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  • 1.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Department of Environmental Science, School of Earth Science, Central University of Rajsthan, Ajmer, India.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Earth Science, Central University of Rajsthan, Ajmer, India.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Chaudhary, Himanshu
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Hydro-geochemical characteristics of glacial meltwater from Naradu Glacier catchment, Western Himalaya2019In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, E-ISSN 1866-6299, Vol. 78, no 24, article id 683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pattern of changing hydro-geochemical characteristics of water in Himalayan rivers is primarily controlled by sediment load from natural sources in higher altitudes and anthropogenic sources such as the burning of fossil fuels for domestic use, vehicular emissions, and wind transported industrial pollutants in the downstream region. The assessment of water quality is critical for the comparison of natural and anthropogenic sources in the downstream areas due to the dependence of the population on the glacial meltwater for freshwater supply. In the present study, we investigate the physical and ionic characteristics of glacial meltwater from Naradu Glacier catchment concerning the dominant weathering process. The freshwater samples were collected during the ablation period of 2016 and 2017 from specified locations. The physical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, and temperature) were measured in the field while the analyses for concentrations of major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and major anions (Cl−, SO42−, HCO3−, NO3−) were done in the laboratory. The anions (HCO3− > SO42− > Cl− > NO3−) and cations (Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+) concentrations were observed to have similar trends for both of the ablation period. The statistical analysis shows the predominance of geological weathering processes in the catchment as the controlling factor for the variation in concentration of different ionic species. The catchment was found to be rich in rocks with carbonate mineral making the Ca2+ and HCO3− the most dominant ions in the glacial meltwater.

  • 2.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, SBSR, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, SBSR, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, SBSR, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kumari, Anupma
    Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India.
    Sinha, Ravindra Kumar
    Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India, Nalanda Open University, Biscoman Bhawan, Gandhi Maidan, Patna, India.
    Gupta, Akhilesh
    DST, Technology Bhavan, New Mehrauli Road, New Delhi, India.
    Hydro-geochemical analysis of meltwater draining from Bilare Banga glacier, Western Himalaya2019In: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, E-ISSN 1895-7455, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 651-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changing climate is affecting the melting process of glacier ice and snow in Himalaya and may influence the hydro-geochemistry of the glacial meltwater. This paper represents the ionic composition of discharge from Bilare Banga glacier by carrying out hydro-geochemical analysis of water samples of melting season of 2017. The pH and EC were measured on-site in field, and others parameters were examined in the laboratory. The abundance of the ions observed in meltwater has been arranged in decreasing order for cations as Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ and for anions as HCO3 > SO42− > Cl > NO3, respectively. Analysis suggests that the meltwater is mostly dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3. It has been observed that the ionic concentration HCO3 is dominant and Cl is the least in the catchment. Piper plot analysis suggests that the chemical composition of the glacier discharge not only has natural origin but also has some anthropogenic input. Hydro-geochemical heterogeneity reflected the carbonate-dominated features (Ca2+–HCO3) in the catchment. The carbonate weathering was found as the regulatory factor to control the chemistry of the glacial meltwater due to the high enrichment ratio of (Ca2+ + Mg2+) against TZ+ and (Na+ + K+). In statistical approach, PCA analysis suggests that geogenic weathering dynamics in the catchment is associated with carbonate-dominant lithology.

  • 3.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India.
    Sam, Lydia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR), Armilla, Granada, Spain.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
    Quantifying the Congruence between Air and Land Surface Temperatures for Various Climatic and Elevation Zones of Western Himalaya2019In: Remote Sensing, ISSN 2072-4292, E-ISSN 2072-4292, Vol. 11, no 24, article id 2889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface and near-surface air temperature observations are primary data for glacio-hydro-climatological studies. The in situ air temperature (Ta) observations require intense logistic and financial investments, making it sparse and fragmented particularly in remote and extreme environments. The temperatures in Himalaya are controlled by a complex system driven by topography, seasons, and cryosphere which further makes it difficult to record or predict its spatial heterogeneity. In this regard, finding a way to fill the observational spatiotemporal gaps in data becomes more crucial. Here, we show the comparison of Ta recorded at 11 high altitude stations in Western Himalaya with their respective land surface temperatures (Ts) recorded by Moderate Resolution Imagining Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra satellites in cloud-free conditions. We found remarkable seasonal and spatial trends in the Ta vs. Ts relationship: (i) Ts are strongly correlated with Ta (R2 = 0.77, root mean square difference (RMSD) = 5.9 °C, n = 11,101 at daily scale and R2 = 0.80, RMSD = 5.7 °C, n = 3552 at 8-day scale); (ii) in general, the RMSD is lower for the winter months in comparison to summer months for all the stations, (iii) the RMSD is directly proportional to the elevations; (iv) the RMSD is inversely proportional to the annual precipitation. Our results demonstrate the statistically strong and previously unreported Ta vs. Ts relationship and spatial and seasonal variations in its intensity at daily resolution for the Western Himalaya. We anticipate that our results will provide the scientists in Himalaya or similar data-deficient extreme environments with an option to use freely available remotely observed Ts products in their models to fill-up the spatiotemporal data gaps related to in situ monitoring at daily resolution. Substituting Ta by Ts as input in various geophysical models can even improve the model accuracy as using spatially continuous satellite derived Ts in place of discrete in situ Ta extrapolated to different elevations using a constant lapse rate can provide more realistic estimates. 

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