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  • 1.
    Abolhasani, Hasanali
    et al.
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Farzi, Gholamali
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Davoodi, Ali
    Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 917751111, Iran.
    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba
    Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, 96919-57678, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Development of self-healable acrylic water-based environmental-friendly coating as an alternative to chromates coatings2023Ingår i: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 176, artikel-id 107402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, different coating systems, including solvent-based epoxy and water-based acrylic resins, were evaluated for their potential as an alternative to chromate coatings in order to avoid Cr(VI) toxic hazards. The resins were used as either pigment-free coatings or were formulated with 20-wt% zinc/aluminum pigments. The coatings were subsequently applied on galvanized ST12 steel plates and their corrosion resistance was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) evaluations. The effect of the binder and pigment type on the impact resistance of two different polymeric coatings was also evaluated. The results of impact tests revealed completely peeled film from the substrate for epoxy coatings. However, under the same experimental conditions, very few small cracks were created in water-based acrylic coatings for both pigmented and pigment-free cases. In addition, some other parameters such as drying time and coating cost were taken into account to select a good alternative to chromate coatings. The results of this work can facilitate the introduction of an inexpensive environmentally friendly acrylic coating as a promising self-healing alternative to chromate coating.

  • 2.
    Alagumalai, Vasudevan
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Balasubramanian, Navin Kumar
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Krishnamoorthy, Yoganandam
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, ARM College of Engineering and Technology, Kanchipuram 603209, India.
    Ganesan, Velmurugan
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 13 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Chanda, Avishek
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Impact response and damage tolerance of hybrid glass/kevlar-fibre epoxy structural composites2021Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of hybridisation on Kevlar/E-Glass based epoxy composite laminate structures. Composites with 4 mm thickness and 16 layers of fibre (14 layers of E-glass centred and 2 outer layers of Kevlar) were fabricated using compression moulding technique. The fibre orientation of the Kevlar layers had 3 variations (0, 45 and 60°), whereas the E-glass fibre layers were maintained at 0° orientation. Tensile, flexural, impact (Charpy and Izod), interlaminar shear strength and ballistic impact tests were conducted. The ballistic test was performed using a gas gun with spherical hard body projectiles at the projectile velocity of 170 m/s. The pre-and post-impact velocities of the projectiles were measured using a high-speed camera. The energy absorbed by the composite laminates was further reported during the ballistic test, and a computerised tomographic scan was used to analyse the impact damage. The composites with 45° fibre orientation of Kevlar fibres showed better tensile strength, flexural strength, Charpy impact strength, and energy absorption. The energy absorbed by the composites with 45° fibre orientation was 58.68 J, which was 14% and 22% higher than the 0° and 60° oriented composites. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 3.
    Aminoroaya, Alireza
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 9617976487, Iran.
    Nouri Khorasani, Saied
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    Panahi, Parisa
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Madry, Henning
    Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University and Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrbergerstr. Bldg 37, D-66421, Homburg, Saar, Germany.
    Cucchiarini, Magali
    Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University and Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrbergerstr. Bldg 37, D-66421, Homburg, Saar, Germany.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117575, Singapore.
    A review of dental composites: Challenges, chemistry aspects, filler influences, and future insights2021Ingår i: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 216, artikel-id 108852Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resin-based dental composites are promising tooth-resembling materials in restorative dentistry. The limited longevity of dental composite restorations due to the bulk/marginal fracture and secondary caries as well as possible health risks are the critical challenges faced by such materials. Therefore, developments of resin-based dental composites received considerable attention in academic researches for clinical applications. A comprehensive review of the recent developments in the scientific literature on resin-based dental composites is presented in this article. Firstly, in the article, the challenges in dental composites are introduced and then the chemical aspects of the systems are classified through a review of employed resins. Subsequently, the different characteristics related to the fillers employed for the development of the resin-based dental composites are described. Finally, conclusions are drawn and future insights are proposed. This article provides an insight that paves the way for tailoring and designing resin-based dental composites for clinical applications.

  • 4.
    Aminoroaya, Alireza
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, 428 S. Shaw Lane, 48824, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Khorasani, Saied Nouri
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.
    Bagheri, Rouholah
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.
    Talebi, Zahra
    Department of Textile Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.
    Malekkhouyan, Roya
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Biotechnology Centre, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 8, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland; Department of Polymer Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, 9617976487, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Facile encapsulation of cyanoacrylate-based bioadhesive by electrospray method and investigation of the process parameters2024Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 5389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer microcapsules containing cyanoacrylates have represented a promising option to develop self-healing biomaterials. This study aims to develop an electrospray method for the preparation of capsules using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as the encapsulant and ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (EC) as the encapsulate. It also aims to study the effect of the electrospray process parameters on the size and morphology of the capsules. The capsules were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Moreover, the effects of electrospray process parameters on the size were investigated by Taguchi experimental design. FTIR and TGA approved the presence of both PMMA and EC without further reaction. FE-SEM micrograph demonstrated that an appropriate choice of solvents, utilizing an appropriate PMMA:EC ratio and sufficient PMMA concentration are critical factors to produce capsules dominantly with an intact and spherical morphology. Utilizing various flow rates (0.3–0.5 ml/h) and applied voltage (18–26 kV), capsules were obtained with a 600–1000 nm size range. At constantly applied voltages, the increase in flow rate increased the capsule size up to 40% (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05), while at constant flow rates, the increase in applied voltage reduced the average capsule size by 3.4–26% (ANOVA, p ≤ 0.05). The results from the Taguchi design represented the significance of solution flow rate, applied voltage, and solution concentration. It was shown that the most effective parameter on the size of capsules is flow rate. This research demonstrated that electrospray can be utilized as a convenient method for the preparation of sub-micron PMMA capsules containing EC. Furthermore, the morphology of the capsules is dominated by solvents, PMMA concentration, and PMMA:EC ratio, while the average size of the capsules can be altered by adjusting the flow rate and applied voltage of the electrospray process.

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  • 5.
    Aminoroaya, Alireza
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Khorasani, Saied Nouri
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Panahi, Parisa
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    A Review of Dental Composites: Methods Of Characterizations2020Ingår i: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, E-ISSN 2373-9878, Vol. 6, nr 7, s. 3713-3744Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental composites are becoming increasingly popular in esthetic restorative dentistry and present a promising substitute for amalgam. However, the major hurdles that hinder their total adoption in restorative dentistry are limited longevity and possible health risks, leading to significant attempts for addressing these shortcomings. Besides the new materials, the evaluation methods play a critical role in the introduction and improvement of these types of materials. This review aims to cover the characterization methods in the evaluation of dental composites that are most employed nowadays. Therefore, the methods for evaluating the physical properties of the dental composites are first explained. Subsequently, the assessment methods of curing kinetics and the mechanical properties of the composites are classified and reviewed. Afterward, the article delves into the introduction and classification of the microscopic and antibacterial evaluation methods. Finally, the test methods for assessment of in vitro cytotoxicity and self-healing ability are described. It should be noted, for each test method, the most recent and interesting articles are cited. It is envisaged that this review will facilitate an understanding and provide knowledge for the section and utilizing the most effective and suitable characterization methods for future research on the development of dental composites.

  • 6.
    Anerao, Prashant
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411046, India.
    Kulkarni, Atul
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune 411046, India.
    Munde, Yashwant
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cummins College of Engineering for Women, Pune 411052, India.
    Shinde, Avinash
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cummins College of Engineering for Women, Pune 411052, India.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Biochar reinforced PLA composite for fused deposition modelling (FDM): A parametric study on mechanical performance2023Ingår i: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 12, artikel-id 100406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rice husk biochar was added to polylactic acid (PLA) to create a biocomposite filament suitable for the extrusion-based 3D printing process of fused deposition modelling (FDM). Taguchi L16 was used for experiment design, and the significance of process parameters was determined using variance analysis (ANOVA). For a 0.3-mm layer thickness, the addition of 5 wt.% biochar resulted in ultimate tensile strength and a modulus of elasticity of 36 MPa and 1103 MPa, respectively. The addition of biochar had a negative influence on flexural strength. The maximum flexural modulus was obtained with 3 % biochar, 100 % infill density, and 0.1 mm layer thickness. Particularly, 1 % biochar resulted in a considerable increase in impact strength, while a subsequent rise in biochar resulted in a decrease, probably due to the agglomeration effect. For 3D printed neat PLA, the average tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus, and impact strength observed were 19 MPa, 550 MPa, 54 MPa, 1981 MPa, and 25 KJ/m2, respectively. Additionally, considering the output of each test, a multicriteria decision-making model, namely, TOPSIS, has been utilized for ranking the mechanical performance. In order to optimise the mechanical properties of three-dimensional printed objects, the study suggests a layer thickness of 0.2 mm, an infill density of 100 %, and raster angle of 0° as the FDM process parameters.

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  • 7.
    Babu, Karthik
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Centurion University of Technology and Management, R.Sitapur, Odisha, 761211, India.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha; Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, 602 105, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriye
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Restás, Ágoston
    Department of Fire Protection and Rescue Control, National University of Public Service, Budapest, 1011, Hungary.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491, Trondheim, Norway.
    Fire Behavior of 3D-Printed Polymeric Composites2021Ingår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 30, nr 7, s. 4745-4755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing or additive manufacturing (AM) is considered as a flexible manufacturing method with the potential for substantial innovations in fabricating geometrically complicated structured polymers, metals, and ceramics parts. Among them, polymeric composites show versatility for applications in various fields, such as constructions, microelectronics and biomedical. However, the poor resistance of these materials against fire must be considered due to their direct relation to human life conservation and safety. In this article, the recent advances in the fire behavior of 3D-printed polymeric composites are reviewed. The article describes the recently developed methods for improving the flame retardancy of 3D-printed polymeric composites. Consequently, the improvements in the fire behavior of 3D-printed polymeric materials through the change in formulation of the composites are discussed. The article is novel in the sense that it is one of the first studies to provide an overview regarding the flammability characteristics of 3D-printed polymeric materials, which will further incite research interests to render AM-based materials fire-resistant.

  • 8.
    Babu, Karthik
    et al.
    Center for Polymer Composites and Natural Fiber Research, Tamil Nadu 625005, India.
    Rendén, Gabriella
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Afriyie Mensah, Rhoda
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
    Kim, Nam Kyeun
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
    Restás, Ágoston
    Department of Fire Protection and Rescue Control, National University of Public Service, H-1011 Budapest, Hungary.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    A Review on the Flammability Properties of Carbon-Based Polymeric Composites: State-of-the-Art and Future Trends2020Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id 1518Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon based fillers have attracted a great deal of interest in polymer composites because of their ability to beneficially alter properties at low filler concentration, good interfacial bonding with polymer, availability in different forms, etc. The property alteration of polymer composites makes them versatile for applications in various fields, such as constructions, microelectronics, biomedical, and so on. Devastations due to building fire stress the importance of flame-retardant polymer composites, since they are directly related to human life conservation and safety. Thus, in this review, the significance of carbon-based flame-retardants for polymers is introduced. The effects of a wide variety of carbon-based material addition (such as fullerene, CNTs, graphene, graphite, and so on) on reaction-to-fire of the polymer composites are reviewed and the focus is dedicated to biochar-based reinforcements for use in flame retardant polymer composites. Additionally, the most widely used flammability measuring techniques for polymeric composites are presented. Finally, the key factors and different methods that are used for property enhancement are concluded and the scope for future work is discussed.

  • 9.
    Babu, NB Karthik
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, A Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Sivasagar, India.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Rashedi, Ahmad
    School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
    Athimoolam, Pugazhenthi
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College of Engineering Dindigul, Dindigul, India.
    Aseer, J. Ronald
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Puducherry, Karaikal, India.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Self‐reinforced polymer composites: An opportunity to recycle plastic wastes and their future trends2022Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 139, nr 46, artikel-id e53143Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers and their composites have played an important role in industrial development. Polymer composites are becoming much stronger and more competitive than other materials as a result of ongoing research and development. This was made possible by newly developed techniques that could alter the physical and chemical properties of constituents. One of them is the self-reinforcement technique, which allows for the fabrication of high-strength thermoplastic polymer composites with reserved degradability, which is not possible with glass fiber/carbon fiber reinforcement. A self-reinforced polymer composite is made of a single polymeric material, which serves as both the matrix and the reinforcement. This review article discusses the use of self-reinforcement in various polymers and its impact on mechanical, thermal, and fire properties. Furthermore, the effects of process parameters (such as temperature and time, an), reinforcement structure, and mechanical property variation on the structure of self-reinforced composites are reviewed and presented in detail. In addition, the effect of foreign filler addition (such as flame retardants, inorganic particles, natural fibers, etc.) on self-reinforced composites is highlighted. In the end, the need for future research and its scope is presented.

  • 10.
    Birdsong, Björn K.
    et al.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wu, Qiong
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Capezza, Antonio J.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svagan, Anna J.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flexible and fire-retardant silica/cellulose aerogel using bacterial cellulose nanofibrils as template material2024Ingår i: Materials Advances, E-ISSN 2633-5409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the possibility of using various silsesquioxane precursors such as (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES), methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to produce silsesquioxane-bacterial cellulose nanofibre (bCNF) aerogels. Each precursor allowed to customize the aerogel properties, leading to unique properties suitable for various applications requiring lightweight insulative materials. When utilizing APTES as the silsesquioxane precursor, an aerogel capable of over 90% recovery after compression was formed, making them suitable for flexible applications. When MTMS was used as the precursor, the aerogel retained some compression recovery (80%) but had the added property of superhydrophobicity with a contact angle over 160° due to the presence of CH3 functional groups, enabling water-repellence. Finally, TEOS allowed for excellent thermal insulative properties with a low Peak Heat Release Rate (PHRR), making it a promising candidate for fire-resistant applications. The customization of these aerogel materials was attributed to a combination of the chemical composition of the silsesquioxane precursors and the morphology of the coated bacterial cellulose nanofibres (bCNF), such as CH3 groups found in MTMS enabled for superhydrophobicity. Differences in morphology, such as uniform and smooth silsesquioxane coatings when using APTES or a “pearl-necklace” morphology using TEOS, enabled either compression recovery and flexibility or low thermal conduction. This investigation of silsesquioxane-bCNF provides a good understanding of the importance of the choice of precursor effect on insulating aerogel properties.

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  • 11.
    Capezza, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Fibre and Polymer Technology Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Plant Breeding Department, SLU Alnarp, Lomma, Sweden.
    Muneer, Faraz
    Plant Breeding Department, SLU Alnarp, Lomma, Sweden.
    Prade, Thomas
    Biosystems and Technology Department, SLU Alnarp, Lomma, Sweden.
    Newson, William R.
    Plant Breeding Department, SLU Alnarp, Lomma, Sweden.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Lundman, Malin
    Essity Hygiene and Health AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    Fibre and Polymer Technology Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Fibre and Polymer Technology Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Plant Breeding Department, SLU Alnarp, Lomma, Sweden.
    Acylation of agricultural protein biomass yields biodegradable superabsorbent plastics2021Ingår i: Communications Chemistry, E-ISSN 2399-3669, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) are a central component of hygiene and medical products requiring high liquid swelling, but these SAP are commonly derived from petroleum resources. Here, we show that sustainable and biodegradable SAP can be produced by acylation of the agricultural potato protein side-stream (PPC) with a non-toxic dianhydride (EDTAD). Treatment of the PPC yields a material with a water swelling capacity of ca. 2400%, which is ten times greater than the untreated PPC. Acylation was also performed on waste potato fruit juice (PFJ), i.e. before the industrial treatment to precipitate the PPC. The use of PFJ for the acylation implies a saving of 320 000 tons as CO2 in greenhouse gas emissions per year by avoiding the industrial drying of the PFJ to obtain the PPC. The acylated PPC shows biodegradation and resistance to mould growth. The possibilities to produce a biodegradable SAP from the PPC allows for future fabrication of environment-friendly and disposable daily-care products, e.g. diapers and sanitary pads.

  • 12.
    Chandran, Mathan
    et al.
    Fuel Cell Energy System Lab, Department of Automobile Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
    Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan
    Department of Automobile Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
    Karthik Babu, N. B.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Sivasagar, Assam, 785697, India.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    A study of the influence of current ramp rate on the performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell2022Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikel-id 21888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Durability and reliability are the key factors that prevent fuel cells from successful implementation in automotive sector. Dynamic load change is a common and frequent condition that the fuel cell has to undergo in automotive applications. Fuel cells are more sensitive to changes in load conditions and degrade based on load variation representing idling, rated power, and high power operating conditions. To examine the influence of dynamic load step on the fuel cell performance, two similar cells of active 25 cm2 was tested under two different load step for the same dynamic load cycle. The main difference in dynamic load cycle 2 was the ramp rate which was fixed as 0.1, 0.3, and 0.25 A/cm2/s for 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0 A/cm2 respectively. To investigate the degradative effects, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy were used. The results indicated that the degradation rate increased in both dynamic load cycles but however the impact of load change was comparatively minimal in dynamic load cycle 2. The total degradation in performance was 20.67% and 10.72% in dynamic load cycles 1 and 2 respectively. Fuel cell performance degraded in a manner that was consistent with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cross-sectional analysis of field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results prove that the degradation rate is dependent on the load step and the number of load cycles. Severe catalyst degradation and delamination were observed in fuel cells operated under dynamic load cycle 1.

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  • 13.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Babu, Karthik
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Sivasagar, 785697, Assam, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, 602 105, Tamilnadu, India.
    Sykam, Kesavarao
    Polymers & Functional Materials Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, 500007, Telangana, India.
    Tebyetekerwa, Mike
    School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane 4072, Australia.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 9617976487, Iran.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Gonzalez-Libreros, Jaime
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Capezza, Antonio J.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 7491, Norway.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Center for Nanofibres and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Singapore, 117576, Singapore.
    Natural and industrial wastes for sustainable and renewable polymer composites2022Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 158, artikel-id 112054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By-products management from industrial and natural (agriculture, aviculture, and others) activities and products are critical for promoting sustainability, reducing pollution, increasing storage space, minimising landfills, reducing energy consumption, and facilitating a circular economy. One of the sustainable waste management approaches is utilising them in developing biocomposites. Biocomposites are eco-friendly materials because of their sustainability and environmental benefits that have comparable performance properties to the synthetic counterparts. Biocomposites can be developed from both renewable and industrial waste, making them both energy efficient and sustainable. Because of their low weight and high strength, biocomposite materials in applications such as automobiles can minimise fuel consumption and conserve energy. Furthermore, biocomposites in energy-based applications could lead to savings in both the economy and energy consumption. Herein, a review of biocomposites made from various wastes and their related key properties (e.g. mechanical and fire) are provided. The article systematically highlights the individual wastes/by-products from agriculture and materials processing industries for composites manufacturing in terms of their waste components (materials), modifications, resultant properties, applications and energy efficiency. Finally, a perspective for the future of biowastes and industrial wastes in polymer composites is discussed.

  • 14.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Capezza, Antonio J
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Crop Production Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 23053 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Julia
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dong, Yu
    School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth WA 6845, Australia.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Pelcastre, Leonardo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Effect of Carbon Black on the Properties of Plasticised Wheat Gluten Biopolymer2020Ingår i: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 25, nr 10, artikel-id 2279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheat gluten biopolymers generally become excessively rigid when processed without plasticisers, while the use of plasticisers, on the other hand, can deteriorate their mechanical properties. As such, this study investigated the effect of carbon black (CB) as a filler into glycerol-plasticised gluten to prepare gluten/CB biocomposites in order to eliminate the aforementioned drawback. Thus, biocomposites were manufactured using compression moulding followed by the determination of their mechanical, morphological, and chemical properties. The filler content of 4 wt% was found to be optimal for achieving increased tensile strength by 24%, and tensile modulus by 268% along with the toughness retention based on energy at break when compared with those of glycerol-plasticised gluten. When reaching the filler content up to 6 wt%, the tensile properties were found to be worsened, which can be ascribed to excessive agglomeration of carbon black at the high content levels within gluten matrices. Based on infrared spectroscopy, the results demonstrate an increased amount of β-sheets, suggesting the formation of more aggregated protein networks induced by increasing the filler contents. However, the addition of fillers did not improve fire and water resistance in such bionanocomposites owing to the high blend ratio of plasticiser to gluten.

  • 15.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Kim, Nam Kyeun
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland,New Zealand.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bhattacharyya, Debes
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Johansson, Eva
    Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Crop Production Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Holder, Shima
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Naturally-occurring bromophenol to develop fire retardant gluten biopolymers2020Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 243, artikel-id 118552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to impart fire retardancy in wheat gluten polymer through naturally-occurring additives such as lanosol. The fire properties of lanosol were compared with two other conventional brominated fire retardants (Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane). Samples containing fire retardants and gluten were prepared through compression moulding process and then characterised for their fire and mechanical properties. All fire retardants enhanced the reaction-to-fire and thermal properties of gluten while generating V-0 (i.e. vertical position and self-extinguished) ratings in the UL-94 test. The presence of all the fire retardants increased the modulus of the gluten polymer but the fire retardant particles were detrimental for the tensile strength. Nevertheless, lanosol addition delayed ignition and lowered peak heat release rate of gluten by the maximum amount, thereby leading to relatively higher fire performance index (compared to the other fire retardants). Lanosol also allowed the gluten to create a dense char barrier layer during burning that impeded the transfer of heat and flammable volatiles. The fact that only 4 wt% lanosol was able to cause self-extinguishment under direct flame and reduce peak heat release rate by a significant 50% coupled with its inherent occurrence in nature, raises the question if lanosol can be a potential fire retardant in polymeric systems, although it is a bromophenol.

  • 16.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Balasubramanian, Karthik Babu Nilagiri
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute, Centre of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, 785697, Sivasagar, Assam, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rantuch, Peter
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Martinka, Jozef
    Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Jana Bottu 2781/25, 917 24 Trnava, Slovakia.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Mohanty, Amar
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, ON N1G 2W1, Guelph, Canada.
    Functionalised biochar in biocomposites: The effect of fire retardants, bioplastics and processing methods2023Ingår i: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 11, artikel-id 100368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire retardants, although can impart fire-safety in polymeric composites, are detrimental to the mechanical properties. Biochar can be used, in conjunction with fire retardants, to create a balance between fire-safety and mechanical performance. It is possible to thermally dope fire retardants into the pores of biochar to make it functionalised. Thus, the current work is intended in identifying a composite having the combination of the most desirable fire retardant, bioplastic, and a suitable processing method. A comparison was made between two fire retardants (lanosol and ammonium polyphosphate), bioplastics (wheat gluten and polyamide 11), and composite processing methods (compression and injection moulding). It was found that wheat gluten containing ammonium polyphosphate-doped biochar made by compression moulding had the best fire-safety properties with the lowest peak heat release rate (186 kW/m2), the highest fire performance index (0.6 m2s/kW), and the lowest fire growth index (1.6 kW/ms) with acceptable mechanical properties compared to the corresponding neat bioplastic. Thus, for gluten-based polymers, the use of ammonium polyphosphate thermally doped into biochar processed by compression moulding is recommended to both simultaneously improve fire-safety and conserve the mechanical strength of the resulting biocomposites.

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  • 17.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    George, Gejo
    Research and Post Graduate Department of Chemistry, St. Berchmans College, Changanacherry, Kerala, India.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 9617976487, Iran.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Jose E, Tomal
    Research and Post Graduate Department of Chemistry, St. Berchmans College, Changanacherry, Kerala, India.
    Phounglamcheik, Aekjuthon
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm100 44, Sweden.
    Restás, Ágoston
    Department of Fire Protection and Rescue Control, National University of Public Service, H-1011 Budapest, Hungary.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 7491, Norway.
    Flammability and mechanical properties of biochars made in different pyrolysis reactors2021Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 152, artikel-id 106197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of pyrolysis reactors on the properties of biochars (with a focus on flammability and mechanical characteristics) were investigated by keeping factors such as feedstock, carbonisation temperature, heating rate and residence time constant. The reactors employed were hydrothermal, fixed-bed batch vertical and fixed-bed batch horizontal-tube reactors. The vertical and tube reactors, at the same temperature, produced biochars having comparable elemental carbon content, surface functionalities, thermal degradation pattern and peak heat release rates. The hydrothermal reactor, although, a low-temperature process, produced biochar with high fire resistance because the formed tarry volatiles sealed water inside the pores, which hindered combustion. However, the biochar from hydrothermal reactor had the lowest nanoindentation properties whereas the tube reactor-produced biochar at 300 °C had the highest nanoindentation-hardness (290 Megapascal) and modulus (ca. 4 Gigapascal) amongst the other tested samples. Based on the inherent flammability and mechanical properties of biochars, polymeric composites’ properties can be predicted that can include them as constituents.

  • 18.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Capezza, Antonio Jose
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Department of Plant Breeding, SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 210094 Nanjing, China.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Ji, Dongxiao
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    The need for fully bio-based facemasks to counter coronavirus outbreaks: A perspective2020Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 736, artikel-id 139611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The onset of coronavirus pandemic has sparked a shortage of facemasks in almost all nations. Without this personal protective equipment, healthcare providers, essential workers, and the general public are exposed to the risk of infection. In light of the aforementioned, it is critical to balance the supply and demand for masks. COVID-19 will also ensure that masks are always considered as an essential commodity in future pandemic preparedness. Moreover, billions of facemasks are produced from petrochemicals derived raw materials, which are non-degradable upon disposal after their single use, thus causing environmental pollution and damage. The sustainable way forward is to utilise raw materials that are side-stream products of local industries to develop facemasks having equal or better efficiency than the conventional ones. In this regard, wheat gluten biopolymer, which is a by-product or co-product of cereal industries, can be electrospun into nanofibre membranes and subsequently carbonised at over 700 °C to form a network structure, which can simultaneously act as the filter media and reinforcement for gluten-based masks. In parallel, the same gluten material can be processed into cohesive thin films using plasticiser and hot press. Additionally, lanosol, a naturally-occurring substance, imparts fire (V-0 rating in vertical burn test), and microbe resistance in gluten plastics. Thus, thin films of flexible gluten with very low amounts of lanosol (<10 wt%) can be bonded together with the carbonised mat and shaped by thermoforming to create the facemasks. The carbon mat acting as the filter can be attached to the masks through adapters that can also be made from injection moulded gluten. The creation of these masks could simultaneously be effective in reducing the transmittance of infectious diseases and pave the way for environmentally benign sustainable products.

  • 19.
    Das, Oisik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575, Singapore.
    Education and Research during Pandemics: Illustrated by the Example of Experimental Biocomposites Research2020Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id 1848Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Edwin Samson, Ponnusamy
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai, India.
    Senthil Kumaran, Selvadurai
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Guindy, Chennai, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    The effect of fiber orientation and stacking sequence on carbon/E-glass/epoxy intraply hybrid composites under dynamic loading conditions2023Ingår i: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 363-376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the dynamic mechanical properties of hybrid intraply carbon/E-glass epoxy composites with different orientations and stacking sequences under different loading conditions with increasing temperature. A neat epoxy and five various hybrid composites such as Carbon (0°)/E-glass (90°), Carbon (45°)/E-glass (135°), Carbon (90°)/E-glass (0°), Carbon/E-glass (alternating layer), and Carbon/E-glass (alternating layer 45°) were manufactured. Three-point bending test and dynamic mechanical test were conducted to understand the flexural modulus and viscoelastic behavior (storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent) of the composites. Dynamic mechanical test was performed with the dual cantilever method, at four different frequencies (1, 5, 10, and 20 Hz) and temperatures ranging from 30 to 150°C. The experimental results of storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangents were compared with the theoretical findings of neat epoxy and various hybrid composites. The glass transition temperature (Tg) increased with the increase in frequency. A linear fit of the natural log of frequency to the inverse of absolute temperature was plotted in the activation energy estimation. The interphase damping (tanδi) between plies and the strength indicator (Si) of the hybrid composites were estimated. It was observed that the neat epoxy had more insufficient storage and loss modulus and a high loss tangent at all the frequencies whereas hybrid composites had high storage and loss modulus and a low loss tangent for all the frequencies. Compared with other hybrid composites, Carbon (90°)/E-glass (0°) had higher strength and activation energy. The result of reinforcement of hybrid fiber in neat epoxy significantly increases the material's strength and stability at higher temperatures whereas decreasing free molecular movement.

  • 21.
    Ganesan, Velmurugan
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 602 105, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 602 105, India.
    Alagumalai, Vasudevan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 602 105, India.
    Kaliyamoorthy, Babu
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 603110, India.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Optimisation of mechanical behaviour of Calotropis gigantea and Prosopis juliflora natural fibre-based hybrid composites by using Taguchi-Grey relational analysis2024Ingår i: Composites Part C: Open Access, E-ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 13, artikel-id 100433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of organic fibre-based hybrid materials are influenced by a variety of factors and even minor changes in these variables can outcome in substantial discrepancies in strength. In this regard, the current study aims to optimise various influencing parameters such as weight percentage, alkaline treatment concentration, and fabrication parameters (compression moulding pressure, and temperature), with the goal of enhancing the overall strength of the composite. Calotropis gigantea-stem and Prosopis juliflora-bark fibres were used in varying weight percentages to create epoxy-based hybrid composites. After fabrication the mechanical characterisation like tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the composites were tested. Taguchi experimental design was applied, and the results were analysed using a hybrid Taguchi-grey relational investigation method. It was observed that a combination of 20 wt.% Calotropis gigantea/20 wt.% Prosopis juliflora/6 % NaOH pretreatment/100 °C temperature with 14 MPa pressure and had the most desirable mechanical properties in the fabricated composites. Calotropis gigantea ranks first in enhancing the composite strength, followed by Prosopis Juliflora, NaOH pretreatment%, compression moulding temperature and pressure. This work highlights the significant role of Calotropis gigantea and Prosopis Juliflora fibres in enhancing composite strength and provides valuable insights for future research in the field of hybrid composite development.

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  • 22.
    Ganesan, Velmurugan
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai 602105, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai 602105, India.
    Kaliyamoorthy, Babu
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Sivasubramaniya Nadar College of Engineering, Chennai 603110, India.
    Sanjeevi, Sekar
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hindusthan Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641028, India.
    Shanmugam, Suresh Kumar
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil 626128, India.
    Alagumalai, Vasudevan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai 602105, India.
    Krishnamoorthy, Yoganandam
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, ARM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai 602105, India.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Optimisation of Mechanical Properties in Saw-Dust/Woven-Jute Fibre/Polyester Structural Composites under Liquid Nitrogen Environment Using Response Surface Methodology2021Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, nr 15, artikel-id 2471Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fibre-based composites are replacing traditional materials in a wide range of structural applications that are used in different environments. Natural fibres suffer from thermal shocks, which affects the use of these composites in cold environment. Considering these, a goal was set in the present research to investigate the impact of cryogenic conditions on natural fibre composites. Composites were developed using polyester as matrix and jute-fibre and waste Teak saw-dust as reinforcement and filler, respectively. The effects of six parameters, viz., density of saw-dust, weight ratio of saw-dust, grade of woven-jute, number of jute layers, duration of cryogenic treatment of composite and duration of alkaline treatment of fibres on the mechanical properties of the composite was evaluated with an objective to maximise hardness, tensile, impact and flexural strengths. Taguchi method was used to design the experiments and response-surface methodology was used to model, predict and plot interactive surface plots. Results indicated that the duration of cryogenic treatment had a significant effect on mechanical properties, which was better only up to 60 min. The models were found to be statistically significant. The study concluded that saw-dust of density 300 kg/m(3) used as a filler with a weight ratio of 13 wt.% and a reinforcement of a single layer of woven-jute-fibre mat of grade 250 gsm subjected to alkaline treatment for 4 h in a composite that has undergone 45 min of cryogenic treatment presented an improvement of 64% in impact strength, ca. 21% in flexural strength, ca. 158% in tensile strength and ca. 28% in hardness.

  • 23.
    Gao, Xu
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, People's Republic of China Tel.: +86 18655455093..
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, People's Republic of China Tel.: +86 18655455093..
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, People's Republic of China Tel.: +86 18655455093..
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Thermal History Effects on Decomposition Behavior and Pyrolysis Mechanism of Cellulose Nitrate2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrocellulose is an important kind of energetic material produced by replacing hydroxyl of cellulose molecule to nitro, which has a wide application range in social life. During transportation and storage, inevitably the quality of the nitrocellulose will be affected due to external ambient heating. In this study, two kinds of NC samples, original and heated ones, were used as research objects and taken into DSC experiments under several constant heating rates to explore thermal history effects on its decomposition and combustion behavior. A series of calculation methods based on model fitting were main ways for research, so were model free methods. Numerical results by model fitting method showed that decomposition reaction of NC follows n-th reaction model. The comparison between experimental results of two kinds of samples claimed that thermal history had positive influence on heat flow, and increased the reaction order of decomposition process, and decreased the characteristic temperatures. So the thermal history made the decomposition reaction more difficult to take place and more stable. This study is obviously meaningful for the research of thermal pyrolysis process of NC after thermal history.

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  • 24.
    Gawusu, Sidique
    et al.
    Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21211, USA.
    Jamatutu, Seidu Abdulai
    School of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, Xiaobing
    School of Energy and Power and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Moomin, Solahudeen Tando
    Global Development Institute, School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Ahmed, Abubakari
    Department of Urban Design and Infrastructure Studies, Faculty of Planning and Land Management, SD Dombo University of Business and Integrated Development Studies, Bamahu-Wa, Ghana.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Ackah, Ishmael
    Department of Economics, School of Liberal Arts and Social Science, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Accra, Ghana.
    Spatial analysis and predictive modeling of energy poverty: insights for policy implementation2024Ingår i: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding and alleviating energy poverty is critical for sustainable development. This study harnesses a suite of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to predict Multidimensional Energy Poverty Index (MEPI) and to highlight the spatial distribution of energy poverty. We assess the predictive accuracy of Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR), and XGBoost models. The RF model outperforms others, achieving an R2 value of 0.92 and a Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) of 0.97 on the testing dataset, indicative of a highly accurate prediction capability. XGBoost also demonstrates strong predictive power with corresponding values of 0.88 and 0.94, respectively. Our spatial analysis, revealing significant clustering of energy poverty with a Global Moran’s I value of 150.39, indicates that energy poverty is not only geographically concentrated but also intricately linked to socio-economic factors such as income levels, access to education, and nutritional status. These insights underscore the necessity of region-specific and socio-economically informed policy interventions. The results inform targeted interventions, particularly highlighting the critical roles of education and nutrition in mitigating energy poverty. The RF model’s accuracy rate of 92% on the testing set suggests that improvements in these sectors could significantly influence MEPI scores. The integration of ML and spatial analysis offers a nuanced and actionable understanding of energy poverty, paving the way for targeted, evidence-based policy formulation aimed at achieving SDG7: ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.

  • 25.
    Gawusu, Sidique
    et al.
    School of Energy and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science & Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Exploring distributed energy generation for sustainable development: A data mining approach2022Ingår i: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, E-ISSN 2352-1538, Vol. 48, artikel-id 104018Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how data mining may be used to uncover patterns and trends in the area of distributed generation (DG). It employs the usage of the bibliometric approach. Bibliometric analysis is an increasingly common and rigorous approach for analysing huge datasets in the scientific community. It explains the evolution of a given discipline while highlighting new developments in the sector. To this purpose, this research examines the link between publishing patterns and the underlying technology trends and advances that influence these trends. Also included are key advances in the most recent findings in DG's research. The review finds that past research on system performance and optimization has built a solid conceptual framework for this research domain. The incorporation of new technologies, and the consideration of sustainability issues, are additional areas of concern. The overall strategy and methodologies utilized in this study may be applied to a wide range of research disciplines. Researchers will benefit from this study as a guide for future studies on DG integrating concerns.

  • 26.
    Gawusu, Sidique
    et al.
    Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21211, United States.
    Tando, Moomin Solahudeen
    Global Development Institute, School of Environment, Education and Development, The University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Ahmed, Abubakari
    Department of Urban Design and Infrastructure Studies, Faculty of Planning and Land Management, SD Dombo, University of Business and Integrated Development Studies, Bamahu-Wa, Ghana.
    Jamatutu, Seidu Abdulai
    School of Economics and Management, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mohammed, Abdul-Latif
    Department of Management, Newcastle Business School, The University of Newcastle, Australia.
    Yakubu, Ibrahim Nandom
    Department of Business and Education, School of Business, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.
    Ackah, Ishmael
    Department of Economics, School of Liberal Arts and Social Science, Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration, Accra, Ghana.
    Decentralized energy systems and blockchain technology: Implications for alleviating energy poverty2024Ingår i: Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, ISSN 2213-1388, E-ISSN 2213-1396, Vol. 65, artikel-id 103795Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Gedde, Ulf W.
    et al.
    Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Applied polymer science2021 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This companion volume to "Fundamental Polymer Science" (Gedde and Hedenqvist, 2019) offers detailed insights from leading practitioners into experimental methods, simulation and modelling, mechanical and transport properties, processing, and sustainability issues. Separate chapters are devoted to thermal analysis, microscopy, spectroscopy, scattering methods, and chromatography. Special problems and pitfalls related to the study of polymers are addressed. Careful editing for consistency and cross-referencing among the chapters, high-quality graphics, worked-out examples, and numerous references to the specialist literature make "Applied Polymer Science" an essential reference for advanced students and practicing chemists, physicists, and engineers who want to solve problems with the use of polymeric materials.

  • 28.
    Ghane, Nazanin
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.
    Khalili, Shahla
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.
    Khorasani, Saied Nouri
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Center for Nanotechnology & Sustainability, National University of Singapore, 117574, Singapore, Singapore.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Polymer Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, 9617976487, Sabzevar, Iran; Biotechnology Centre, Silesian University of Technology, Krzywoustego 8, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.
    Antiepileptic drug-loaded and multifunctional iron oxide@silica@gelatin nanoparticles for acid-triggered drug delivery2024Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 14, artikel-id 11400Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study developed an innovative design for the production of smart multifunctional core-double shell superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with a focus on the development of a pH-responsive drug delivery system tailored for the controlled release of Phenytoin, accompanied by real-time monitoring capabilities. In this regard, the ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide@silica NPs (IO@Si MNPs) were synthesized and then coated with a layer of gelatin containing Phenytoin as an antiepileptic drug. The precise saturation magnetization value for the resultant NPs was established at 26 emu g-1. The polymeric shell showed a pH-sensitive behavior with the capacity to regulate the release of encapsulated drug under neutral pH conditions, simultaneously, releasing more amount of the drug in a simulated tumorous-epileptic acidic condition. The NPs showed an average size of 41.04 nm, which is in the desired size range facilitating entry through the blood–brain barrier. The values of drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were determined to be 2.01 and 10.05%, respectively. Moreover, kinetic studies revealed a Fickian diffusion process of Phenytoin release, and diffusional exponent values based on the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation were achieved at pH 7.4 and pH 6.3. The synthesized NPs did not show any cytotoxicity. Consequently, this new design offers a faster release of PHT at the site of a tumor in response to a change in pH, which is essential to prevent epileptic attacks.

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  • 29.
    Ghane, Nazanin
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Khalili, Shahla
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Khorasani, Saied Nouri
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Singapore, Singapore.
    Regeneration of the peripheral nerve via multifunctional electrospun scaffolds2021Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, ISSN 1549-3296, E-ISSN 1552-4965, Vol. 109, nr 4, s. 437-452Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades, electrospun scaffolds have proved to be advantageous in the field of nerve tissue regeneration by connecting the cavity among the proximal and distal nerve stumps growth cones and leading to functional recovery after injury. Multifunctional nanofibrous structure of these scaffolds provides enormous potential by combining the advantages of nano‐scale topography, and biological science. In these structures, selecting the appropriate materials, designing an optimized structure, modifying the surface to enhance biological functions and neurotrophic factors loading, and native cell‐like stem cells should be considered as the essential factors. In this systematic review paper, the fabrication methods for the preparation of aligned nanofibrous scaffolds in yarn or conduit architecture are reviewed. Subsequently, the utilized polymeric materials, including natural, synthetic and blend are presented. Finally, their surface modification techniques, as well as, the recent advances and outcomes of the scaffolds, both in vitro and in vivo, are reviewed and discussed.

  • 30.
    Ghomi, Erfan Rezvani
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran; Center for Nanotechnology and Sustainability, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117581, Singapore.
    Khorasani, Saied Nouri
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Koochaki, Mohammad Sadegh
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran; Research and Development Department, Alvan Paint & Resin Production Co., Tehran, 13991-53611, Iran.
    Dinari, Mohammad
    Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Ataei, Shahla
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Enayati, Mohammad Hossein
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Synthesis of TiO2 nanogel composite for highly efficient self-healing epoxy coating2023Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Research, ISSN 2090-1232, Vol. 43, s. 137-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Organic coatings are the most effective and facile methods of protecting steel against corrosion, which shields it from direct contact with oxygen and moisture. However, they are inherently defective and susceptible to damage, which allows the penetration of the corrosive media into the underlying substrates. Self-healing coatings were developed to address this shortcoming.

    Objective

    The current research aims to develop a coating with superior self-healing ability via embedment of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanogel composite (NC) in a commercial epoxy.

    Methods

    The TiO2 NC was prepared by efficient dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles in copolymer gel of acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (AMPS) with the help of 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS). The chemical structure, morphology, and thermal properties of the modified and functionalized nanoparticles were assessed by infrared spectroscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. In addition, TiO2 nanoparticles, nano-TiO2 functionalized monomer (NTFM), and NTFM/AAm/AMPS in different weight percentages were incorporated into epoxy resin to prepare a self-healing coating.

    Results

    The results confirmed the successful fabrication of the NC. In addition, the incorporation of 1 wt% NTFM/AAm/AMPS led to homogenous dispersion, enhanced anti-corrosive and self-healing performance with the healing efficiencies of 100% and 98%, which were determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization methods, respectively.

    Conclusion

    The prepared NC was sensitive towards salt concentration, pH, which aids the quick reaction of the TiO2 NC to corrosive ions, once the cracks occur. In addition, this is a unique feature compared to the other self-healing mechanisms, especially, the encapsulation of healing agents, which can be effective as long as the healing agent is present.

  • 31.
    Giorcelli, Mauro
    et al.
    Italian Institute of Technology, Via Livorno 60, 10144 Torino, Italy 1, 10129 Turin, Italy. Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via G. Giusti 9, 50121 Florence, Italy.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Bartoli, Mattia
    Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Via G. Giusti 9, 50121 Florence, Italy. Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.
    A Review of Bio-Oil Production through Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis2021Ingår i: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, PROCESSES, Vol. 9, nr 3Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of sustainability is a growing concern and has led to many environmentally friendly chemical productions through a great intensification of the use of biomass conversion processes. Thermal conversion of biomass is one of the most attractive tools currently used, and pyrolytic treatments represent the most flexible approach to biomass conversion. In this scenario, microwave-assisted pyrolysis could be a solid choice for the production of multi-chemical mixtures known as bio-oils. Bio-oils could represent a promising new source of high-value species ranging from bioactive chemicals to green solvents. In this review, we have summarized the most recent developments regarding bio-oil production through microwave-induced pyrolytic degradation of biomasses.

  • 32.
    Javad Razavi, Seyed Mohammad
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Richard Birkelands vei 2b, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Razavi, Moe
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
    Fakhar, Afsaneh
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha School of Engineering, Chennai 602105, India.
    Alagumalai, Vasudevan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha School of Engineering, Chennai 602105, India.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Efficient Improvement in Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composite by Interleaving Functionalized Nanofibers2021Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, nr 15, artikel-id 2509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Functionalized polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were used in the present investigation to enhance the fracture behavior of carbon epoxy composite in order to prevent delamination if any crack propagates in the resin rich area. The main intent of this investigation was to analyze the efficiency of PAN nanofiber as a reinforcing agent for the carbon fiber-based epoxy structural composite. The composites were fabricated with stacked unidirectional carbon fibers and the PAN powder was functionalized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and then used as reinforcement. The fabricated composites’ fracture behavior was analyzed through a double cantilever beam test and the energy release rate of the composites was investigated. The neat PAN and functionalized PAN-reinforced samples had an 18% and a 50% increase in fracture energy, respectively, compared to the control composite. In addition, the samples reinforced with functionalized PAN nanofibers had 27% higher interlaminar strength compared to neat PAN-reinforced composite, implying more efficient stress transformation as well as stress distribution from the matrix phase (resin-rich area) to the reinforcement phase (carbon/phase) of the composites. The enhancement of fracture toughness provides an opportunity to alleviate the prevalent issues in laminated composites for structural operations and facilitate their adoption in industries for critical applications.

  • 33.
    Jiang, Lin
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Afriyie Mensah, Rhoda
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Asante-Okyere, Solomon
    Department of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, School of Petroleum Studies, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.
    Ziggah, Yao Yevenyo
    Department of Geomatic Engineering, Faculty of Mineral Resource Technology, University of Mines and Technology, Tarkwa, Ghana.
    Restás, Ágoston
    Department of Fire Protection and Rescue Control, University of Public Service, Budapest, Hungary.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Developing an artificial intelligent model for predicting combustion and flammability properties2022Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 830-842Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there have been various attempts in establishing a model that can predict the flammability characteristics of polymers based on their molecular structure, artificial intelligence (AI) presents a promising alternative in tackling this pressing issue. Therefore, a novel approach of adopting AI methods, extreme learning machines (ELMs) and group method of data handling (GMDH) in estimating heat release capacity, total heat release and char yield from thermophysical properties of polymers were addressed. GMDH showed a clear indication of overfitting whereby the models generated excellent training results but could not provide similar performance during testing. The superior generalisation performance of ELM during testing makes it the standout method. ELM produced HRC predictions having R and RRMSE of 0.86 and 0.405 for training, 0.94 and 0.356 for testing. For THR estimates from ELM, the R and RRMSE scores were 0.9 and 0.195 for training, 0.93 and 0.131 for testing. While char yield ELM model generated 0.88 and 0.795 for training, 0.93 and 0.383 for testing. The potential of ELM was demonstrated as it estimated the flammability parameters of 105 polymers having little or no empirical test results.

  • 34.
    Jiang, Lin
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China.
    Yang, Xin-Rui
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China.
    Gao, Xu
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, China.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Sun, Jin-Hua
    State key laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Kuzman, Manja Kitek
    Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Pyrolytic Kinetics of Polystyrene Particle in Nitrogen Atmosphere: Particle Size Effects and Application of Distributed Activation Energy Method2020Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id 421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This work was motivated by a study of particle size effects on pyrolysis kinetics and models of polystyrene particle. Micro-size polystyrene particles with four different diameters, 5, 10, 15, and 50 µm, were selected as experimental materials. Activation energies were obtained by isoconversional methods, and pyrolysis model of each particle size and heating rate was examined through different reaction models by the Coats–Redfern method. To identify the controlling model, the Avrami–Eroféev model was identified as the controlling pyrolysis model for polystyrene pyrolysis. Accommodation function effect was employed to modify the Avrami–Eroféev model. The model was then modified to f(α) = nα0.39n − 1.15(1 − α)[−ln(1 − α)]1 − 1/n, by which the polystyrene pyrolysis with different particle sizes can be well explained. It was found that the reaction model cannot be influenced by particle geometric dimension. The reaction rate can be changed because the specific surface area will decrease with particle diameter. To separate each step reaction and identify their distributions to kinetics, distributed activation energy method was introduced to calculate the weight factor and kinetic triplets. Results showed that particle size has big impacts on both first and second step reactions. Smaller size particle can accelerate the process of pyrolysis reaction. Finally, sensitivity analysis was brought to check the sensitivity and weight of each parameter in the model.

  • 35.
    Jonasson, Simon
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Bünder, Anne
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Niittylä, Totte
    Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umeå Plant Science Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
    Comparison of tension wood and normal wood for oxidative nanofibrillation and network characteristics2021Ingår i: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 1085-1104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are top-down nanomaterials obtainable from abundant lignocelluloses. Despite recent advances in processing technologies, the effects of variations in the lignocellulose structure and composition on CNF isolation and properties are poorly understood. In this study, we compared the isolation of CNFs from tension wood (TW) and normal wood (NW) from Populus tremula (aspen). The TW has a higher cellulose content, native cellulose fibrils with a larger crystalline diameter, and less lignin than the NW, making it an interesting material for CNF isolation. The wood powders were oxidized directly by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl, and the morphology and mechanical behaviors of the nanofibril suspensions and networks were characterized. The TW was more difficult to fibrillate by both chemical and mechanical means. Larger nanofibrils (5–10 nm) composed of 1.2 nm structures were present in the TW CNFs, whereas the NW samples contained more of thin (1.6 nm) structures, which also comprised 77% of the solid yield compared to the 33% for TW. This difference was reflected in the TW CNF networks as decreased transmittance (15% vs. 50%), higher degree of crystallinity (85.9% vs. 78.0%), doubled toughness (11 MJ/m3) and higher elongation at break (12%) compared to NW. The difference was ascribed to greater preservation of the hierarchical, more crystalline microfibril structure, combined with a more cellulose-rich network (84% vs. 70%). This knowledge of the processing, structure, and properties of CNFs can facilitate the breeding and design of wood feedstocks to meet the increasing demand for nanoscale renewable materials.

  • 36.
    Khadem, Elham
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Kharaziha, Mahshid
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Bakhsheshi-Rad, Hamid Reza
    Advanced Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Cutting-Edge Progress in Stimuli-Responsive Bioadhesives: From Synthesis to Clinical Applications2022Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, nr 9, artikel-id 1709Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the advent of “intelligent” materials, the design of smart bioadhesives responding to chemical, physical, or biological stimuli has been widely developed in biomedical applications to minimize the risk of wounds reopening, chronic pain, and inflammation. Intelligent bioadhesives are free-flowing liquid solutions passing through a phase shift in the physiological environment due to stimuli such as light, temperature, pH, and electric field. They possess great merits, such as ease to access and the ability to sustained release as well as the spatial transfer of a biomolecule with reduced side effects. Tissue engineering, wound healing, drug delivery, regenerative biomedicine, cancer therapy, and other fields have benefited from smart bioadhesives. Recently, many disciplinary attempts have been performed to promote the functionality of smart bioadhesives and discover innovative compositions. However, according to our knowledge, the development of multifunctional bioadhesives for various biomedical applications has not been adequately explored. This review aims to summarize the most recent cutting-edge strategies (years 2015–2021) developed for stimuli-sensitive bioadhesives responding to external stimuli. We first focus on five primary categories of stimuli-responsive bioadhesive systems (pH, thermal, light, electric field, and biomolecules), their properties, and limitations. Following the introduction of principal criteria for smart bioadhesives, their performances are discussed, and certain smart polymeric materials employed in their creation in 2015 are studied. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and future directions regarding smart bioadhesives for biomedical applications are surveyed.

  • 37.
    Khosravi, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
    Nouri Khorasani, Saied
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
    Khalili, Shahla
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Rezvani Ghomi, Erfan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119260, Singapore.
    Ejeian, Fatemeh
    Department of Cellular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan 8159358686, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein
    Department of Cellular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan 8159358686, Iran.
    Development of a Highly Proliferated Bilayer Coating on 316L Stainless Steel Implants2020Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikel-id 1022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, a bilayer coating has been applied on the surface of 316 L stainless steel (316LSS) to provide highly proliferated metallic implants for bone regeneration. The first layer was prepared using electrophoretic deposition of graphene oxide (GO), while the top layer was coated utilizing electrospinning of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin (Ge)/forsterite solutions. The morphology, porosity, wettability, biodegradability, bioactivity, cell attachment and cell viability of the prepared coatings were evaluated. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) results revealed the formation of uniform, continuous, and bead-free nanofibers. The Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDS) results confirmed well-distributed forsterite nanoparticles in the structure of the top coating. The porosity of the electrospun nanofibers was found to be above 70%. The water contact angle measurements indicated an improvement in the wettability of the coating by increasing the amount of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the electrospun nanofibers containing 1 and 3 wt.% of forsterite nanoparticles showed significant bioactivity after soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 21 days. In addition, to investigate the in vitro analysis, the MG-63 cells were cultured on the PCL/Ge/forsterite and GO-PCL/Ge/forsterite coatings. The results confirmed an excellent cell adhesion along with considerable cell growth and proliferation. It should be also noted that the existence of the forsterite nanoparticles and the GO layer substantially enhanced the cell proliferation of the coatings.

  • 38.
    Kim, Nam Kyeun
    et al.
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Special issue “recent advances in flame-retardant polymers and composites”2021Ingår i: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 26, nr 20, artikel-id 6167Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 39.
    Kohli, Isha
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Srivatsa, Srikanth Chakravartula
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Devasahayam, Sheila
    WASM—Minerals, Energy and Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Singh Raman, R. K.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Bhattacharya, Sankar
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia.
    Pyrolysis of Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR): Thermogravimetry, In-Situ Synchrotron IR and Gas-Phase IR of Polymeric Components2023Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, nr 17, artikel-id 3650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports the characterisation of pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue using in situ synchrotron IR, gas-phase IR, and thermal analyses to explore if the automotive shredder residue can be converted into value-added products. When heating to ~600 °C at different heating rates, thermal analyses suggested one- to two-stage pyrolysis. Transformations in the first stage, at lower temperatures, were attributed to the degradation of carbonyl, hydroxyl, or carboxyl functional stabilisers (aldehyde and ether impurities, additives, and stabilisers in the ASR). The second stage transformations, at higher temperatures, were attributed to the thermal degradation of the polymer char. Simultaneous thermal analyses and gas-phase IR spectroscopy confirmed the evolution of the gases (alkanes (CH4), CO2, and moisture). The synchrotron IR data have demonstrated that a high heating rate (such as 150 °C/min) results in an incomplete conversion of ASRs unless sufficient time is provided. The thermogravimetry data fit the linearised multistage kinetic model at different heating rates. The activation energy of reactions varied between 24.98 and 124.94 kJ/mol, indicating a surface-controlled reaction exhibiting high activation energy during the initial stages and a diffusion and mass transfer control showing lower activation energy at the final stages. The corresponding frequency factors were in the range of 3.34 × 1013–5.68 × 101 mg−1/min for different pyrolysis stages. The evolution of the functional groups decreased with an increase in the heating rate.

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  • 40.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Textile Engineering, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, 7408, Bangladesh; National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, People’s Republic of China.
    Li, Zhiwei
    National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, People’s Republic of China.
    Khan, M. Azizur R.
    Department of Chemistry, Jashore University of Science and Technology, Jashore, 7408, Bangladesh.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Polypyrrole-modified multi-functional coatings for improved electro-conductive, hydrophilic and flame-retardant properties of polyamide 66 textiles2023Ingår i: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1223-1234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Department of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, GR-431 00 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Antzutkin, Oleg N.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Kemiteknik.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    High Leach-Resistant Fire-Retardant Modified Pine Wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) by In Situ Phosphorylation and Carbamylation2023Ingår i: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 8, nr 12, s. 11381-11396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The exterior application of fire-retardant (FR) timber necessitates it to have high durability because of the possibility to be exposed to rainfall. In this study, water-leaching resistance of FR wood has been imparted by grafting phosphate and carbamate groups of the water-soluble FR additives ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP)/urea onto the hydroxyl groups of wood polymers via vacuum-pressure impregnation, followed by drying/heating in hot air. A darker and more reddish wood surface was observed after the modification. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CP-MAS NMR), and direct-excitation 31P MAS NMR suggested the formation of C–O–P covalent bonds and urethane chemical bridges. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry suggested the diffusion of ADP/urea into the cell wall. The gas evolution analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with quadrupole mass spectrometry revealed a potential grafting reaction mechanism starting with the thermal decomposition of urea. Thermal behavior showed that the FR-modified wood lowered the main decomposition temperature and promoted the formation of char residues at elevated temperatures. The FR activity was preserved even after an extensive water-leaching test, confirmed by the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimetry. The reduction of fire hazards was achieved through the increase of the LOI to above 80%, reduction of 30% of the peak heat release rate (pHRR2), reduction of smoke production, and a longer ignition time. The modulus of elasticity of FR-modified wood increased by 40% without significantly decreasing the modulus of rupture.

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  • 42.
    Lin, Chia-Feng
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mantanis, George I.
    Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Faculty of Forestry, Wood Sciences and Design, University of Thessaly, GR-431 00 Karditsa, Greece.
    Jones, Dennis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Department of Wood Processing and Biomaterials, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha 6-Suchdol, CZ-16521 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Fire Retardancy and Leaching Resistance of Furfurylated Pine Wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) Treated with Guanyl-Urea Phosphate2022Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, nr 9, artikel-id 1829Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Guanyl-urea phosphate (GUP) was introduced into furfurylated wood in order to improve fire retardancy. Modified wood was produced via vacuum-pressure impregnation of the GUP–furfuryl alcohol (FA) aqueous solution, which was then polymerized at elevated temperature. The water leaching resistance of the treated wood was tested according to European standard EN 84, while the leached water was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and inductively coupled plasma–sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). This new type of furfurylated wood was further characterized in the laboratory by evaluating its morphology and elemental composition using optical microscopy and electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDX). The chemical functionality was detected using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the fire resistance was tested using cone calorimetry. The dimensional stability was evaluated in wet–dry soaking cycle tests, along with the mechanical properties, such as the Brinell hardness and bending strength. The fire retardancy of the modified furfurylated wood indicated that the flammability of wood can be depressed to some extent by introducing GUP. This was reflected in an observed reduction in heat release rate (HRR2) from 454.8 to 264.9 kW/m2, without a reduction in the material properties. In addition, this leaching-resistant furfurylated wood exhibited higher fire retardancy compared to conventional furfurylated wood. A potential method for producing fire-retardant treated furfurylated wood stable to water exposure has been suggested.

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  • 43.
    Liu, Dongyun
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Gonzalez, Jaime
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand. School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China.
    Correlation between early- and later-age performance indices of early frost-damaged concrete2022Ingår i: IABSE Symposium Prague 2022: Challenges for Existing and Oncoming Structures - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering / [ed] František Wald, Pavel Ryjáček, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2022, s. 934-941Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Freeze‐thaw cycles can lead to serious damage of early‐age concrete and influence its behaviour at later ages. In this study, the later‐age compressive strength, resistance to chloride penetration and resistance to freeze‐thaw of early frost‐damaged concrete were experimentally studied and the relationship between its early‐ (i.e., strength and resistivity) and later‐age (i.e., strength, chloride ion electric flux and freeze‐thaw durability factor) performance indices were analysed. Results show that the later‐age performance of the concrete subjected to freeze‐thaw cycles at early age was generally worse than that of the control samples, which had not undergone early frost damage. This was especially significant for the concrete subjected to freeze‐thaw cycles before the age of 24 h. The compressive strength after early frost action had a higher linear correlation with the later‐age indices of the concrete than the compressive strength before early frost action. Results also showed that the early‐age resistivity is a good indicator for the later‐age performance of early frost‐damaged concrete if the pre‐curing time before frosting is at least 24 h. 

  • 44.
    Liu, Hao
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Li, Mi
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Zhao, Shuna
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Xu, Qiang
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Insights into wood species and aging effects on pyrolysis characteristics and combustion model by multi kinetics methods and model constructions2023Ingår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 206, s. 784-794Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the extensive application of wood materials in the construction and manufacturing, waste wood has potential of converting into new natural energy sources. In this study, cypress, pine and fir woods commonly used in China, as well as old samples for above each species (more than 200 years old) have been used to study the aging and species effects on their thermal stability and combustion models. To obtain the kinetic triplets of the pyrolysis process, all samples have been heated in a nitrogen atmosphere with heating rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 K min−1. The kinetics parameters of pyrolysis throughout the conversion process were then calculated using isoconversional method, Coats-Redfern (CR), and masterplots methods. The reconstructed theoretical models have been then adjusted using the accommodation functions. The results of this study contribute to an increased understanding of the fire mechanism of waste woods, and implications concerning to provide scientific theoretical guidance for its feasibility as a new energy fuel more efficiently.

  • 45.
    Malekkhouyan, Roya
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
    Nouri Khorasani, Saied
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    The influence of size and healing content on the performance of extrinsic self‐healing coatings2021Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, nr 10, artikel-id 49964Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the several approaches for the protection of metallic structures from corrosion, covering with a polymeric coating has attracted more attention due to their convenient application, cost‐effective price, and the relatively benign environmental impact. However, the polymeric coatings are sensitive to mechanical/thermal shocks and aggressive environments, leading to damages in the coatings that affect their barrier performance. Self‐healing polymeric coatings have introduced remarkable development by extending the service life and reducing maintenance costs, leading to a significant boost in the reliability and durability of the conventional polymeric coatings. Among the different strategies to develop self‐polymeric coatings, encapsulating healing agent within micro/nanocapsules, micro/nanofibers, and microvascular systems and incorporating them within the conventional coatings have been widely acknowledged as the most applicable approach. However, several factors, such as the effect of the healing system's size and content, have a significant influence on healing performance. Therefore, this review aims to reveal the effects of healing system size and healing content on the self‐healing performance in polymeric coatings through the analysis of recently published articles.

  • 46.
    Malekkhouyan, Roya
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Nouri Khorasani, Saied
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 9617976487, Iran.
    Torkaman, Reza
    Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Koochaki, Mohammad Sadegh
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Preparation and Characterization of Electrosprayed Nanocapsules Containing Coconut-Oil-Based Alkyd Resin for the Fabrication of Self-Healing Epoxy Coatings2020Ingår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 3171Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the preparation of nanocapsules using the coaxial electrospraying method was investigated. Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) (SAN) was used as a shell material and coconut-oil-based alkyd resin (CAR) as a core. Chemical structure, thermal stability, and morphology of nanocapsules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), respectively. In addition, the formation of the core–shell structure was approved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and FE-SEM micrographs of the fractured nanocapsules. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry tests (DSC) were carried out to investigate the reactivity of released healing agents from the nanocapsules. The prepared nanocapsules were then incorporated into the epoxy resins and applied on the surfaces of the steel panels. The effect of capsule incorporation on the properties of the coating was evaluated. The self-healing performance of the coatings in the salty and acidic media was also assessed. The FTIR results revealed the presence of both shell and core in the prepared nanocapsules and proved that no reaction occurred between them. The morphological studies confirmed that the electrosprayed nanocapsules’ mean diameter was 708 ± 252 nm with an average shell thickness of 82 nm. The TGA test demonstrated the thermal stability of nanocapsules to be up to 270 °C while the DSC results reveal a successful reaction between CAR and epoxy resin, especially in the acidic media. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test results demonstrate that the best self-healing performance was achieved for the 2 and 1 wt.% nanocapsules incorporation in the NaCl, and HCl solution, respectively.

  • 47.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Edström, David Aronsson
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Lundberg, Oskar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Jiang, Lin
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Qiang, Xu
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    The effect of infill density on the fire properties of polylactic acid 3D printed parts: A short communication2022Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 111, artikel-id 107594Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of 3D printing technology for manufacturing construction materials is gaining popularity, however, only a few studies have reported the fire behavior of such parts. In this research, the fire properties of 3D printed polylactide acid (PLA) parts with varying infill densities along with the tensile properties were analysed. The results from the fire tests showed that increasing the infill density increased the fuel load, which sustained combustion. Hence, the peak heat release rate and total heat release increased with an increment in infill density percentage. It was also observed that the increasing infill density had no effect on the flammability rating of the parts due to the constant shell thickness used for all the parts. In addition, the tensile strength and ductility of the parts increased with density as a porous part is more susceptible to failure than a solid homogeneous part.

  • 48.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai 602105, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Narayanan, Sreenivasan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Adishankara Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kalady Kerala 683574, India.
    Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Ulfberg, Adrian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Skanska Sweden, Warfvinges Väg 25, 11274 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sayahi, Faez
    Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag (LKAB), 97437 Luleå, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Peter
    Industriellt Anläggningsbyggande, Broar och Byggnadsverk, LCC, 97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Reinke, Benjamin
    NovoCarbo GmbH, 56281 Dörth, Germany.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Daria
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Industriell ekonomi.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Biochar-Added Cementitious Materials—A Review on Mechanical, Thermal, and Environmental Properties2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 16, artikel-id 9336Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The enhanced carbon footprint of the construction sector has created the need for CO2 emission control and mitigation. CO2 emissions in the construction sector are influenced by a variety of factors, including raw material preparation, cement production, and, most notably, the construction process. Thus, using biobased constituents in cement could reduce CO2 emissions. However, biobased constituents can degrade and have a negative impact on cement performance. Recently, carbonised biomass known as biochar has been found to be an effective partial replacement for cement. Various studies have reported improved mechanical strength and thermal properties with the inclusion of biochar in concrete. To comprehend the properties of biochar-added cementitious materials, the properties of biochar and their effect on concrete need to be examined. This review provides a critical examination of the mechanical and thermal properties of biochar and biochar-added cementitious materials. The study also covers biochar’s life cycle assessment and economic benefits. Overall, the purpose of this review article is to provide a means for researchers in the relevant field to gain a deeper understanding of the innate properties of biochar imparted into biochar-added cementitious materials for property enhancement and reduction of CO2 emissions.

  • 49.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Chennai, 602105, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Narayanan, Sreenivasan
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Adishankara Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kalady, Kerala, 683574, India.
    Renner, Juliana Sally
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210094, China.
    Babu, Karthik
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assam Energy Institute Sivasagar, A Center of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Assam, India.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 9617976487, Iran.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    A review of sustainable and environment-friendly flame retardants used in plastics2022Ingår i: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 108, artikel-id 107511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The progressive transition from conventional structural designs to lightweight and more complex structures has led to the increase in the quantity of plastic materials in buildings. However, plastics have a major flaw: their low fire performance characterised by shorter ignition times and higher heat release rates. This has necessitated the incorporation of flame retardants (FRs) in plastics. Nevertheless, not all FRs are environmentally safe, hence, there is an urgent need for the development of sustainable biobased FRs that reduce environmental footprints while simultaneously improving the fire performance of plastics. This article addresses the negative connotation of FRs and reviews the most extensively used biobased FRs in plastics, their preparation (synthesis) and mode of application, performance evaluation as well as the leaching of FRs, and environmental fate. Some interesting observations in the review are the reduction of ignition times of plastics by the addition of FRs due to the rapid volatilisation of samples. In addition, the leaching rate of FRs is found to be higher in finer particles (micro and nanoparticles) compared to larger-sized ones and has the potential to dissolve in humic matter hence endangering the lives of humans and animals.

  • 50.
    Mensah, Rhoda Afriyie
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Vennström, Alva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Li, Zhiwei
    National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, China.
    Restas, Agoston
    Department of Fire Protection and Rescue Control, National University of Public Service, Budapest, 1011, Hungary.
    Neisiany, Rasoul Esmaeely
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 9617976487, Iran.
    Sokol, Denis
    Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Vilnius University, Naugarduko 24, Vilnius, LT-03225, Lithuania.
    Misra, Manjusri
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Mohanty, Amar
    School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Albert A. Thornbrough Building, 80 South Ring Road East, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials Division, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Influence of biochar and flame retardant on mechanical, thermal, and flammability properties of wheat gluten composites2022Ingår i: Composites Part C: Open Access, ISSN 2666-6820, Vol. 9, artikel-id 100332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of environmentally friendly materials such as bio-sourced plastics is being driven by increased awareness of environmental issues caused by synthetic plastics. However, bio-sourced plastics have poor fire behaviour that limits their application. The addition of a flame retardant to these plastics is one effective way to increase the fire resistance property; however, the flame retardant should not interfere with the mechanical performance of the plastic. Most flame retardants act as stress concentration points, reducing tensile strength. Hence, to create a balance between tensile strength and fire resistance, biochar (to conserve strength) and lanosol (to improve fire resistance) were added to wheat gluten bioplastic in various ratios and the optimal ratio was identified. Wheat gluten composites were fabricated using compression moulding at four different concentrations of lanosol (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%) and biochar (2, 4, 6, and 8 wt.%). From the test results, the composite with 4 wt.% lanosol and 6 wt.% biochar exhibited a good balance between the mechanical and fire properties; it conserved the strength and improved the fire properties (39 % reduction in peak heat release rate).

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