as a method to increase recycling of nutrients in a circular economy with a simultaneous increased detoxification compared to biological treatment, and less emissions of carbondioxide trough other uses of organic materials than as fuel.

    To achieve these goals a lab experiment was done with subsequent chemical analyses, and the results provided a basis for a multivariate analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results shows a detoxification trough a separation of the amounts of hazardous heavy metals and that there is an increase in heating value. However, the processed material cannot be used as a soil improver or as a construction material, but this is due to the fact that it was already contaminated.

    HTC is most suitable for wet, organic, mixed wastes. A market analysis shows that 100 000's tons of these wastes are produced every year in Sweden.

    To sum up, the process can be interesting as a waste management method, however more research is needed on the mechanical properties and separation of the material.

  • 2.
    Marklund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Treatment oriented waste characterization2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New types of materials and products are developed every day, and subsequently, new types of wastes. At the same time, new regulations are put forth to protect human health and the ecosystems from the negative impacts of wastes. Often, the waste management industry is responsible to deal with these problems, and hence, good knowledge about wastes and their treatment is crucial. Waste is normally characterized in order to determine a treatment; however, this usually implies a known treatment method.

    This thesis aims to provide a structured approach about how to describe different treatments, and to provide guidance on how to characterize wastes in a solution oriented manner. A distinction is made between two types of treatments: those based on separation processes and those based on transformation processes, as well as combinations of the two. Separation processes are common in mechanical treatment such as sieving or air-classification. Transformation processes are common in such treatments as shredding, electroporation, radiation treatment, and stabilization. Most treatments consist of both a transformation and a separation process, such as incineration, in which the organic carbon is oxidized (transformed) into CO2,that then is separated from the remaining solids. Other examples of combined processes are composting and anaerobic digestion.

    A framework is presented that enables a quantitative description of different waste treatments such as anaerobic digestion and incineration in the same context. All transformation processes take place in an environment that can be described by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, redox, radiation etc. By relating different treatments or observations to each other in an n-dimension matrix, it is possible to not only locate the currently known treatments, but also to locate unexplored areas, i.e. combinations of environmental factors that could be used to treat wastes in new ways.

    The addition of the n-dimensional framework to the general characterization model, together with the “top down” strategy for characterization provide valuable insights useful for dealing with new types of wastes in an efficient manner.

  • 3.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Characterization and mechanical separation of organic matter in construction and demolition waste finesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction and demolition waste (CDW) amounts to a large fraction of produced waste. 37 %-58 % was found to be fines. Wood is a common building material in the Nordic countries, so CDW fines have a high organic content. Typically, CDW fines are landfilled, but due to the high content of total organic carbon (TOC), this is not allowed. In order to investigate potential treatments or uses of these fines, they were characterized, with focus on their organic content. The potential for mechanical separation was tested by sieving and by float-sink separation in water. The organic content is higher in the larger and lighter particles. Mechanical separation by particle size using a 10 mm screen is not likely to consistently produce an under sieve fraction with low TOC content (<10 %). After float-sink separation, the sink fraction still contains 9-42% volatile solids (VS). However, based on tests of biogas potential and respiration activity, the biological activity of the sink fraction can be considered low. This is confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis, showing an organic carbon (OC) content of only 1-2 %. The TOC (measured by CO2 formation) is up to nine times higher than the OC, indicating that the TOC is not a reliable assay to measure organic carbon. Further studies will show if screening up to 10 mm, or screening in combination with density separation can yield a low TOC fraction for landfilling.

  • 4.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Float-sink separation of C&D waste: a case of treatment oriented waste characterization2017In: Sixteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium: 2 -6 October 2017 S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, Italy, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, some wastes can,due to their carbon content,be unsuitable for neither of these systems. Therefore, there is aneed for methods to remove organic carbon from wastes. One of these wastesis the construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate using water for separating the waste by density, to see if this is a suitable method for separating carbon-containingmaterials, both in lab and field scale tests. Results show that halfof the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method cannot be said to reliably produce a sink fraction that is suitable for landfilling, as it still contains too much organic materials.

  • 5.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines2018In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

  • 6.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    The impacts of environments on waste: Part 1: The influence of thermal environments on organic wastesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 6 of 6
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