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  • 1.
    Tole, Ilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Mechanochemical activation of natural clay minerals: an alternative to produce sustainable cementitious binders – review2019In: Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0930-0708, E-ISSN 1438-1168, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 449-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanochemical activation can be defined as a process able to induce structural disorder through intensive grinding. In certain conditions, it may increase the chemical reactivity of the processed material. The process is extensively utilized in extractive metallurgy, synthesis of nanocomposites or pharmacology. It is also considered an environmentally friendly alternative to activate kaolinitic clay avoiding high calcination temperature. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of the process, its evolution, process parameters and applications. The paper focuses on the mechanochemical treatment of natural clay minerals, aiming at their transformation into cementitious or pozzolanic materials. It provides a summarized review of the theories related to the mechanochemistry and discusses commonly used models. The paper also analyzes various key factors and parameters controlling the mechanochemical activation process. The optimization and control of the several factors, as the filling ratio, the grinding media, the velocity, the time of grinding, etc., can promote developments and new research opportunities on different fields of application. Examples of applications, with a special focus on mechanochemically activated clay minerals and their use as cementitious binders, are listed as well.

  • 2.
    Tole, Ilda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Activation of a Raw Clay by Mechanochemical Process: Effects of Various Parameters on the Process Efficiency and Cementitious Properties2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 10, article id 1860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of the mechanochemical activation (MCA) is influenced by various process parameters as well as by the properties of the treated material. The main objective of this research was to optimize the MCA process, gaining enhancement of the chemical reactivity of a Swedish raw clay, which is going to be used as an alkali-activated cementitious binder. The effects of the amount of water, the filling ratio, the rotation speed, and the grinding duration on the amorphization degree were evaluated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Generally, wet and dry processes showed an extensive amorphization of both kaolinite and muscovite minerals present in the studied clay. On the contrary, quartz was amorphized mainly by the wet grinding process. The efficiency of both dry and wet grinding processes was enhanced by the increased number of grinding media versus the amount of the activated material. However, longer processing times caused significant agglomeration while a higher rotational speed enhanced the amorphization. Preliminary tests have shown that alkali activation of the processed clays produced hardened samples. Furthermore, the increased amorphization corresponded to the increased compressive strength values.

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