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  • 1.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Improving the Security of the Android Pattern Lock using Biometrics and Machine Learning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased use of Android smartphones, the Android Pattern Lock graphical password has become commonplace. The Android Pattern Lock is advantageous in that it is easier to remember and is more complex than a five digit numeric code. However, it is susceptible to a number of attacks, both direct and indirect. This fact shows that the Android Pattern Lock by itself is not enough to protect personal devices. Other means of protection are needed as well.

    In this thesis I have investigated five methods for the analysis of biometric data as an unnoticable second verification step of the Android Pattern Lock. The methods investigated are the euclidean barycentric anomaly detector, the dynamic time warping barycentric anomaly detector, a one-class support vector machine, the local outlier factor anomaly detector and a normal distribution based anomaly detector. The models were trained using an online training strategy to enable adaptation to changes in the user input behaviour. The model hyperparameters were fitted using a data set with 85 users. The models are then tested with other data sets to illustrate how different phone models and patterns affect the results.       

    The euclidean barycentric anomaly detector and dynamic time warping (DTW) barycentric anomaly detector have a sub 10 \% equal error rate in both mean and median, while the other three methods have an equal error rate between 15 \% and 20 \% in mean and median. The higher performance of the euclidean and DTW barycentric anomaly detector is likely because they account for the time series nature of the data, while the other methods do not. Each user in the data set have provided each pattern at most 50 times, meaning that the long-term effects of user adaptation could not be studied.

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  • 2.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    JSON Dataset of Simulated Building Heat Control for System of Systems Interoperability2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability in systems-of-systems is a difficult problem due to the abundance of data standards and formats.Current approaches to interoperability rely on hand-made adapters or methods using ontological metadata.This dataset was created to facilitate research on data-driven interoperability solutions.The data comes from a simulation of a building heating system, and the messages sent within control systems-of-systems. 

  • 3.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Machine Learning Concepts for Service Data Interoperability2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial automation is transforming by ongoing digitalization efforts to create a flexible industrial internet of things, turning manufacturing facilities into large-scale systems of cyber-physical systems. This development requires addressing the challenging issue of making heterogeneous systems, data models, and standards interoperable, a core problem in designing sustainable service-oriented automation frameworks. This thesis reviews the problem of automatically establishing the interoperability of services exchanging heterogeneous message data. A machine-learning architecture is developed, where the optimization of message transcoders and the system of systems utility are mechanisms for establishing interoperability. By optimizing the transcoders using both service- and metadata, the aim is to ground the learned latent representations in the physical environment to improve generalization. Two physical simulation experiments were performed to investigate and evaluate the architecture by generating heterogeneous JSON messages from multiple heating and air conditioning services. The first experiment focuses on unsupervised learning via back-translation for transcoding engineered features of service messages, reaching a maximum translation accuracy of 49%. The second experiment focuses on supervised learning and a modular neural network (JSON2Vec) for automated encoding of the heterogeneous JSON messages, which enables correct message interpretation in terms of the expected system of systems behavior. These results suggest that machine learning is a viable direction in interoperability automation research which can benefit from both symbolic metadata and message data for reliable generalization and adaptation. Appropriate open datasets are required to consolidate the envisioned development and the migration of solutions to automation systems.

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  • 4.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    System of Systems Interoperability Machine Learning Model2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly flexible and efficient industrial processes and automation systems are developed by integrating computational systems and physical processes, thereby forming large heterogeneous systems of cyber-physical systems. Such systems depend on particular data models and payload formats for communication, and making different entities interoperable is a challenging problem that drives the engineering costs and time to deployment. Interoperability is typically established and maintained manually using domain knowledge and tools for processing and visualization of symbolic metadata, which limits the scalability of the present approach. The vision of next generation automation frameworks, like the Arrowhead Framework, is to provide autonomous interoperability solutions. In this thesis the problem to automatically establish interoperability between cyber-physical systems is reviewed and formulated as a mathematical optimisation problem, where symbolic metadata and message payloads are combined with machine learning methods to enable message translation and improve system of systems utility. An autoencoder based implementation of the model is investigated and simulation results for a heating and ventilation system are presented, where messages are partially translated correctly by semantic interpolation and generalisation of the latent representations. A maximum translation accuracy of 49% is obtained using this unsupervised learning approach. Further work is required to improve the translation accuracy, in particular by further exploiting metadata in the model architecture and autoencoder training protocol, and by considering more advanced regularization methods and utility optimization.

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  • 5.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Machine Learning based System–of–Systems Interoperability: A SenML–JSON Case StudyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Autoencoder Alignment Approach to Run-Time Interoperability for System of Systems Engineering2020In: IEEE 24th International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems: Proceedings, IEEE, 2020, p. 139-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We formulate the challenging problem to establish information interoperability within a system of systems (SoS) as a machine-learning task, where autoencoder embeddings are aligned using message data and metadata to automate message translation. An SoS requires communication and collaboration between otherwise independently operating systems, which are subject to different standards, changing conditions, and hidden assumptions. Thus, interoperability approaches that are based on standardization and symbolic inference will have limited generalization and scalability in the SoS engineering domain. We present simulation experiments performed with message data generated using heating and ventilation system simulations. While the unsupervised learning approach proposed here remains unsolved in general, we obtained up to 75% translation accuracy with autoencoders aligned by back-translation after investigating seven different models with different training protocols and hyperparameters. For comparison, we obtain 100% translation accuracy on the same task with supervised learning, but the need for a labeled dataset makes that approach less interesting. We discuss possibilities to extend the proposed unsupervised learning approach to reach higher translation accuracy.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    javed, saleha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Albertsson, Kim
    Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support, IT-Service. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    AI Concepts for System of Systems Dynamic Interoperability2021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is a central problem in digitization and System of Systems (SoS)engineering which concerns the capacity of systems to exchange information and cooperate. The task to dynamically establish interoperability between heterogeneous cyber-physical systems (CPSs) at run-time is a challenging problem. Different aspects of the interoperability problem have been studied in fields such as SoS, neural translation and agent based systems, but there are no unifying solutions beyond domain-specific standardization efforts. The problem is complicated by the uncertain and variable relations between physical processes and human-centric symbols, which result from, e.g., latent physical degrees of freedom, maintenance, re-configurations, and software updates. Therefore, we surveyed the literature for concepts and methods needed to automatically establish SoSs with purposeful CPS communication, focusing on machine learning and connecting approaches that are not integrated in the present literature. Here, we summarize recent developments relevant to the dynamic interoperability problem, such as representation learning for ontology alignment and inference on heterogeneous linked data; neural networks for transcoding of text and code;concept-learning based reasoning; and emergent communication. We find that there is a recent interest for deep learning approaches to establish communication under different assumptions about the environment, language and nature of the communicating entities. Furthermore, we present examples of architectures and discuss open problems associated with artificial intelligence (AI)-enabled solutions in relation to SoS interoperability requirements. While these developments open new avenues for research there are still no examples bridging the necessary concepts required to establish dynamic interoperability in complex SoSs, and realistic testbeds are needed.

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  • 8.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Semantic Interoperability in Industry 4.0: Survey of Recent Developments and Outlook2018In: 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2018, p. 127-132, article id 8471971Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semantic interoperability is the ability of systems to exchange information with unambiguous meaning. This is an outstanding challenge in the development of Industry 4.0 due to the trend towards dynamic re-configurable production processes with increasingly complex automation systems and a diversity of standards, components, tools and services. The cost of making systems interoperable is a major limiting factor in the adoption of new technology and the envisioned development of production industry. Therefore, methods and concepts enabling efficient interoperation of heterogeneous systems are investigated to understand how the interoperability problem should be addressed. To support this development, we survey the literature on interoperability to identify automation approaches that address semantic interoperability, in particular in dynamic cyber-physical systems at large scale. We find that different aspects of the interoperability problem are investigated, some based on a conventional bottom-up standardization approach, while others consider a goal-driven computational approach; and that the different directions explored are related to open questions that motivates further research. We argue that a goaldriven machine learning approach to semantic interoperability can result in solutions that are applicable across standardization domains and thus is a promising direction of research in this era of the industrial internet of things.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Interoperability and machine-to-machine translation model with mappings to machine learning tasks2019In: 2019 IEEE 17th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN), IEEE, 2019, p. 284-289Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern large-scale automation systems integrate thousands to hundreds of thousands of physical sensors and actuators. Demands for more flexible reconfiguration of production systems and optimization across different information models, standards and legacy systems challenge current system interoperability concepts. Automatic semantic translation across information models and standards is an increasingly important problem that needs to be addressed to fulfill these demands in a cost-efficient manner under constraints of human capacity and resources in relation to timing requirements and system complexity. Here we define a translator-based operational interoperability model for interacting cyber-physical systems in mathematical terms, which includes system identification and ontology-based translation as special cases. We present alternative mathematical definitions of the translator learning task and mappings to similar machine learning tasks and solutions based on recent developments in machine learning. Possibilities to learn translators between artefacts without a common physical context, for example in simulations of digital twins and across layers of the automation pyramid are briefly discussed.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Interoperability automation considered as machine learning tasks2019Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Nilsson, Jacob
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Sandin, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Delsing, Jerker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Towards Autoencoder Based Adapters for Run-Time Interoperability in System of Systems EngineeringManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 11 of 11
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