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  • 1.
    Rothhämel, Mirja
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Near-surface soil stabilisation to reduce the frost susceptibility of soft soils2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Rothhämel, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Al-Jabban, Wathiq
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Influence of low temperature curing and  freeze-thaw-cycles on the stiffness of silt stabilised with hydraulic binder2019In: / [ed] DGGT - German Geotechnical Society, Essen, Germany, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silt is a high frost susceptible soil that requires actions in construction works in re-gions with frost. To improve the engineering conditions of silt and other fine-grained soils with hydraulic binder is common in regions with moderate climate, but seldom in cold climate. This publication presents a laboratory study of a Swedish clayey silt stabilised with Petrit T, a by-product from sponge iron production. The samples were cured at +4°C, similar to conditions in northern Sweden, for 14, 28 and 90 days. The stress-strain-curves were plotted while testing the unconfined compression strength (UCS). The study contains also samples that were exposed to 12 freeze-thaw-cycles as well as subsequent curing time. One third of the samples were always conducted to a surcharge, one third during the freeze-thaw-cycles and the subsequent curing time, the rest had no surcharge. The results show differences in both stiffness and strength, with lower values of both for the samples that had endured freeze-thaw-cycles. The results of the samples with surcharge show higher stiffness and strength than those without surcharge at the same testing time

  • 3.
    Rothhämel, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Influence of cold curing temperature and freeze–thaw on the UCS of stabilised silty sandIn: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, ISSN 1755-0750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-grained soils are often not suitable as subsoil for roads or railways or other large-scale constructions due to their sensitivity to settlements as well as their frost susceptibility. The engineering properties as well as the frost durability of such soils can be improved by stabilising it with hydraulic binders. Stabilisation is quite often used in countries with moderate climate, but seldom in cold climate. This publication presents a laboratory study of a Swedish silty sand stabilised with Multicem, a cement type containing 50% cement kiln dust. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as a measure of strength. The study investigates different binder contents and different curing times. The UCS was measured before and after 12 freeze–thaw cycles as well as after a subsequent curing time (28 d). The curing conditions were adapted to conditions as given in northern countries – that is, +4°C. The results show that the strength gained by stabilisation is sufficient even at this cold curing temperature. The strength after the freeze–thaw cycles is still significant higher than without stabilisation. The recovering time after the freeze–thaw cycles may allow a continued curing, which is indicated by a higher strength. This remaining strength should become subject for further investigation.

  • 4.
    Rothhämel, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rosenberg, Matthias
    Technical University Braunschweig, Germany.
    Terrasstabilisering i nordiskt klimat2018In: / [ed] Swedish Geotechnical Society, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsoil stabilisation is only seldom applied in Sweden in spite of the fact that the idea is already old and used all over the world. One main reason for this is the uncertainty about the frost-stability of the stabilised soil material. This research project focusses on frost-resistance of soil stabilised with hydraulic binder, meaning lime, cement or industrial residual products, e.g. fly-ash or slag. Lab experiments showed increasing strength even at low temperature. Moreover, the strength directly after freeze-thaw still exceeds the non-stabilised soil. In addition, the experiments indicate a hardening process even after freeze-thaw cycles. The general conclusion is that subsoil stabilisation can be worthwhile even in Nordic climate.

  • 5.
    Rothhämel, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mácsik, Josef
    Ecoloop AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hydraulic Binder Stabilised Near-Surface Soils Exposed to Cold Curing Climate and Freeze-Thaw Cycles2019In: / [ed] ASCE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fine-grained soils are normally not suitable as subbase in road, railway, and other largescale constructions due to their compressibility, low shear strength, and/or frost susceptibility. Common procedures to improve the subbase are soil replacement, lightweight fill, or insulation. The engineering properties of fine-grained soils can also be improved in situ by mixing them with hydraulic binders. A SWOT analysis based on literature study indicates that near-surface soil stabilisation has opportunities as a method. However, one major weakness of the method of near-surface soil stabilisation is the question of strength reduction as a consequence of freeze-thaw cycles. It is unclear how near zero curing temperature followed by freeze-thaw cycles, representing conditions in northern countries, might influence the curing as well as the ultimate strength of the stabilised soil. The impact of freeze-thaw cycles on the engineering properties of stabilised soils was investigated with focus on the reduction of strength. In these laboratory investigations, curing took place at temperatures of +4°C with freeze-thaw cycles interrupting the curing period. Variations in the laboratory set up contained different soil types, binders, binder contents, and curing times before the freeze-thaw cycles. The results show, that the strength increases with curing time in spite of the near zero temperature; but for one binder, a strength-over-time development with decrease after 90 days has been observed in the cold curing conditions in the experiments. In general, the strength gained during curing was reduced by freeze-thaw cycles. However, strength was regained during curing afterwards, and reached a higher level of strength than the original soil before stabilisation.

  • 6.
    Rothhämel, Mirja
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Rosenberg, Matthias
    Technical University Braunschweig, Germany.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Anwendbarkeit oberflächennaher Baugrundstabilisierung mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln in Schweden unter Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Frost-Tau-Wechseln auf die Tragfähigkeit stabilisierter Tone2020In: Bauingenieur: Zeitschrift für das gesamte Bauwesen, ISSN 0005-6650, E-ISSN 1436-4867, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applicability of near-surface soil improvement with hydraulic binders in Sweden considering the influence of freeze/thaw-cycles on the strength of stabilised clay

    Fine-grained soils are often not suitable as subsoil for roads or railways or other large-scale construction because of their frost susceptibility. The engineering properties as well as the frost durability of such soils can be improved by mixing with hydraulic binder, which is used in countries with moderate climate. This paper presents a laboratory study of a Swedish clay soil stabilised with a by-product originated hydraulic binder. The procedure and interpretation of the study considers the country-specific boundary conditions of Sweden. The study contains two different binder contents (4 and 7%) and unstabilised clay, three different curing times (14, 28 and 90 days) before twelve freeze/thaw-cycles as well as a subsequent curing time (28 days). The curing conditions were adopted to cold climate, i. e. +4°C. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as a measure of strength. The results show that this soil gains strength by stabilisation with this binder even at this cold curing temperature and that an increase is still remarkable after freeze/thaw-cycles. The time after freeze/thaw-cycles may allow a continued curing which is indicated by a somewhat higher strength.

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